RPE and the ambient environment

The ambient environment includes the temperature and humidity of the exercise environment, the effects of water during swimming pool exercise and any audio-visual stimulants. The strongest association of temperature and humidity to RPE is found with skin temperature (Pivarnik and Senay, 1986). When skin temperature is raised, either as result of increased room temperature, humidity or core temperature not being dissipated due to higher humidity, RPE increases for a given work rate.

Music has been demonstrated to dampen perceptions of exertion more than visual distractions like video displays or televisions (Karagheorghis and Terry, 1997; Nethery, 2002). This is important for cardiac patients, where background music could potentially influence patients to over-exert themselves.

Water-based activity has also been shown to be a damper of perceived exertion in light of the following evidence. Movement in water is used therapeu-tically because it greatly reduces both the gravitational and traction load on skeletal joints, while at the same time providing external resistance (Prins and Cutner, 1999). It is believed to have a soothing interface with the skin and dampens the potential for jerky limb movements (Sukenik, et al., 1999). The presence of water dampens the degree of sensation arising from the muscle spindle and tendon stretch/speed receptors. Water is also a medium for preventing rises in skin temperature. Submersion in water abolishes the

RPE land

RPE water

Figure 3.5. The difference in ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) at the same heart rate for land- compared to water-based exercise.

(Adapted from Ueda and Kurokawa, 1995; Green, 1999.)

RPE land

RPE water

Figure 3.5. The difference in ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) at the same heart rate for land- compared to water-based exercise.

(Adapted from Ueda and Kurokawa, 1995; Green, 1999.)

hydrostatic effect of gravity on circulation, resulting in increased venous return to the heart (Neilsen, et al., 1984). In this environment myocardial work is increased to deal with a greater volume-rate of blood returned to the heart (Meyer and Bucking, 2004). For the coronary heart diseased patient, such hydrostatic changes, together with the dampening of exertion sensations, will increase the likelihood of overexertion and increased myocardial work. Figure 3.5 illustrates a lower RPE for a given heart rate during water-based compared to land-based activity. RPE does not, therefore, represent the same physiological strain in water compared to land (Ueda and Kurokawa, 1995; Green, et al., 1999). This does not mean RPE is invalid during water-based activity: it means, rather, that the target RPE needs to be about two points lower in water-compared to land-based exercise. There is, however, a paucity of research into the cardiorespiratory responses for cardiac patients performing water-based activity.

Goal Setters Sanctuary

Goal Setters Sanctuary

This Amazing Course Will Blow Your Results Out Of Proportion! Master These Ultimate Goal Setting Techniques And Watch Your Results Soar Sky High In A Fraction Of The Time! Save Hundreds Of Hours Blindly Chasing Results By Tapping Into These Mind-Blowing Goal Setting Secrets Which Will Skyrocket Your Results Quickly!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment