Ades, P.A., Waldmann, M.L., Meyer, W.L., Brown, K.A., Poehlman, E.T., Pendlebury, W.W., et al. (1996) Skeletal muscle and cardiovascular adaptations to exercise conditioning in older coronary patients. Circulation, 94, 323-30. Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Leon, A.S., Jacobs, D.R., Jr, Montoye, H.J., Sallis, J.F., et al. (1993) Compendium of physical activities: Classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 25,71-80. Ajisaka, R., Watanabe, S., Eda, K., Sakamoto, K., Saitou,T., Yamaguchi, I., et al. (2000) Hemodynamic and thermal responses to a 30-minute constant-workload aerobic exercise in middle- or old-aged patients with cardiovascular diseases. Japanese Circulation Journal, 64, 370-6. American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACPR) (2004) Guidelines for Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs, 4th edn, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) (1994) Position Stand: Exercise for patients with coronary artery disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, I-V.

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) (1998) Position stand: The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiores-piratory and muscular strength and flexibility in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 975-91. American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) (2000) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 6th edn, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Association of Chartered Physiotherapists Interested in Cardiac Rehabilitation (ACPICR) (2003) Standards for the Exercise Component of Phase III Cardiac Rehabilitation, The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, London.

Astrand, P-O. (1982) How to conduct and evaluate an exercise stress test. In International Approaches to Pulmonary Disease. International exchange of information rehabilitation (ed. I. Kass), Monograph 18, World Rehabilitation Fund Inc., New York.

Astrand, P-O., Christensen, E.H. (1964) Aerobic work capacity. In Oxygen in the Animal Organism (eds F. Dickens, E. Neil and W.F. Widdas), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 295.

Astrand, P-O., Rhyming, I. (1954) A nomogram for calculation of aerobic capacity from pulse rate during submaximal work. Journal of Applied Physiology, 7, 218.

Astrand, I., Astrand, P-O., Hallback, I., Kilborn, A. (1973) Reduction in maximal oxygen uptake with age. Journal of Applied Physiology, 14, 562-6.

Astrand, P-O., Rodahl, K., Dahl, H.A., Stromme, S.B. (2003) Textbook of Work Physiology: Physiological bases of exercise, 4th edn, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Berry, M.J., Weyrich, A.S., Robergs, R.A., Krause, K.M., Ingallis, C.P. (1989) Ratings of perceived exertion in individuals with varying fitness levels during walking and running. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 58, 494-9.

Bodner, M.E., Rhodes, E.C. (2000) A review of the concept of the heart rate deflection point. Sports Medicine, 30, 31-46.

Borg, G.A.V. (1998) Borg's Perceived Exertion and Pain Scales, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Borg, G., Linderholm, H. (1970) Exercise performance and perceived exertion in patients with coronary insufficiency, arterial hypertension and vasoregulatory asthenia. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 187, 17-26.

Boutcher, S.H., Seip, R.L., Hetzler, R.K., Pierce, E.F., Snead, D., Weltman, A. (1989) The effects of specificity of training on the rating of perceived exertion at the lactate threshold. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 59, 365-9.

Brand, D.A., Newcomer, L.N., Freiburger, A., Tian, H. (1995) Practices compared with practice guidelines: Use of beta-blockade after acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 26,1432-6.

Briswalter, J., Delignieres, D. (1997) Influence of exercise duration on perceived exertion during controlled locomotion. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85,17-18.

British Association for Cardiac Rehabilitation (BACR) (1995) Guidelines for Cardiac Rehabilitation, Blackwell Science, Oxford.

British National Formulary (2004) British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. London: 44.

Buckley, J., Davis, J., Simpson, T. (1999a) Cardio-respiratory responses to rowing ergometry and treadmill exercise soon after myocardial infarction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31,1721-6.

Buckley, J., Holmes, J., Mapp, G. (1999b) Exercise on Prescription: Cardiovascular activity for health, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.

Buckley, J.P. (2003) Ratings of perceived exertion in the assessment and prescription of exercise. PhD thesis. University of Staffordshire, Keele.

Buckley, J.P., Eston, R.G., Sim, J. (2000) Ratings of perceived exertion in Braille: Validity and reliability in production mode. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 34, 297-302.

Buckley, J.P., Sim, J., Eston, R.G., Hession, R., Fox, R. (2004) Reliability and validity of measures taken during the Chester step test to predict aerobic power and to prescribe aerobic exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38,197-205.

Buckley, P.,Whyte, G. (Oct. 2003) Unpublished data: British Olympic Medical Institute, London.

Byrne, C., Eston, R.G. (1998) Use of ratings of perceived exertion to regulate exercise intensity: A study using effort estimation and effort production. Journal of Sports Sciences, 16,15-16 (abstract).

Cachovan, M., Marees, H., Kunitsch, G. (1976) Influence of interval training on the physical capacity and peripheral circulation in patients with intermittent claudication. Zeitschrift Kardiologie, 65, 54-67.

Carlson, J.J., Norman, G.J., Feltz, D.L., Franklin, B.A., Johnson, J.A., Locke, S.K. (2001) Self-efficacy, psychosocial factors, and exercise behavior in traditional versus modified cardiac rehabilitation. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 21, 363-73.

Cheatham, C.C., Mahon, A.D., Brown, J.D., Bolster, D.R. (2000) Cardiovascular responses during prolonged exercise at ventilatory threshold in boys and men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32,1080-7.

Christensen, E.H. (1931) in (2003) Physical training. Textbook of work physiology; physiological bases of exercise, 4th edn (eds P-O. Astrand, K. Rodahl, H.A. Dahl and S.B. Stromme), Human Kinetics Champaign, IL, p. 315.

Conconi, F., Ferrari, M., Ziglio, P.G., Droghetti, P., Codeca, L. (1982) Determination of the anaerobic threshold by a noninvasive field test in runners. Journal of Applied Physiology, 52, 869-73.

Cooper, C.B. (2001) Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33 (7) supplement S643-6 Review.

Coplan, N.L., Gleim, G.W., Nicholas, J.A. (1986) Principles of exercise prescription for patients with coronary artery disease. American Heart Journal, 112(1), 145-9.

Coyle, E.F., Gonzalez-Alonso, J. (2001) Cardiovascular drift during prolonged exercise: New perspectives. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 29, 88-92.

Davies, C.T., Sargeant, A.J. (1979) The effects of atropine and practolol on the perception of exertion during treadmill exercise. Ergonomics, 22,1141-6.

Day, W. (2003) Women and cardiac rehabilitation: A review of the literature. Contemporary Nurse, 16, 92-101.

Department of Health (2000) National Service Framework for Coronary Heart Disease Modern Standards and Service Models [online] available from [accessed 11 Nov 2002].

DeVan, A.E., Lacy, B.K., Cortez-Cooper, M.Y.,Tanaka, H. (2004) Post-exercise palpation of pulse rates: Its applicability to trained individuals. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), supplement S4 (Abstract).

Dishman, R. (1994) Advances in Exercise Adherence, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Dishman, R.K., Landy, F.J. (1998) Psychological factors and prolonged exercise in Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine (eds D.R. Lamb and R. Murray), Benchmark Press, Indianapolis, IN, pp. 281-355.

Edwards, H.T., Brouha, L., Johnson, R.T. (1939) Effects de l'entrainment sur le taux de l'acide lactique sainguin aucours du travail musculaire. Travail Human, 8,1-9.

Ehsani, A.A., Martin, W.H., 3rd, Heath, G.W., Coyle, E.F. (1982) Cardiac effects of prolonged and intense exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 50, 246-54.

Ekblom, B., Goldbarg, A.N. (1971) The influence of physical training and other factors on the subjective rating of perceived exertion. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 83, 399-406.

Ekblom, B., Astrand, P.-O., Saltin, B., Stenberg, J.,Wallstrom, B. (1968) Effect of training on circulatory response to exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 24, 518-28.

Eston, R.G., Connolly, D. (1996) The use of ratings of perceived exertion for exercise prescription in patients receiving b-blocker therapy. Sports Medicine, 21,176-90.

Eston, R.G., Williams, J.G. (1988) Reliability of ratings of perceived exertion for regulation of exercise intensity. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 22,153-5.

Fowler, S.J., Singh, S.J., Revill, S. (2005) Reproducibility and validity of the incremental shuttle walking test in patients following coronary artery bypass surgery. Physiotherapy, 91, 22-7.

Froelicher, V.F., Myers, J.N. (2000) Exercise and the Heart. WB Saunders, Pittsburgh, PA.

Gobel, F.L., Norstrom, L.A., Nelson, R.R., Jorgensen, C.R., Wang, Y. (1978) The rate-pressure product as an index of myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise in patients with angina pectoris. Circulation, 57, 549-56.

Goodman, J.M., Pallandi, D.V., Reading, J.R., Plyley, M.J., Liu, P.P., Kavanagh,T. (1999) Central and peripheral adaptations after 12 weeks of exercise training in post-coronary artery bypass surgery patients. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 19,144-50.

Green, J.M.,Michael,T.,Solomon,A.H. (1999) The validity of ratings of perceived exertion for cross-modal regulation of swimming intensity. Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39, 207-12.

Head, A., Maxwell, S., Kendall, M.J. (1997) Exercise metabolism in healthy volunteers taking celiprolol, atenolol, and placebo. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 120-5.

Held,T., Kummer, R., Marti, B. (1997) Heart rate, blood lactate concentration and subjective stress perception in submaximal running: New nomograms for assessment of endurance capacity. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, 127, 978-87.

Held, T., Marti, B. (1999) Substantial influence of level of endurance capacity on the association of perceived exertion with blood lactate accumulation. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 20, 34-9.

Hetzler, R.K., Seip, R.L., Boutcher, S.H., Pierce, E., Snead, D., Weltman, A. (1991) Effect of exercise modality on ratings of perceived exertion at various lactate concentrations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 88-92.

Hiatt, W.R. (1991) Exercise physiology in cardiovascular diseases. Current Opinions in Cardiology, 6, 745-9.

Hill, D.W., Cureton, K.J., Grisham, S.C., Collins, M.A. (1987) Effect of training on the rating of perceived exertion at the ventilatory theshold. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 56, 206-11.

Hoberg, E., Schuler, G., Kunze, B., Obermoser, A.L., Hauer, K., Mautner, H.P. (1990) Silent myocardial ischemia as a potential link between lack of premonitoring symptoms and increased risk of cardiac arrest during physical stress. American Journal of Cardiology, 65, 583-9.

Hughson, R.L., Smyth, G.A. (1983) Slower adaptation of VO2 to steady state of submaximal exercise with beta-blockade. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 52,107-10.

Kang, J., Robertson, R.J., Goss, F.L., DaSilva, S.G.,Visich, P., Suminski, R.R., et al. (1996) Effect of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion during prolonged exercise of moderate intensity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 495506.

Kang, J., Robertson, R.J., Goss, F.L., DaSilva, S.G., Suminski, R.R., Utter, A.C. (1997) Metabolic efficiency during arm and leg exercise at the same relative intensities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 377-82.

Karageorghis, C.I., Terry, P.C. (1997) The psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: A review. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 20, 54-68.

Karvonen, M.J., Kentala, F., Mustala, O. (1957) The effects of training on heart rate: A longitudinal study. Annales Medicinae Experimentalis et Biologiae Fenniae, 35, 307-15.

Kohl, R.M., Shea, C.H. (1988) Perceived exertion: Influences of locus of control and expected work intensity and duration. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 15, 225-72.

Krogh, A., Lindhard, J. (1920) The relative value of fat and carbohydrate as sources of muscular energy. Biochemical Journal, 14, 290.

Lakomy, J., Lakomy, H.K.A. (1993) Estimation of maximum oxygen uptake from submaximal exercise on a Concept II rowing ergometer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11, 227-32.

Lamont, L.S., Romito, R.C., Finkelhor, R.S., Kalhan, S.C. (1997) Beta1-adrenoreceptors regulate resting metabolic rate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29,769-74.

Lavie, C.J., Milani, R.V. (2000) Disparate effects of improving aerobic exercise capacity and quality of life after cardiac rehabilitation in young and elderly coronary patients. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 20, 235-40.

Liu, X., Brodie, D.A., Bundred, P.E. (2000) Difference in exercise heart rate, oxygen uptake and ratings of perceived exertion relationships in male post-myocardial infarction patients with and without beta blockade therapy. Coronary Health Care, 4,48-53.

Maass, U., Cachovan, M., Alexander, K. (1983) Effect of interval training on walking distance, hemodynamics and ventilation in patients with intermittent claudication: Changes of hemodynamics and ventilation. Vasa, 12, 326-32.

Maresh, C., Noble, B.J. (1984) Utilization of perceived exertion ratings during exercise testing and training. In Cardiac Rehabilitation: Exercise Testing and Prescription (eds L.K. Hall, G.C. Meyer and H.K. Hellerstein), Spectrum, Great Neck, NY, pp. 155-73.

McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Katch, V.L. (2001) Exercise Physiology; Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 5th edn, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Meyer, K., Bucking, J. (2004) Exercise in heart failure: Should aqua therapy and swimming be allowed? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 201723.

Meyer, K., Lehmann, M., Sunder, G., Keul, J., Weidemann, H. (1990) Interval versus continuous exercise training after coronary bypass surgery: A comparison of training-induced acute reactions with respect to the effectiveness of the exercise methods. Clinical Cardiology, 13, 851-61.

Miles, D.S., Cox, M.H., Bomze, J.P. (1989) Cardiovascular responses to upper body exercise in normals and cardiac patients. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 21, S126-31.

Morgan,W.P. (1973) Psychological factors influencing perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 5, 97-103.

Morgan, W.P. (1994) Psychological components of effort sense. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26,1071-7.

Morgan, W. (2000) Psychological factors associated with distance running and the marathon. In Marathon Medicine (ed. D.Tunstall-Pedoe), Royal Society of Medicine Press, London.

Moyna, N.M., Robertson, R.J., Meckes, C.L., Peoples, J.A., Millich, N.B., Thompson, P.D. (2001) Intermodal comparison of energy expenditure at exercise intensities corresponding to the perceptual preference range. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 33,1404-10.

Myers, J., Froelicher, V.F. (1993) Exercise testing: Procedures and implementation. Cardiology Clinics, 11,199-213.

Neilsen, B., Rowell, L.B., Bonde-Petersen, F. (1984) Cardiovascular responses to heat stress and blood volume displacements during exercise in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 52, 370-4.

Nethery, V.M. (2002) Comparison between internal and external sources of information during exercise: Influence on RPE and the impact of the exercise mode. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42,172-8.

Newsolme, E.A., Blomstrand, E., Ekblom, B. (1992) Physical and mental fatigue: Metabolic mechanisms and importance of plasma amino acids. British Medical Bulletin, 48,477-95.

Noble, B.J. (1982) Clinical applications of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14, 406-11.

Noble, B., Robertson, R. (1996) Perceived Exertion. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Oldridge, N.B., Stoedefalke, K.G. (1984) Compliance and motivation in cardiac exercise programs. Clinical Sports Medicine, 3, 443-54.

Omiya, K., Itoh, H., Harada, N., Maeda, T., Tajima, A., Oikawa, K., et al. (2004) Relationship between double product break point, lactate threshold, and ventilatory threshold in cardiac patients. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 224-9.

Parfitt, G., Eston, R. (1995) Changes in ratings of perceived exertion and psychological affect in the early stages of exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 80, 259-66.

Parfitt, G., Rose, E.A., Markland, D. (2000) The effect of prescribed and preferred intensity on psychological affect and the influence of baseline measures of affect. Journal of Health Psychology, 5, 231-40.

Pearson, S.B., Banks, D.C., Patrick, J.M. (1979) The effect of beta-adrenoreceptor blockade on factors affecting exercise tolerance in normal man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 8, 143-8.

Physiotools © (2005) Finland.

Pivarnik, J.M., Senay, L.C. (1986) Effect of endurance training and heat acclimation on perceived exertion during exercise. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 6, 499-504.

Pokan, R., Hofmann, P., von, Duvillard, S.P., Beaufort, F., Smekal, G., Gasser, R., et al. (1998) The heart rate performance curve and left ventricular function during exercise in patients after myocardial infarction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 1475-80.

Pollock, M.L., Wilmore, J.H., Fox, S.M. (1978) Health and Fitness Through Physical Activity, American College of Sports Medicine Series, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Potteiger, J.A., Weber, S.F. (1994) Rating of perceived exertion and heart rate as indicators of exercise intensity in different environmental temperatures. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 791-6.

Poulsen, S.H. (2001) Clinical aspects of left ventricular diastolic function assessed by Doppler echocardiography following acute myocardial infarction. Danish Medical Bulletin, 48,199-210.

Prins, J., Cutner, D. (1999) Aquatic therapy in the rehabilitation of athletic injuries. Clinical Sports Medicine, 18, 447-61, ix.

Reents, S. (2000). Sport and Exercise Pharmacology, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Rejeski, W.J. (1981) The perception of exertion: A social psychophysiological integration. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 305-20.

Robertson, R.J., Noble, B.J. (1997) Perception of physical exertion: Methods, mediators and applications. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews, 25, 407-52.

Robinson, S. (1938) Experimental studies of physical fitness in relation to age. Arbeit-physiolgie, 10, 251.

Saltin, B., Boushel, R., Secher, N, Mitchell, J. (2000) Exercise and Circulation in Health and Disease, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2002) Cardiac Rehabilitation, no. 57. Edinburgh.

Secher, N.H. (1993) Physiological and biomechanical aspects of rowing; Implications for training. Sports Medicine, 15, 24-42.

Seip, R.L., Snead, D., Pierce, E.F., Stein, P., Weltman, A. (1991) Perceptual responses and blood lactate concentration: Effect of training state. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 80-7.

Singh, S.J., Morgan, M.C.D.L., Scott, S., Walters, D., Hardman, A.E. (1992) Development of a shuttle-walking test of disability in patients with chronic airways obstruction. Thorax, 47,1019-24.

Sjoberg, H., Frankenhaeuser, M., Bjurstedt, H. (1979) Interactions between heart rate, psychomotor performance and perceived effort during physical work as influenced by beta-andrenergic blockade. Biological Psychology, 8, 31-43.

Skinner, J.S., Gaskill, S.E., Rankinen, T., Leon, A.S., Rao, D.C., Wilmore, J.H., et al. (2003) Heart rate vs % VO2 max: Age sex, race, initial fitness and training response - HERITAGE study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35,1908-13.

Smutok, M.A., Skrinar, G.S., Pandolf, K.B. (1980) Exercise intensity: Subjective regulation by perceived exertion. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 61, 569-74.

Soenstrom, R.J. (1984) Exercise and self-esteem. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 12, 123-55.

Song, K.J. (2003) The effects of self-efficacy promoting cardiac rehabilitation program on self-efficacy, health behavior, and quality of life. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi, 33, 510-18.

Stephens,T. (1988) Physical activity and mental health in the United States and Canada: Evidence from four population surveys. Preventive Medicine, 17, 35-47.

Sukenik, S., Flusser, D., Abu-Shakra, M. (1999) The role of spa therapy in various rheumatic diseases. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, 25, 883-97.

Sullivan, M.J., Higginbotham, M.B., Cobb, F.R. (1989) Exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure delays ventilatory anaerobic threshold and improves submaximal exercise performance. Circulation, 79, 324-9.

Swain, D.P., Leutholtz, B.C. (1997) Heart rate reserve is equivalent to %VO2 reserve, not to %VO2max. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 410-14.

Swaine, I.L., Emmett, J., Murty, D., Dickinson, C., Dudfield, M. (1995) Rating of perceived exertion and heart rate relative to ventilatory threshold in women. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 57-60.

Sykes, K. (1995) Capacity assessment in the workplace: a new step test. Journal of Occupational Health, 1, 20-2.

Sykes, K., Roberts, A. (2004) The Chester step test - a simple yet effective tool for the prediction of aerobic capacity. Physiotherapy, 90,183-8.

Tanaka, H., Monahan, K.D., Seals, D.R. (2001) Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 37,153-6.

Thomas,T.R., Ziogas, G., Smith,T., Zhang, Q., Londeree, B.R. (1995) Physiological and perceived exertion responses to six modes of submaximal exercise. Research Quarterly of Exercise and Sport, 66, 239-46.

Thow, M.K., McGregor, C., Rafferty, D. (2004) A study of the fitness levels of phase IV men, European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 11(1), 061.

Tobin, D., Thow, M.K. (1999) The 10m Shuttle Walk Test with Holter monitoring: An objective outcome measure for cardiac rehabilitation. Coronary Health Care, 3,3-17.

Todd, I.C., Wosornu, D., Stewart, I., Wild, T. (1992) Cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction. A practical approach. Sports Medicine, 14, 243-59.

Ueda, T., Kurokawa, T. (1995) Relationships between perceived exertion and physiological variables during swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 16, 385-9.

Utter,A.,Kang, J.,Nieman,D.,Warren,B. (1997) Effect of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion during prolonged running. International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 7, 274-85.

van Herwarden, C.L., Binkhorst, R.A., Fennis, J.F., van Laar, A. (1979) Effects of propanolol and metoprolol on haemodynamic and respiratory indices and on perceived exertion during exercise in hypertensive patients. British Heart Journal, 41, 99-105.

Whaley, M.H., Brubaker, P.H., Kaminsky, L.A., Miller, C.R. (1997) Validity of rating of perceived exertion during graded exercise testing in apparently healthy adults and cardiac patients. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 17, 261-7.

Wilcox, R.G., Bennett,T., MacDonald, I.A., Herbert, M., Skene,A.M. (1984) The effects of acute or chronic ingestion of propanolol or metoprolol on the physiological responses to prolonged, submaximal exercise in hypertensive men. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 17, 273-81.

Williams, J.G., Eston, R.G. (1989) Determination of the intensity dimension in vigorous exercise programmes with particular reference to the use of the rating of perceived exertion. Sports Medicine, 8,177-89.

Yates, B.C., Price-Fowlkes, T., Agrawal, S. (2003) Barriers and facilitators of self-reported physical activity in cardiac patients. Research in Nursing and Health, 26, 459-69.

Zeni, A.I., Hoffman, M.D., Clifford, P.S. (1996) Energy expenditure with indoor exercise machines. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275,1424-7.



Are You Looking For Effective Ways To Get Fit? Doing the same thing and not getting effective results is called insanity. You dont want to be labeled insane, do you? When you are exercising, you want to be able to see results. Since you are not, its time for some new strategies.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment