Easy Ways to Control Territorial Cat Spraying

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. Continue reading...

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Vaccination of adutt cats

In previously unvaccinated cats, or animals of unknown vaccination history, a primary vaccination course of two doses 3-4 weeks apart should be undertaken. In cats vaccinated as kittens, the first booster at 1 year of age is important in case the first vaccination course was ineffective (e.g. if MDA was still at interfering levels). The onset of immunity is 7-10 days after systemic vaccination and 2-4 days after an intranasal vaccine. Although annual boosters are generally recommended for all injectable vaccines, there is some evidence that for panleucopenia the duration of immunity may be longer, up to several years (Gaskell et al, 2002a, b). However, clearly a number of variables may influence this, including the potency of the actual product. For feline herpesvirus and feline calicivirus, although immunity may again last for up to several years, it is only partial in most animals (Scott & Geissinger, 1997, 1999). For feline leukaemia, there is limited evidence that, after...

Animal Companions Today Dogs Cats and Horses

The list of species of contemporary animal companions is a long one, but there is little question that dogs and cats are the predominant pets in U.S. households. According to the Pet Food Institute (Washington, DC www.petfoodinstitute.org), there were approximately 60 million pet dogs and 75 million pet cats in 2002. The American Kennel Club (Raleigh, NC www.akc.org) recognizes 150 breeds of dogs, although others have proposed that as many as 400 dog breeds inhabit the world. 3 The AKC assigns these breeds to the following groups, based on the uses for which the breeds were originally developed sporting, hound, working, terrier, toy, nonsporting, herding, and miscellaneous. The Cat Fanciers' Association (Manasquan, NJ www.cfainc.org) recognizes 41 breeds of cats, varying particularly in size and shape of body and head, color, color patterns, length and texture of hair, shape and color of eyes, and length and shape of ears and tail. The American Horse Council (Washington, DC...

Territorial aggression between cats

Unlike the feral cat, which selects its home base and maps out its own territory, the domestic cat has to establish itself in territory that is thrust upon it. Often this will involve vying for position with already well-established residents, and most owners can expect their cats to receive some degree of injury during the first few weeks in a new home, even if it is only a torn ear margin or a scratched nose. However, the cat's natural tendency to avoid physical conflict comes into play in most situations and rather than wading in with claws flying most cats will quietly and slowly integrate into the existing population. In the feral situation the size of the home range and the density of feline inhab itants will be directly affected by the level of food availability. Feral cats that live in urban areas are often provided with a combination of discarded food from dustbins and supplies of proprietary cat food from local cat lovers. Consequently, the home range can support a far...

Aggression between cats in the same household

One of the most common sources of enquiries made to veterinary practices on the subject of feline behaviour relates to introducing new cats or maintaining harmony in multicat households. Intercat aggression within the household is most likely to occur when a new cat is being introduced into the household, when one of the resident cats has been absent from the home for a period, for example because it has been at the veterinary surgery or cattery, or when there is a high level of competition over resources within the household. Situations of high-level competition may arise when there is a high density of cats in a small house and there is a shortage of high resting places, when the owner has limited time to give attention to all cats or when the food supply is restricted. When introducing cats for the first time or reintegrating cats after a period of separation there are certain rules that help to prevent intercat aggression from developing. Introductions should be gradual and owners...

Idiopathic facial dermatitis of Persian cats

The presenting clinical signs are observed in Persian cats and in an initial case series the age of onset ranged from 4 months to 5 years. The dermato-logical examination reveals black waxy material on the distal portion of the hairs in a symmetrical pattern on the face, particularly on the chin, perioral and periocular areas. There is bilateral erythematous otitis externa with black waxy material in some cases. Pruritus is minimal at the outset and becomes severe in some cases (Plate 6.21).

Sacrocaudal dysgenesis in Manx cats

Rectal Deformity Kittens

Manx cats have varying degrees of sacral and or caudal vertebral deformities. Some tailless cats have a normal sacrum, spinal cord and cauda equina. Others show varying dysgenesis or agenesis of the sacral and or caudal vertebrae that may be associated with spina bifida, malformations of the terminal spinal cord and cauda equina. Spinal cord malformations include the absence or partial development of sacral and caudal spinal cord segments or cauda equina, myelodysplasia, meningocele, meningomyelocoele, duplication of sacral segments, myeloschisis (cleft within the spinal cord), syringomyelia in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord segments, shortening of the spinal cord and subcutaneous cyst formation. These spinal cord and cauda equina malformations are associated with variable neurological deficits. Sacrocaudal dysgenesis is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and maybe lethal in some homozygote cats. The condition and its associated malformations have been recognised in most...

Possible influences on fearful behaviour in cats

Cats that are reacting in a fearful manner to stimuli that are not innately fear inducing may do so for a variety of reasons. One of the most common is a lack of appropriate socialisation and habituation, and fearful behaviours highlight just how important it is for kittens to be given the best start in life. The important period of behavioural development is called the socialisation period and in kittens it runs from approximately 2 to 7 weeks of age (Karsh, 1983). During this time kittens need to be introduced to a wide range of people, animals, situations and experiences if they are to grow up to be adaptable domestic pets, and owners wishing to avoid fear-related behaviour problems in their pet would do well to select cats from breeders who pay attention to the socialisation and habituation process. Old age may be a factor in the onset of fearful behaviour, and a loss of social competence and an increase in general fearfulness in geriatric cats are well recognised. In some cases...

Hereditary primary seborrhoea oleosa in Persian cats

Dirty face syndrome has been compared with hereditary primary seborrhoea oleosa in Persian cats, which is considered to be a primary form of keratinisation defect however, there seem to be no obvious similarities apart from the same breed being affected. The mode of inheritance of the seborrhoea is suspected to be autosomal recessive. Kittens are affected within 6 weeks of age, with generalised mild to severe scaling, a greasy coat and a rancid smell. Alopecia may develop to include most of the body. The histological changes in skin biopsies include hyperplastic superficial lymphocytic perivascular dermatitis with papillomatosis and diffuse orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis affecting the skin surface and follicles. There is no effective treatment for these cats, which are most unsuitable as pets. This is not a pruritic condition.

Why are cats prone to certain toxicoses

Cats are by nature highly inquisitive animals that explore their environment and in the process accidentally expose themselves to a variety of poisonous agents. Cats possess finnicky eating habits, and although such habits undoubtedly offer some degree of protection from toxins in food, their concerted grooming and foraging behaviour may still lead to the ingestion of agents such as insecticides and various plants. The fact that many cats are maintained in an indoor environment for prolonged periods may be an additional important factor in their being exposed to household products and various drugs. and environmental toxins. The metabolism of a foreign compound can proceed along different routes in the body. Phase I metabolism involves procedures such as oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis, with the subsequent metabolite being generally, but not always, less active than the parent compound. Phase II metabolism is typified by synthesis or conjugation, in which glucuronide and sulfate...

Advertising Use Of Animals In

The use of live animals in advertising takes many different forms. Domestic animals and wild animals are often trained for use in television commercials. While the advertising industry purports to adhere to standards set by the American Humane Association in regard to the treatment of animal actors, some would argue that the manipulation (i.e., training) of an animal for use in advertising is unethical. The use of wild animals in commercials is particularly controversial. Animal rights* advocates maintain that when an animal is shown in a setting that is completely unrelated to its natural environment, a message about that animal's nature is conveyed that is both false and damaging to an accurate public understanding of the particular animal's nature. Even when domestic animals are used in advertising in ways that portray them more accurately, such as domestic dogs* or cats* in some animal food commercials, many proponents of animal rights believe that the individual animals used are...

Behavioural differences

The grooming behaviour of cats increases the likelihood that topically applied medications will be ingested. Advantage can be taken of this behaviour by applying medications intended for ingestion to accessible parts of the cat's body (e.g. anthelmintic or antibiotic paste preparations). However, cats are at greater risk of exposure to purposefully or adventitiously applied topical toxicants such as disinfectants (particularly phenolics that are principally candidates for glucuronidation) or pesticides. Indeed, concentrated preparations of permethrin applied topically to cats can be lethal when ingested.

Reduction Refinement and Replacement the Three Rs

Animal Welfare Information Center and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals, 1965-1995 Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents (Washington, DC U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995) Balls, M., A.M.

Step 5 Recording the information for the future

Having done so much work pursuing the above evidence-based prescription from question to patient, it might be useful to others and yourself to make a record of that information for future use as a critically appraised topic (CAT), although these have a limited lifespan if not updated.2 The Cochrane Skin Group is now developing a site for storing and sharing dermatology CATs (http www.nottingham.ac.uk muzd). Such CATs could become the norm in dermatology journal clubs all over the country, replacing unstructured chats about articles selected for unclear reasons.

Hypothalamic Regulation Of Aggression

Numerous studies in animals suggest that the priniciple of threshold elicitation of stereotypic response similarly characterizes hypothalamic control of aggression. In cats, when neural structures rostral to the hypothalamus are destroyed, the decorticate animals periodically produce rage displays with little or no provocation, exhibiting hissing, piloerection, pupil dilation, and extension of claws. Direct electrical stimulation of the posterior lateral hypothalamus reliably elicits this ''sham rage'' in animals that have undergone cortical ablation. In the intact feline and rodent brain, stimulation of the posterior lateral hypothalamus shortens the latency for species-specific predatory attack. Instillation of acetycholine or cho-linomimitic drugs in the lateral hypothalamus similarly facilitates attack behavior, promoting biting attacks of a cat on a rodent, or a rat on a mouse or frog, even by previously docile animals. Injection of cholinergic antagonists will eliminate biting...

Recognition of Humans by Animals

Rats are not the only animals capable of discriminating one human from another cats,* chickens,* cows, sheep, rabbits, seals, emus, rheas, llamas, pigs,* prairie dogs, chimpanzees,* and domestic dogs all can tell one human from another. As scientific studies continue to replace anecdotes, the evidence for human recognition among animals will become more widely accepted, impacting research design, the assessment of intelligence, and, ultimately, animal welfare.*

Botulism See Foodborne diseases

Believed to be caused by a newly classified proteinaceous infectious particle, a prion, BSE is one of several recognized fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) found in various species. The epizootic of BSE in the UK affected more than 170,000 cattle, 70 domestic cats, and some zoo animals and is believed to have resulted in 40 human cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (v-CJD, also known as new variant or nv-CJD). The human cases resulted from the ingestion of beef contaminated with the BSE agent.

Vaccination of kittens

In most diseases of cats, MDA declines to non-interfering levels in the majority of animals by 9-12 weeks of age. The standard protocol is therefore to vaccinate kittens at 8 or 9 weeks and then repeat in 3-4 weeks' time. However, the duration of MDA may be variable between different litters of kittens and even between kittens in a litter, depending on the antibody levels in the queen and the intake of colostrum. MDA against feline herpesvirus has been shown to last for 2-10 weeks, and against feline calicivirus for up to 10-14 weeks (Chapter 22). For feline panleucopenia the majority of kittens born to queens with moderate titres will lose their MDA by 8-12 weeks, but for those born to queens with high titres, MDA may persist for 16 weeks or more (Chapters 14 and 21). Serology for antibody level estimation can be carried out where

Lectroph Ys1ology Of Sleep

It has been shown that spike-wave (SW) and other forms of seizures occur prevalently during sleep. One may wonder whether epileptic seizures develop from sleep oscillations or are triggered by independent causes and only appear superimposed over sleep activities. The initial observation that incidence of SW seizures increases during sleep in humans (Gibbs and Gibbs, 1947 Kellaway, 1950 Niedermeyer, 1965 Penry et al., 1971), monkeys (Steriade, 1974), and cats (Guberman and Gloor, 1974) suggests that sleep promotes epileptic behavior. To disclose the precipitating sleep factors, we start by presenting the structures playing a role during sleep. Then we summarize the cellular mechanisms underlying the stereotyped sleep patterns. Data mainly are derived from in vivo intraneuronal, intraglial, and field potential electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings performed on anesthetized cats. The extrapolation from anesthesia to sleep is based on extracellular and EEG recordings in chronically...

Slow Cortical Oscillations And Delta Waves

The slow oscillation has been recorded in cats under various anesthetics such as urethane, a mixture of ketamine and xylazine, and nitrous oxide in unanes-thetized cats with high brain stem transections (cerveau isol ) (Steriade et al., 1993c,d, 1994 Amzica and Steriade, 1995a) in humans anesthetized with halothane (Christopher Sheib, personal communication) and, importantly, in naturally sleeping cats (Steriade et al., 1996 Amzica and Steriade, 1998b) and humans (Steriade et al., 1993c Achermann and Borb ly, 1997 Amzica and Steriade, 1997). Explicit comparisons between anesthesia and natural sleep on the one hand (Steriade et al., 1996 Amzica and Steriade, 1998b) and between cats and humans on the other hand (Amzica and Steriade, 1997) were made.

Animal Rights Movement1

Early campaigns focused upon experimentation, targeting well-documented cases of laboratory animal suffering with protest and legislation. In 1975 Henry Spira and United Action for Animals investigated Museum of Natural History-sponsored research involving blinding, deafening, and mutilating the sex organs of cats.* Demonstrations highlighting the research's apparent futility and high cost and the animals' suffering* eventually convinced Mayor Ed Koch and 120 members of Congress to question it, and the National Institutes of Health halted its funding.

Vaccination schedules

Most data sheets recommend primary vaccination for kittens followed by annual boosters thereafter. Such regimens maximise protection for the individual and are generally based on both experimental challenge studies and field data provided by the manufacturer. However, in recent years there has been considerable discussion as to whether such schedules are always appropriate, largely because of concerns about possible safety issues. These issues have been particularly highlighted by the increasing use of inactivated adjuvanted vaccines in cats, and the possible association between such vaccines and the formation of vaccine-associated sarcomas.

Immune responses of the host

FCV infection causes transient lymphopenia and neutrophilia, but cats may also be infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which also decreases lymphocyte number and immune response. Thus coinfection with FCV and FIV increases the clinical severity of infection. However, FIV has no effect on the period of FCV shedding and is not important in the establishment of persistent infections. Persistently infected cats mount both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses but fail to clear the virus promptly. The reasons for this are unknown. The tonsils are the major site of persistence but tonsillectomy does not cure the infection and other lymphoid tissue may be involved feline T lympho-blastoid cell lines have been persistently infected with FCV. Persistence may be lifelong but some studies imply a half-life of approximately 75 days, with animals spontaneously eliminating the virus.

Treatment of selected specific diseases with chemotherapy

Lymphoma is the most common tumour in the cat, accounting for up to 30 of all feline malignancies (Priester & McKay, 1980). The high prevalence is due to its association with feline leukaemia virus (FeLV). Although many cases of lymphoma will be FeLV negative on antigen testing (i.e. not viraemic), it is thought that previous exposure to FeLV and retroviral transformation are important in the development of most cases. Some feline cases do occur spontaneously without prior FeLV exposure. Cats that are feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) positive are at increased risk of developing lymphoma (Shelton et al., 1990 Hutson et al., 1991), but the exact role of FIV in lymphomagenesis is not known.

History of Animal Welfare Regulations

A 1966 Life magazine feature titled Concentration Camps for Dogs, along with other works published around this time, dramatized poor care and treatment of animals by some dealers who sold animals for biomedical research. This disclosure and the ensuing public outcry resulted in the introduction of twenty-nine bills in the U.S. Congress relating to the regulation of animal research. The bill that eventually became law was the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966 (LAWA in 1970, after passage of the first amendments, the name was shortened to the Animal Welfare Act, or AWA). This act was limited to regulation of the sale and transportation of animals by dealers and the holding of animals by certain research facilities. Although the bill was passed, it was a compromise between far-reaching legislation and none at all it did not apply to actual research usage of animals. The regulations implementing the LAWA specified that the housing facility provide shelter and protection from...

Epidemiology Of

Including horses, donkeys, sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, rabbits, and birds. Experimental infection has been achieved in many of these species and also in rodents and primates. Whether BDV naturally infects humans remains controversial however, there is consensus that all warm-blooded animals are likely to be susceptible to infection. Although central Europe has the highest reported prevalence of Borna disease, natural infection without disease has been described throughout Europe, Asia, and North America. It is unclear whether the apparent increase in host and geographic range of BDV is due to the spread of the virus or enhanced case ascertainment.

The Emergence of Pet Keeping

Some animals were undoubtedly kept for their own value as sources of fascination or as mediators of unusual benefits. For example, cats, although domesticated for a much briefer time than other species, have frequently been associated with the supernatural, as agents either of benign or malign forces (Clutton-Brock). English society in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw the emergence of widespread pet keeping, especially among the upper classes. Keith Thomas writes of how, as early as 1700, symptoms of obsessive pet-keeping were in evidence, especially in the keeping of horses, cats, dogs, and pet birds (Thomas, 1983, p. 117). These species were clearly privileged in comparison with food animals, which were still reared and killed with hideous cruelty. Although the idea of a pedigree did not originate in the nineteenth century, Harriet Ritvo shows how the notion of purity of species through selective breeding became widespread among the middle and upper classes, for whom...

The Disadvantages of Pet Keeping

In order to sustain high populations of species such as cats and dogs, for example, other species such as whales, kangaroos, and horses must be killed in order to feed them. Few pet animals of any size can be sustained without meat, though it appears that dogs can live well on an appropriately balanced vegetarian diet. The commercial production of pet food has also been criticized as a waste of resources. The average cost of feeding an eighty-pound dog has been estimated at 8,353 for its lifetime (Shell).

The Ethics of Captivity

Critics also focus on the possibility of physical or psychological suffering caused by captive conditions. Despite improvements in exhibit design, many animals remain confined in dirty, cramped, and isolated cages. Indoor facilities often lack fresh air and natural light, while outdoor enclosures may expose animals to extreme weather conditions to which they are not adapted. Without social or environmental stimulation, captive wildlife may become listless, self-abusive, or develop stereotypical behaviors such as the pacing often observed in big cats (Fox). When elephants or other potentially dangerous animals display aggression, zookeepers may respond with harsh discipline or physical restraints. The capture of animals in the wild, their transportation to zoos, and the handling required for veterinary care are other sources of stress.

Attitudes among Children

Pet keeping is particularly common among middle-childhood children (around 8 to 12 years) (see COMPANION ANIMALS AND PETS). This is probably the age at which children's emotional interest in animals is at its highest and when, especially for girls, big-eyed, cuddly, furry animals are particularly attractive. After this age, in the teenage years, interest in moral issues surrounding animals and their use by humans becomes more prominent. This is the time when young people are most likely to take ''stands'' on animal issues (and, indeed, other issues such as political ones) by, for example, adopting vegetarian or vegan diets (see VEGETARIANISM) or becoming involved in environmental or animal rights* campaigns. As interests outside the home take prominence in teenagers' lives, interest and involvement in pet keeping often wane a little. But childhood experience of pets nevertheless appears to retain an influence. In an recent study it was found that university students who had grown up...

Dha Biosynthesis And Early Development

The accumulation of DHA in the brain is especially important during brain growth periods (Green & Yavin, 1998), and although no known systematic study has been undertaken which attempts to compare rates of DHA biosynthesis to the development of the CNS or brain growth in any species, there is evidence to suggest that the capacity to synthesize DHA may be correlated with early brain development in some species (Rodriguez et al., 1998 Pawlosky et. al., 1996 Salem et al., 1996 Greiner et al., 1997 Su et al., 1999). Using stable isotopically labeled fatty acids and mass spectrometry, the biosynthesis of DHA has been demonstrated in both human infants (Salem et al., 1996 Carnielli et al., 1996 Sauerwald et al., 1996) and in fetal baboons (Greiner et al., 1997 Su et al., 1999). An example that illustrates the inherent capacity to synthesize long-chain PUFAs during the early developmental period was provided by felines (Pawlosky & Salem, 1996). Adult felines do not actively synthesize...

Supplying Dha To The Brain Rodent And Feline Models Of Dha Synthesis

Early studies in domestic felines demonstrated that cats had a low A-6 desaturase activity, which severely limited their capacity to synthesize arachidonic acid from linoleic acid (Hassam et al., 1977 Sinclair et al., 1979). Owing to a low desaturase activity, it may be assumed that synthesis of long-chain n-3 PUFAs arising from LNA would also be very limited. It was later shown that a low essential fatty acid diet could stimulate the synthesis of both long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFAs via a A-6 desaturase (Pawlosky et al., 1994). In the liver, the route for the biosynthesis of DHA from LNA is initiated on smooth endo-plasmic reticulum. Through a series of alternating enzymatic processes that desaturate and elongate LNA, DPAn-3 is produced. It is believed that DPAn-3 is then elongated to 24 5n3 and desaturated (by a A-6 desaturase) to 24 6n-3 (Luthria et al., 1996). This fatty acid is transferred to peroxisomes, where it is partially oxidized to form DHA, which is then reincorporated into...

Coumarintype products

These anticoagulant rodenticides are extremely potent compounds, which act by inhibiting the key enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase. This inhibition results in the reduced conversion of precursor forms of clotting factors 2,7,9 and 10 to their physiologically active forms, leading to a bleeding tendency in affected cats. This family can be subdivided into first generation compounds such as warfarin, and second generation compounds such as bromadiolone. In general, the second generation compounds are more potent and have a longer lasting effect than the older, first generation compounds. As some stores of vitamin K and active forms of the various clotting factors are likely to be already present and functioning at the time of initial toxin ingestion, a lag phase may be evident before clinical signs arise. The major clinical sign of poisoning is haemorrhage. This bleeding tendency may be evident at virtually any site of the body, and is often induced by episodes of mild to minimal...

Cognitive Approaches in Behavior Therapy

Research has consistently demonstrated that, in spite of the heavy emphasis by many theorists on the cognitive component of cognitive-behavior therapy, the most effective means of promoting both cognitive and behavioral changes is through performance-based treatments that is, by actively engaging in new behaviors that are incompatible with older, problematic ones (see Rachman and Wilson). Engaging in new behavior, under the guidance of a therapist, seems to be an effective approach to the treatment of a variety of emotional and behavioral disorders. For example, a client who suffers from a fear of cats might be encouraged, with the therapist's assistance, to engage in closer and closer contacts with cats, moving from merely approaching a cat to actually holding one, until the fear subsides.

Organophosphates and carbamates

These compounds represent a common source of poisoning to cats, due in no small part to the multitude of potential sources available. Intoxication usually follows the application or ingestion of organophosphates (OPs) or carbamates used as insecticides, either intentionally or accidentally. Although the cat is considered particularly sensitive to OP compounds, collars, spot-ons and sprays incorporating these active ingredients are still commercially available. Both OPs and carbamates act by inhibiting the key enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This results in marked cholinergic stimulation owing to the ineffective degradation of acetylcholine at receptor level. Clinical signs therefore arise through overstimulation of nicotinic receptors in skeletal muscle, autonomic preganglionic junctions, parasympathetic postganglionic junctions and a small number of sites in the CNS. The initial clinical picture in the cat is often characterised by anxiety, hyperexcitability and muscle twitching....

Pyrethrins and pyrethroids

Natural pyrethrins, and their synthetic analogues the pyrethroids, have been used for many years as topical insecticides on cats, particularly for the treatment of fleas. In most cases, these compounds are combined with a synergist, usually piperonyl butoxide. Although these agents generally have a favourable safety profile, the cat appears to be more susceptible to toxicity than other mammalian species, owing to its lower biotransformation capabilities. The mode of action of these compounds is incompletely understood, but stimulation of the insect's CNS via opening of sodium nerve channels is quickly followed by knockdown and lethality. Toxicity in cats normally involves significant overdosage by the topical route or ingestion of the active ingredient. Clinical signs include lethargy, salivation, tremors, ataxia and seizures (Nicholson, 2000). Fatalities are uncommon. Treatment is largely symptomatic, while the active ingredient is metabolised by the patient. Flea powders containing...

Historical Origins of Domestic Animals

Cats, too, were domesticated several thousand years ago perhaps around 2000 1000 b.c. and were kept in temples in ancient Egypt as religious symbols. They were ultimately deified, and hundreds of mummified cats have been found in Egyptian tombs. 6 A cat buried with a human about 9,500 years ago has been found recently in Cyprus, demonstrating an even earlier relationship with man. 7 Domestication generally presumes that breeding takes place under human control. This is true for some domestic cats, but as noted by Mason, 8 ''the majority make their own arrangements.'' As a consequence, distinctions that identify particular breeds tend to disappear in the feral population.

Domesticated Companion Animals

Throughout the history of humanity, animals have had a place in human social communities and have been valued as guardians, work partners, and companions by individuals and families. Keeping animals such as dogs* and cats* as companions is so familiar to us that generally people do not regard it as an animal rights* issue so long as an animal is well cared for by the humans who are responsible for the animal's well-being.* Companion-animal keeping, however, is controversial among advocates of animal rights. The issues involved can be divided into two general categories the harm or benefit to individual companion animals and the harm or benefit to populations of animals from which companion animals come. The latter view also addresses the significant harm that has been done to populations of animals through artificially selective breeding and the practice of inbreeding for looks and behavioral characteristics that are regarded as desirable in particular breeds of dogs and cats....

Dealing with feline behaviour cases

One of the stumbling blocks in relation to acceptance of behavioural medicine in a feline context is the general belief that cats are beyond human control and are unable to be trained. The fact that cats retain a high degree of independence often leads owners to have very low expectations of their ability to influence their pet's behaviour. However, feline behavioural medicine has advanced significantly since the early 1990s and owners of problem cats can now be offered a range of behavioural therapy and psychoactive medication, where appropriate, to assist in the treatment of behavioural disorders in their pets. The understanding of natural feline behaviour has also improved, and with a sound knowledge of feline social systems and communication it is possible to offer practical advice to cat owners that can help to resolve a range of behavioural problems related to natural behaviours being expressed in inappropriate or inconvenient contexts.

Links between behavioural symptoms and clinical disease

Case in any species it is important to remember that alterations in behaviour can also be associated with the presence of clinical disease. In a feline context, links between lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) and indoor house soiling highlight the need for any animal presented with a potentially behavioural condition to be given a full clinical examination before any attempts at behavioural therapy are instituted. Cats with a history of FLUTD are not only overrepre-sented among cats that are referred for problems of house soiling (Olm & Houpt, 1988) but also presented in behavioural practice as a result of over-grooming, especially over the caudal lower abdomen. It is important to remember that pathological conditions can lead to continuing behavioural issues even when the disease condition has been resolved, and problems of both house soiling and overgrooming may continue when FLUTD appears to be clinically resolved. Diabetes mellitus has also been diagnosed in cats that were...

Activationarousal Theory

Magoun at the University of Pisa in Italy, and D. B. Lindsley, J. Bowden, and H. Magoun at the University of California at Los Angeles, showed that severing all the sensory nerves in cats (without damaging the reticular formation) was accompanied by normal wakefulness-sleep patterns in the EEG. The view today has changed somewhat from the simple picture of the reticular formation as the major activator for arousal patterns and includes the recognition that EEG arousal signs are not always consistent with changes in behavioral arousal. See also CANNON CANNON-BARD THEORY DRIVE, THEORIES OF EMOTION, THEORIES LAWS OF LINDSLEY'S ACTIVATION THEORY MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF SPREADING-ACTIVATION MODEL OF MEMORY. REFERENCES

Use of existing litter facilities

When questioning owners about cats that are depositing urine and or faeces in the house it is important to ask about previous toileting behaviour and about the locations that had been used as latrines before the onset of the problem. It is also necessary to know whether the cat's reaction to these established latrines has altered, since cats that are marking within the house are unlikely to have changed their urination and defecation habits, whereas those that are exhibiting elimination disorders will be more likely to show a reluctance to use previously favoured locations (Borchelt, 1991). Cats that have previously eliminated in the garden or surrounding area may be reluctant to do so because of tension with other cats in the neighbourhood, whereas cats that are refusing to use the litter tray may be reacting to inappropriate litter or an unacceptable litter-tray location. All of this information helps to piece together the behavioural jigsaw and to accurately establish the reason...

Blood CultureNegative Endocarditis

Bartonella spp. are reported to cause 3 of all endocarditis 16 . In a recent review of Bartonella endocarditis, 75 of identified cases were caused by B. quintana and 25 by B. henselae 29 . Epidemiology was distinct for the two species, with B. quintana seen in patients who were homeless or alcoholic with exposure to body lice, and B. henselae in individuals with a history of exposure to cats.

Composition of the urine

Urine deposits attract the attention of cats irrespective of whether they were deposited from a spraying or a squatting position, but cats will spend longer investigating urine that has been deposited in a marking role than that which has been passed during the act of elimination, and this has led to speculation that the two types of urine differ in the information that they are used to convey. It has been proposed that the sprayed urine contains more socially significant information and that there are important chemical differences between the composition of the two types of urinary deposit. Spray urine has been characterised as a cloudy liquid that contains lipid material, which may originate from the anal sacs, and the characteristic odour of urine that has been deposited by intact toms has been attributed to the anal sac contribution (Wolski, 1982 cited in Bradshaw, 1992). However, other possible explanations for the pungency of sprayed torn cat urine include the addition of a...

Potential causes of indoor marking

This form of marking is limited to entire males and females and is associated with the oestrus cycle of the female. The main distinguishing feature of this form of marking appears to be the presence of vocalisation, which is believed to improve the likelihood of other cats orientating towards the chemical signal (Bradshaw, 1992). In the domestic cat population sexually motivated urine marking is relatively rare as a presented behavioural problem due to the high percentage of neutered individuals. In addition to the relatively common scenario of reactional marking, cats can sometimes begin to mark within the home as a response to frustration and in some cases this behaviour can become established as an attention-seeking behaviour as a result of the owner's reaction and the cat's subsequent learning. In cases of attention seeking the history is likely to include information about a high level of requirement for social interaction and the owners are likely to remark that the cat only...

Potential causes of indoor toileting

Poor maternal example has been put forward as a potential reason for kittens failing to learn appropriate toileting behaviour. Persians are overrepresented within the population of cats referred for problems of indoor toileting and this might suggest some form of genetic influence over the development of such problems (Neville, 1990). However, direct observational learning is now believed to be irrelevant in the development of appropriate toileting behaviour, and if the mother's poor example is important it is likely that the influence relates to decreased opportunities for the kittens to investigate litter material because their mother fails to encourage them to approach such materials during normal exploratory behaviour. Lack of facilities near to the nest will also result in kittens that fail to learn to use litter appropriately and sometimes, even though there is a litter tray provided, the kittens fail to bond to the substrate provided. These cats have not had the opportunity to...

Helicobacter pylori infection

Inflammation as measured by 13C-uBT and assays of serum pepsinogen i. in their study, 31 subjects infected with H. pylori ingested yogurt containing LG21 daily for an eight-week period. Also L. casei was shown to inhibit H. pylori growth and to reduce 13C-UBT values (Cats et al., 2003). Similar effects of yoghurt (containing L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12) consumption for six weeks on the growth of H. pylori in 59 human volunteers have been reported (Wang et al., 2004). Not all clinical trials have, however, shown effectiveness. in one open study, 27 H. pylori infected volunteers received yoghurt containing three Lactobacillus strains (L. casei and L. acidophilus) and a commercial starter culture for one month (Wendakoon et al., 2002). At the end of the trial, 13C-UBT values remained positive in 26 of the 27 subjects. This study used strains that showed in vitro inhibition of H. pylori, but no other probiotic characteristics were documented.

Treating feline fears

Behavioural modification techniques used in the management of feline fears are the same as those used in the canine field, but the way in which they are applied is modified to take into account differences between cats and dogs in terms of natural behaviour and perception of reward. One of the most important factors in the success of any behavioural treatment for feline fears is the correct application of reinforcement and therefore an understanding of the relative value of resources for cats is essential. Selecting rewards of sufficient value to override the fear response can be difficult, and with a high priority for flight as a defence strategy in cats it can be difficult to keep them in the vicinity of the fear-inducing stimulus while behavioural modification techniques are applied. When dealing with cats that are exhibiting fear-related behaviour problems it is essential for owners to realise that the cat needs to feel in control of the situation and therefore forcing the cat to...

Granit S Color Vision Theory

The viewpoint exemplified by the Finnish-Swedish neurophysiologist Ragnar Arthur Granit's (1900-1991) research in color vision has been characterized as theory-neutral and not so much of a theory as an approach that has established some limiting conditions for any good theory of color vision. Some aspects of Granit's research might be interpretable in a context of trichromatic theory (e.g., Young-Helmholtz theory), whereas other aspects may be taken within a context of opponent-colors theory (e.g., Hering-Hurvich-Jameson theory). Granit recorded the electrical reactions via microelectrodes in single and grouped optic nerve fibers and ganglion cells in the retinas of different animals when stimulated by lights of different wavelengths. Granit presented scotopic dominator curves (giving rod sensitivity), photopic dominator curves (giving cone sensitivity), and modulator curves based on wavelength stimulation of the retinas of various species, including snakes (which have cone receptors...

Pharmacological intervention

Drug classes that have been advocated for the treatment of fear-related behaviours in cats include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, P-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Bishop, 2001). As with behavioural therapy, it is important not simply to transfer treatment regimens from the canine world, and to consider the differences between cats and dogs in terms of metabolism and potential side-effects. Some authors have advocated combination therapy using drugs from more than one class, for example using phenobarbitone and propanolol in combination. Anecdotal results have been promising, but there is a lack of scientific evidence to support this therapy. Benzodiazepines have very limited application in the treatment of fears in cats owing to the potential hepatotoxic side-effects, and when cats are allowed access to outdoors the effect of diazepam on depth perception can lead to problems in relation to traffic and the risk of road accidents. Tricyclic...

Dreaming In Animals

Is the REM stage something peculiar to human beings or does it exist in other animal species After the first successful study carried out in the 1950s by William Dement on cats, research on animals spread rapidly studies have been carried out on dogs, rats, rabbits, sheep, goats, monkeys, donkeys, chimpanzees, elephants, and even on the opossum (one of the most primitive mammals). Practically all the studied mammals have shown the presence of the REM stage, and its cyclical occurrence is now considered a fundamental feature of sleep in mammals. Apart from mammals, studies seem to indicate the existence of a REM stage, at least in a rudimentary form, in birds but not in reptiles. However, it has been found that at least one reptile, the chameleon, has periods of rapid eye movements when asleep. Phylogenetic considerations therefore lead us to hypothesize that the REM stage appeared for the first time on our planet more than 150 million years ago.

Using aggression as a form of defence

Aggression is, in most instances, a defensive action. For the cat, which is essentially a solitary predator, it is most commonly used in disputes over food sources and territory boundaries. It is not in the cat's interest to engage in unnecessary outbursts of aggression, since any conflict brings with it the risk of injury which could, in turn, jeopardise the individual's survival. Without a pack to protect it, the independent feline relies on its own ability to hunt and any threat to that ability is avoided if at all possible. Instead of jumping in with teeth glistening, the cat engages in elaborate displays of body language and vocalisation which are designed to diffuse the situation and remove the need for actual fighting. Feline tricks of fluffing out the coat, arching the back and sitting sideways on to the opponent combine to give the impression that the cat is bigger than it really is. Such trickery is then combined with a series of low-pitched warning growls, a series of subde...

Fearrelated aggression

Fear is a very common reason for aggression in cats and occurs when the cat feels threatened by someone or something in its environment. In most cases the fear results from a lack of socialisation and habituation, and a consequentiy limited experience of novel people and situations. Other possible causes of the fear maybe a particularly traumatic experience or the Cats will naturally select flight as their primary defence strategy, but when a cat is unable to retreat it is likely to show aggressive behaviour to make the threat go away. This is most likely to occur when the cat is cornered in a cage or small room or when the cat is being restrained, either during petting or during veterinary examination.

Frustrationrelated aggression

When treating cats displaying frustration-related aggression towards their owners it is important to increase the individual's capacity to deal with frustration. In cases where there is a history of hand rearing it can be beneficial to wean the individual behav-iourally, and in all cases the aim is to teach the cat to be more independent by encouraging independent play and reinforcing decision making. Punishment or unintentional reinforcement of responses must be stopped as this is likely to escalate the aggression and make injury more likely.

Genotyping of G intestinalis

Among the genes analyzed thus far for Giardia isolates from various hosts, the highest degree of polymorphism was observed at the TPI locus in a study conducted on 4 human isolates, 2 mice isolates, and 1 isolate each from cats, dogs, pigs, rats, and blue herons (Monis et al., 1999). Later, a new TPI-based nested-PCR protocol was developed to amplify the TPI fragment from various Giardia isolates using primers complementary to the conserved published TPI nucleotide sequences of various Giardia parasites downloaded from the GenBank (Sulaiman et al., 2003). Using this new nested protocol, a larger sample including 37 human isolates, 15 dog isolates, 8 muskrat isolates, 7 isolates each from cattle and beavers, and 1 isolate each from a rat and a rabbit (Sulaiman et al., 2003) revealed that phylogenetic differences at the TPI gene was largely in agreement with all the previous results based on other genes (Monis etal., 1996,1999 Mowatt etal., 1994 van Keulen etal., 1991). This TPI-based...

Misdirected predatory behaviour

The motivation to hunt and the sensation of hunger are separately controlled in the cat and therefore even a very well-fed cat will still have the desire to hunt (Turner & Meister, 1988). This means that all cats need the opportunity to express this important aspect of their behaviour and when the opportunity is denied there is a potential for the behavioural sequences to be redirected onto other targets, such as people. Such misdirected predation is invariably triggered by movement. The behaviour may begin as a form of play in young kittens, but develop into a problem if the behaviour is not redirected onto real prey as the kitten enters adulthood. This form of'aggressive' behaviour towards people involves elements of predation, including exploration and investigation, stalking, chasing, attacking, pouncing, fighting, wrestling, swatting and biting. Preventing misdirected predatory behaviour relies on providing suitable socialisation and habituation of kittens, together with...

Preventing territorial aggression

Since feline society is naturally composed of related individuals it is not surprising that the close coexistence of high numbers of unrelated cats can sometimes cause tension. However, problems of aggression between cats in the neighbourhood can be minimised by providing adequate socialisation with other cats before 7 weeks of age and by ensuring the security of the home base for each cat. Owners should be advised not to encourage other cats to enter the territory, for example by feeding them, and to control entry of other cats by either boarding up the cat flap or using one that is lockable. Co-operation between owners in the neighbourhood is always beneficial when seeking to resolve aggression between cats, and the use of time schedules so that the cats have minimal interaction with one another can be useful. In addition, owners need to encourage their cats to spend more time at home by making the home territory more appealing, and this can be achieved by increasing access to...

Flea control and management

A number of factors will influence the type of flea-control programme that should be implemented to deal with cats that have either flea infestation or flea allergy. Such factors include the lifestyle of the cat. For example, cats that have access to the outdoors may continue to be reinfested with fleas, thus complicating a strict indoor flea-control programme. For cats with flea allergy it is preferable to use a spray or spot-on product formulation because it is important to attempt to prevent fleas reaching the skin to bite and such products tend to have a rapid onset, and long duration, of activity. Such products include fipronil, imidocloprid and selamectin they can usually be administered on a monthly basis as part of a flea-control programme. Other spray products may contain organophosphates and permethrins and last for 7-14 days. Spray products tend to be difficult to apply to cats that resent restraint. It is important to consider the weight of the cat and coat length when...

Large Numbers Law Of

The American be-haviorist and physiological psychologist Karl Spencer Lashley (1890-1958) developed two principles of brain operation and organization in his work on localization of functions the principle theory of mass action and the principle theory of equipotentiality. The concept of mass action refers to the operation of the cortex as a coordinated system where large masses of tissue are involved in all complex functioning (cf., Lashley's multiple control principle - states that any particular part of the brain is likely to be implicated in the performance of many different types of behavior also, conversely, a single behavior involves a number of brain states the principle maintains that the brain functions as an integrated whole). The mass action principle contrasts with the competing theory that specific local areas of the brain mediate specific behaviors. Lash-ley's argument for mass action is based on the demonstration that the degree of disruption of a...

O Blood Flow Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Function

Raphe Nucleus Skin Bloodflow

When the cervical or upper thoracic spinal cord is transected, the arterial blood pressure decreases to very low levels because the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata contains presympathetic vasomotor neurons whose activity tonically excites the spinal preganglionic sympathetic neurons so that regional vasomotor tone and arterial pressure are maintained. The activity of the medullary neurons is maintained either by intrinsic pacemaker activity or by interactions between different neuronal groups in a manner which currently is not understood. The presympathetic vasomotor neurons in the rostral medulla include the C1 catecholamine neurons (with the requisite enzymes to synthesize adrenaline being present in several species, including rats, cats, and humans) and an approximately equal number of noncatecholamine bulbospinal neurons. More medially placed bulbosp-inal neurons in the raphe and parapyramidal region have a role in regulating the changes in skin blood flow associated with...

Notoedric mange Notoedres cati

Miliary dermatitis of the pinnae, head and neck with associated pruritus may be initial signs, but ulceration and crusting follow chronic infection. A more generalised distribution of lesions occurs in cats treated with immunosuppressive drugs or in cats which have intercurrent disease.

Behavioral Responses

When Hess succeeded in implanting electrodes in the brain and permanently fixing them to the skull of animals, he found that stimulation of different parts of the hypothalamus produced a array of behavioral responses. For example, electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in cats elicited autonomic and somatic responses characteristic of anger increased blood pressure, raising of body hair, pupillary constriction, raising of the tail, and other characteristic emotional behaviors. Thus, the hypothalamus is not only a motor nucleus for the autonomic nervous system, as well as a neural part controlling the neuroendocrine system, but also a coordinating center that integrates various inputs to ensure a well-organized, coherent, and appropriate set of autonomic and

Immunogenicity of antigens borne by ISCOMs

Protective immunity has been induced against a variety of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma and parasites. Of particular interest is that protective immunity was induced by ISCOM-borne antigens to a number of retroviruses, e.g. feline leukemia virus infection in cats, to SIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2 in primates, to a tumor-inducing herpesvirus (e.g. Epstein-Barr virus) in cotton top tamarin monkeys, and against lethal infection of mice with Trypanosoma cruzi causing Chagas' disease in humans. Table 1 lists examples of ISCOM-borne antigens having induced protective immunity.

Visceral Representation And Function

Magnetoencephalography Response

Been determined as well as the efferent and afferent pathways, the nature of the responses, the control of tonic sympathetic activity, and the neurotransmitters mediating these responses. Very early experiments demonstrated that sham rage'' could be induced in cats following crude decortication. Upon innocuous stimulation, such as stroking the fur, cats would demonstrate all the somatomotor and autonomic manifestations (piloerection, dilatation of the pupils, retraction of the nictitating membrane, panting, and tachycardia) of rage. Ablation of the orbitoinsular region of the frontal lobes in cats resulted in a syndrome similar to that of complete decortication or complete removal of the frontal lobes. These studies suggested that the insular cortex might play a role in the tonic regulation of autonomic (particularly sympathetic) responses. Stimulation studies have supported this view. Electrical stimulation of the insular cortex in a variety of mammals, including humans, elicits...

Indolenteosinophilicrodent ulcer

This entity is readily recognised, with distinct well-demarcated unilateral or bilateral ulcers, occurring at the philtrum of the upper lip or adjacent to the upper canine tooth. The periphery is raised and surrounds a pinkish yellow ulcerated surface. With large lesions there may be facial distortion. The lesions may occur alone or seen in combination with miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic plaque and eosinophilic granuloma. The latter may be found in the mouth. There is evidence that the lesions are part of an allergic response to fleas and other allergens (Colombini etal.> 1999) in other situations there has been a genetic basis suspected, with the development of lesions in a colony of related specific pathogen-free cats. In many situations there is no apparent cause established for the lesions. The lesions are neither painful nor pruritic and the cat may not be obviously pruritic.

Interictalictalpostictal

Diffusion imaging is also possible using MR scanning. Water, and hence protons, is freely diffusible. In the brain, however, the microscopic anatomy of the tissue compartmentalizes (with cells, along axons, etc.) this process. It is possible to obtain MRI images that are diffusion weighted (DW) and in which the signal is dependent on the ease with which protons diffuse in their local environment. Initially tested in cats, DW images were shown to demonstrate the boundaries of acute infarcts within minutes. Infarcted or ischemic areas are visible as regions of hyperinten-sity corresponding to local decreases in the apparent diffusion coefficient of water. The use of DWI in screening patients with early ischemia who are candidates for thrombolytic therapy is especially relevant (Fig. 5). When combined with MRI perfusion imaging, an assessment of the proportion of jeopardized and infarcted tissue can be made.

Pyrogen Test Development

In the mid-1920s, Seibert (1) completed a series of classic studies, which proved conclusively that injection fevers associated with intravenous therapy resulted from heat-stable, filterable bacterial products that are commonly referred to as pyrogens. To ascertain the presence or absence of febrile responses caused by her test solutions, Seibert selected the rabbit as her animal test model, a choice that was later proven to be fortuitous (2). Since that time, many other species have been shown to have fever reactions when injected with bacterial pyrogens. Monkeys, horses, dogs, and cats, like the rabbit, have reproducible fever responses that are similar in nature to those of humans. On the other hand, the temperature response to pyrogens in rats, guinea pigs, mice, hamsters, and chicks is irregular and unpredictable, thus rendering them unsuitable for investigations of fever (3). For reasons of convenience and economics, the final selection of an animal test model for pyrogen...

A EEG Arousal Is Controlled by Interconnections between the NMTs Thalamus and Cortex

Cortical Arousal Eeg

The mechanisms underlying EEG desynchronization have been of great interest for decades. Early studies in the 1940s and 1950s by Moruzzi and Magoun and others showed that stimulation of the midline thalamus caused a desynchronized EEG pattern in anesthetized cats. Based on these results, two systems for the control of cortical arousal were hypothesized the generalized thalamocortical system, composed of the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, and the specific (relay) thalamocortical system. The relay system carries sensory information to the cortex, but its cortical influence is modulated by the generalized system. The general system has also been called the ascending reticular system and the diffuse thalamocortical projection system.

Dissection and Vivisection Laws

At more advanced levels of education, such as medical and veterinary training, growing sensitivity to animal protection, increasing costs of animals, and improved alternatives technology are generating more animal-friendly approaches. According to the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (202-686-2210), at least 34 medical schools in the United States now use no animals in their curricula. Of the 20 respondents to a 1995 survey of 31 veterinary schools in the United States and Canada conducted by the Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights (AVAR),* 16 schools (80 ) have implemented curriculum changes to accommodate students who do not wish to harm healthy animals. A 1994 survey found that 25 of 37 U.S. medical institutions (68 ) no longer use cats* and kittens in intubation training.

The Evolution Of Handedness

The nature of human handedness is unique among mammalian species. We can set up situations, analogous to handedness tests in humans, in which animals must manipulate something with only one paw. This might be a task in which a cat must reach down a relatively narrow tube to pull out a treat or in which a monkey must insert a stick into a small hole to get something to eat. When we do this, we find that most cats, rats, and monkeys are right- or left-pawed. Although individual animals show behaviors analogous to handedness, there is one major difference between these animals and humans. Whereas 9 of 10 humans are right-handed, in other species the proportion of right- and left-sided individuals is approximately 50 . In other words, there is not right-sided bias to the animal population.

Discrimination Training

Individual learns to respond the same way while in the presence of two or more similar stimuli. For example, an infant may see a dog, and be rewarded repeatedly by a parent for saying dog. Fairly soon, all four-legged, friendly neighborhood animals are called dogs, whether they be cats, goats, or guinea pigs. Of course, the more similar in appearance the new animal is to the original dog, the more likely the child is to call it a dog. This behavior demonstrates the idea of a generalization gradient, or the notion that the strength of a response to a given stimulus is a function of its similarity to the original discriminative stimulus. When an individual undergoes discrimination training, the reverse is true Learning to respond differentially when in the presence of two stimuli is easier if those stimuli are very different. For example, it is easier for a child to learn the difference between red and blue than between red and orange.

Excitatory and Inhibitory Outputs from the Inferior Colliculus to the Thalamus

GABAergic projections ascend to the thalamus from the inferior colliculus in parallel with non-GABAergic projections. These parallel projections have not been confirmed in primates, but such projections would be consistent with their presence in diverse species like rats and cats. It is unusual for GABAergic cells to participate in ascending sensory projections to the thalamus, and it is not seen in the visual or somatosensory systems. Brain slice experiments in rodents have shown that short-latency, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials that use GABA-A receptors are produced in neurons of the medial geniculate after electrical stimulation of brachium axons. These short-latency potentials can precede the excitatory potentials from the central nucleus and may regulate the onset of thalamic excitation from the inferior colliculus. Many neurons in the medial geniculate receive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the inferior colliculus. However, some neurons in the medial geniculate...

Pasteurella Infection And Immunity

Pasteurella multocida is primarily a veterinary pathogen that produces septicemic or respiratory diseases in both domesticated and wild mammals and birds. The organism can occur as a commensal in the nasopharyngeal region of apparently healthy animals. Uncomplicated diseases in which P. multocida is the primary etiologic agent are hemorrhagic sep-'ticemia of cattle and water buffalo, fowl cholera of poultry and free-flying birds, and rhinitis (snuffles) and pneumonia of rabbits. Diseases in which P. multocida is a complicating or secondary pathogen are atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia of swine, and shipping fever and pneumonia of cattle. In humans, most P. multocida infections arise from pet animal bites, particularly cats and dogs.

Evaluation of the head

Any head abnormalities must be due to disease of the nervous system above the foramen magnum the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the brainstem segments, that is, the diencephalon, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. Changes in personality, mental attitude and behaviour maybe observed or are described by owners. Lesions in the frontal cerebral cortex may result in a cat that does not recognise the owner or surroundings. The cat may lack natural curiosity or be uninterested in its environment, and may stare at the sky or roof and appear blind, but may not bump into objects. Lesions in the temporal lobe can produce vicious animals that have seizures characterised by hysterical running (psychomotor seizures). Lesions in the diencephalon may produce both docile and demented and vicious behaviour. Compulsive pacing or circling has also been associated with frontal cerebral cortex and diencephalon lesions. The cats generally circle towards the side of the lesion. This type of circling...

Evaluation of gait and strength

Cats with cerebellar disease are ataxic but there is no weakness. Abnormalities of gait can be very difficult to assess in cats in a strange environment as they are reluctant to move and may crouch close to the ground. Owner observations of the cat at home are important.

Brain Mechanisms in Combined RBDExtrapyramidal Disorders

The retrorubral nucleus is located near the substantia nigra, and appears to be implicated in the linked PD-RBD pathology (Lai and Siegel, 1990). The retrorubral nucleus projects to the caudate and putamen (extrapyramidal motor system) experimental lesions to the retrorubral nucleus in cats releases abnormal motor activity during both sleep and wakefulness, ranging from myoclonic twitches to rhythmic leg movements and locomotion (Lai and Siegel, 1997). In addition, the substantia nigra also is closely connected to the REM-phasic generator circuitry and may play a major role in the genesis of PGO waves, a characteristic REM sleep phasic event (Datta et al, 1991). In regard to MSA, pontine involvement has been revealed by both gross neuropathological examination and histo-chemical studies, as cited by Plazzi et al (1997). Functional magnetic resonance brain imaging studies and postmortem brain analyses are required to definitively elucidate the underlying neuropathology...

Historical Background

Beginning in about 8500 b.c., domestication of cattle, sheep, and goats began in the Near East, particularly in the Fertile Crescent, an arc of land from present-day western Syria and southern Turkey, through northeastern Iraq, to Iran. 1,2,5 Domestication of pigs took place about 9000 years ago both in Europe and in Asia. 2 Chickens were domesticated from jungle fowl in Thailand and adjacent regions about 8000 years ago, and remains of domesticated chickens have been found in neolithic sites in China dating to 6000 b.c. Llamas and alpacas were domesticated about 6000 years ago in South America. 2 Concurrently, horses were being domesticated for meat and transportation in the Ukraine. 2 Archeological evidence associating humans and silkworms dates back to about 2500 b.c. in China. Guinea pigs were domesticated about 3000 to 4000 years ago by the indigenous people of Peru for use as food and in religious ceremonies. 2 About 2500 years ago, rabbits were domesticated in southern Europe....

The neurological examination

The examination consists of observing the patient, watching its gait and movements and conducting an examination, which is methodical, logical and consistent. The neurological examination is the foundation for the accurate clinical management of cats with neurological diseases. Any diagnostic or treatment plan is dependent on accurate lesion localisation therefore, a fully recorded neurological examination should be made. A systematic approach is helpful to ensure that each functional area of the nervous system is examined and there are no omissions. improving, unchanged, episodic, etc.). The history also provides information on the onset of signs (acute versus slow onset), in contact animals, vaccination status and disease testing history, diet, drug therapies, and so on. The breed of cat may make a particular diagnosis more likely for example, hypokalemia and weakness in Burmese cats.

General Concepts and Unsolved Problems

Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is prevalent in humans and animals worldwide (5). T. gondii is transmitted by three routes fecaloral, congenital, and carnivorism. Cats, the only definitive hosts, are the ultimate source of the infective oocyst stage, which is excreted in their feces. After a short period of exposure to air, oocysts sporulate (form sporozoites), becoming infectious for virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Oocysts can survive in the environment for several months to a year. When oocysts from the environment are ingested the sporozoites, excyst from the oocyst in the intestine penetrate the wall then migrate to and grow inside st cells of the body. After several multiplication cycles, the parasite forms cysts in muscles, the liver, and the central nervous system (CNS). These tissue cysts can persist in humans and other animals virtually for life. The parasites within the tissue cysts are infectious to humans or animals...

Motor Functions Of Somatosensory Cortex

The somatosensory areas of the parietal lobe make a substantial contribution to the pyramidal tract, and it is not surprising that movements can be evoked by electrically stimulating sites in these areas. Somato-sensory cortex of humans and other primates includes four architectonic fields in anterior parietal cortex areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2, after Brodmann (Fig. 2). All these fields were once considered to be parts of a single primary somatosensory area, S1, but we now know that each architectonic field corresponds to a separate representation of body receptors and only area 3b corresponds to S1 of other mammals, such as rats and cats. Electrical stimulation of these fields and other higher-order fields such as the second somatosensory area, S2, of the lateral sulcus evoke movements related to the body part providing sensory inputs to the representation, but the levels of current needed to evoke movements are substantially higher than those for M1. The exception is area 3a, in which...

Abnormal reflexes and other signs of spinal cord injury

Functional transection of the spinal cord may lead to transient areflexia caudal to the lesion. Spinal shock lasts for only hours in cats and has usually disappeared by the time most cats with spinal injury are examined by a veterinary surgeon. Hyperreflexia can be very dramatic in some cats several months after functional spinal cord transection. Mass reflex activity is initiated by peripheral stimulation, such as squeezing a toe, and consists of bilateral, rapid limb flexion, tail twitching, and sometimes bowel and bladder evacuation. It occurs because of synaptic contacts between afferent fibres and interneurons and a-motor neurons of more than one muscle. Mass reflex can be mistaken for voluntary muscle activity, particularly when it takes the form of spinal walking.

Congenital and developmental defects

Table 7.9 Congenital and intracranial defects of cats Exencephaly anencephaly Primary axial mesodermal defects Encephalocoele meningocoele Craniofacial mesodermal defects in Burmese cats Cleft palate Disorders of forebrain induction Holoprosencephaly Agenesis of corpus callosum Table 7.10 Teratogenic agents causing congenital cranial malformations in cats

Single Neuron Studies

Figure 5 Orientation behaviors are altered by multisensory stimuli such that cross-modal stimulus combinations at the same location enhance performance while those at different locations impair performance. Cats were trained in a perimetry device (top) to attend straight ahead and then to orient to and approach a flashed light-emitting diode (LED) or a brief noise burst (see text for details). When the stimuli were of low intensity, they were difficult to notice and the animal responded correctly to them in less than 50 of the trials (left). However, when they were presented simultaneously and at the same location (AV) performance was enhanced more than predicted by their sum. Another animal was trained to respond only to the visual stimulus (it was never presented with the auditory stimulus during training). Its responses to the LED were markedly impaired when the neutral auditory stimulus was presented 60 medial to the LED, and this was most evident when correct responses were high...

Perceptual Acoustic

Pitch can be dissociated from frequency by studying responses to stimuli with virtual pitch, or pitch experienced at a missing fundamental frequency that is derivable from the pattern of upper harmonics, as the root of a corresponding harmonic series. Several pivotal experiments have taken advantage of such stimuli. In 1976, Henry Heffner and I. C. Whitfield demonstrated that cats could be trained to discriminate periodicity pitch as well as frequency. In 1980, Whitfield showed that following bilateral lesions of primary auditory cortex, the cats lost the ability to discriminate virtual pitch but could still discriminate absolute frequency. This suggests that auditory cortex may be essential for the discrimination of pitch but not frequency. The detection of changes in sound intensity is of great musical relevance, forming the basis of musical dynamics or expressive changes in sound intensity, both abrupt and gradual. Cortical contributions to the perception of intensity are suggested...

Lysosomal storage diseases

Numerous conditions in which there is an inherited deficiency of enzymes necessary for hydrolysis of proteins, polysaccharides and complex lipids have been described in cats (March, 2001). These enzymes are present in lysosomes and, when deficient, there is the intracellular accumulation of substrate, hence the collective term lysosomal storage diseases. Neurons are Lysosomal storage diseases should be considered in cats with signs of mulifocal neurological involvement, particularly if inflammatory disease has been excluded. Characteristic lesions may be seen upon biopsy of affected tissues. Enzyme tests and molecular diagnostic screening tests, which detect affected and carrier animals, are available for many of the lysosomal storage diseases (Table 7.12).

Feline infectious peritonitis

Progressive neurological involvement is common in cats with the non-effusive form of FIP. Severe pyro-granulomatous meningencephalomyelitis and ocular signs may be seen. Multifocal neurological signs are most common, especially cerebellar signs. Other common abnormalities include hindlimb paresis and ataxia, central vestibular signs, seizures and paralysis. This form of the disease is most common in cats younger than 2 years of age and cats older than 9 years of age. Most affected cats show fever and systemic signs such as anorexia and depression. Concurrent uveitis and chorioretinitis are common, which should increase suspicion of this disease. Other systemic signs of FIP may be present. Haematology typically reveals an inflammatory leucogram. Serum globulin concentrations are very high. Tests for serum coronavirus antibody concentrations are often non-diagnostic although an extremely high titre in the presence of typical findings suggests a diagnosis of FIP, a negative titre does...

Feline polioencephalomyelitis

A non-suppurative encephalomyelitis suggestive of a viral or immune-mediated aetiology has been identified as a cause of progressive seizures or spinal cord signs in young adult cats (Quesnel & Parent, 1999). Affected cats range from 3 months to 6 years of age, with most cats younger than 2 years old. Affected animals have subacute to chronic progressive neurological signs. Ataxia and paresis of the pelvic limbs may be accompanied by intention tremors of the head and seizures. Seizures and behavioural change may be the only and most important signs observed in some cats (Quesnal & Parent, 1999). Clinicopathological findings are within reference ranges in most cats. CSF analysis reveals a mild increase in CSF mononuclear cells and a normal or slightly increased CSF protein concentration, findings suggestive of a viral aetiology. Other causes of encephalomyelitis, such as FIP, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or toxoplasmosis, must be eliminated. Definitive diagnosis can be...

Feline immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy see Chapter

Neurological disease has been identified in FIV-infected cats and has been studied in both clinical cases and experimental infection. Neurological abnormalities are reported to be common, with up to 30 of FIV-infected cats showing clinical signs. Importantly, the neurological signs are mostly related to behavioural signs, including changes in attitude, altered level of awareness, stereotypic behaviour and altered sleep patterns. Clinical and experimental studies confirm that the neurological consequences of FIV infection are mild. Rarely are severe neurological signs observed and, if present, they are related to another concurrent cause, such as neoplasia. There is no specific treatment for FIV encephalopathy. Corticosteroids and or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiviral agents maybe expected to help affected cats.

Spongiform encephalopathy

With the development of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the UK, cases of feline spongiform encephalopathy have been described (Gunn-Moore & Harbour, 2001). All affected cats showed progressive neurological signs, including head tremor, ataxia, muscle fasciculation, locomotor abnormalities, behavioural changes and altered sensory responses, especially hyperesthesia. Histological findings are identical to those of scrapie in sheep and BSE, with discrete vacuolation of grey matter throughout the CNS.

Structure of the spleen

The human spleen is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue containing relatively little muscle and therefore incapable of the extensive contraction exhibited by the muscular capsule of the spleen in dogs and cats. A rich branching network of trabeculae from the internal capsular surface subdivides the organ into communicating compartments. The capsule is deeply indented in one part of the spleen to form the hilus where blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves enter and exit. Arterial vessels branch into the trabeculae and from there enter the pulp or parenchyma of the organ. Veins also run in the trabeculae, entering from the pulp. Lymphatics are found in the capsule and trabeculae but not in the pulp.

Protozoal encephalitis see Chapter

Toxoplasmosis is often suspected in cats with neurological signs. However, Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogen and while subclinical infection is common, clinical disease occurs rarely. Cats are the definitive host. There is no breed, sex or age distribution, but immunosuppression, concurrent illness or drugs can predispose to development. The most frequent systemic manifestations are hepatitis, pneumonia, iridocyclitis and chorioretinitis. Neurological signs, if they occur, are referable to a multifocal nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, but occasional focal lesions are present. In young cats, a generalised myositis and inflammation of nerve roots is a more common manifestation. Most cases of toxoplasmosis are acute, with a clinical course of a few weeks. Neospora caninum has been shown to cause infection experimentally in cats, but naturally occurring infection due to this organism in cats has not been confirmed.

Mycotic encephalomyelitis

Clinical cryptococcosis is seen in all ages of cat, with no sex or breed distribution. Outdoor cats are most susceptible. Neurological involvement is from haematogenous spread or local infection via the crib-iform plate. In addition to the nervous signs there may be signs of systemic disease, such as nasal swelling and respiratory disease, and there may be a history of chronic nasal discharge, weight loss or lymphaden-opathy. Neurological signs are subtle in onset, and include depression, behavioural changes and altered mental attitude, but are followed by more severe signs of blindness, seizures, circling, ataxia, paresis and cranial nerve deficits. Neurological signs progress rapidly and reflect the area(s) of the brain affected. There may be concurrent chorioretinitis, which can be seen ophthalmoscopically. Diagnosis depends on identification of the organism and serological support. The organism may be seen in nasal discharge or CSF. CSF analysis is the most helpful diagnostic test...

Management of CNS trauma

For most veterinary surgeons practical management of cats with head trauma involves sequential neurological examination to confirm improvement or deterioration. After suspected intracranial trauma there should be a complete neurological evaluation and signs should be recorded for further comparison. Many cats improve quickly, often without treatment, after the initial injury. If clinical signs are severe initially or worsen progressively evidence of increased intracranial pressure should be based on clinical signs unless intracranial pressure can be measured. A decision to undertake CT or MRI scan is often indicated in cats with severe signs.

Extrapolation from Animals to Humans

Differences in the toxicity of specific substances between humans and laboratory animals cause considerable uncertainty in the application of animal data to humans. The differences can sometimes be isolated to differences in absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion. For example, 2-naphthalamine is converted to the carcinogen 2-naphthyl hydroxylamine by dogs and humans. This is excreted by the kidneys and causes bladder cancer. However rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs do not excrete this metabolite and do not get bladder cancer from the original compound. Ethylene glycol is metabolized by two pathways with the separate end products oxalic acid or CO2. Cats metabolize more of the ethylene glycol to oxalic acid, whereas rabbits produce more CO2. Consequently, ethylene glycol is more toxic to cats than to rabbits. The LD50 for dioxin (TCDD) is 5 mg kg in hamsters but only 0.001 mg kg in guinea pigs. This large range in toxicity between species has produced considerable...

Hepatic encephalopathy seechapter

Hepatic encephalopathy is an important cause of cerebral dysfunction in young cats with congenital vascular anomalies and adult cats with severe liver disease, such as hepatic lipidosis (Baxter etai, 1988). The cerebral signs are due to the effect of by-products of digestion, which are normally detoxified by the liver, reaching the brain and altering neuronal function. There are many publications debating the role of metabolites affecting brain function in hepatic encephalopathy, and readers should consult these sources for further information on the pathogenesis.

Skinners Descriptive Behavior Operant Conditioning Theory

Individuals from predators, and keeping early humans out of harm's way during the night. The evolutionary circadian theory helps explain differences in sleep patterns across species where animals that sleep the longest (e.g., opposums and cats) are least threatened by the environment and can easily find food and shelter, whereas animals that sleep very little (e.g., horses and sheep) have diets that require constant foraging for food, and their only defense against predators is vigilance and running away. A common popular theory is that people sleep in order to dream, and assumes that dreaming is an important activity for good health. Recently, W. Webb (1988) proposed a theory of sleep that combines some of the best explanatory features of both the restorative and adaptive nonresponding theories. This new theory considers sleep to be a function of sleep demand (based on the time of wakefulness preceding sleep), cir-cadian tendencies (i.e., bodily rhythms whose cycle corresponds to...

Central vestibular disease

Neoplasms located at the cerebellomedullary angle affect the central vestibular nuclei. Central vestibular signs often occur as a sequela to severe head trauma. Some drugs (e.g. metronidazole) cause central vestibular and cerebellar signs if cats are overdosed. Withdrawal of the drug and supportive care result in complete recovery. Infectious diseases of the CNS such as FIP (especially in young cats), toxoplasmosis, cryptcoccosis, bacterial meningitis and viral encephalomyelitis can result in central vestibular signs. Discospondylitis is infection of the intervertebral disc and the adjacent vertebrae. The infection is usually bacterial (Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.), but fungal infections occur occasionally. The usual route of infection is haematogenous. There may be a history of abscesses resulting from fighting. Male cats are more often affected and may test FIV positive.

Epidemiology And Transmission

T. tenax is spread by direct as well as indirect mouth-to-mouth contact, sharing of oral hygiene utensils such as a toothbrush may be an important source of transmission.1-1-1 A zoonotic transmission may also be possible, as a PCR-based molecular analysis of isolates obtained from dogs and cats confirmed the presence of T. tenax in these animals. 14

Characteristics Of T Cruzi

T. cruzi is a member of the family Trypanosomatidae (order Kinetoplastida), which also includes Trypano-soma brucei, the etiological agent of African sleeping sickness, and Leishmania species, which cause cutaneous visceral leishmaniasis. Chagas' disease is a zoonosis and the parasite has been detected in more than 150 species of mammals. The opposum Didelphis, which is found throughout South America, plays a central role in the transmission between sylvatic (forest) and domestic habitats, where animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents serve as important reservoirs. T. cruzi is transmitted by blood-feeding reduviid bugs of the subfamily Triatomi-nae. In the insect vector, T. cruzi undergoes differentiation from the noninfectious epimastigote form into the metacyclic trypomastigotes that are capable of initiating an infection in the host (Fig. 1). Trypomastigotes can invade a large number of mammalian cell types including macrophages, muscle cells, and nerve cells. Epimastigotes (Fig....

In Vivo Responsiveness of LC Neurons 1 Spontaneous Activity

In cats, when the animal is well-habituated to its environment and is in a quiet waking state, LC neurons often display very little response to previously presented neutral stimuli. The presentation of novel or noxious stimuli will, in contrast, elicit a burst of unit activity (see the following section). Stressful stimuli such as confrontation with a dog (for cats), footshock, cold environment, loud noise, and immobilization reliably stimulate LC activity, an excitation usually accompanied by a sympathetic activation. This has led to the proposal of the LC as a central analog of peripheral sympathetic ganglia.

Disorders of the neuromuscular junction

Table 7.21 Conditions associated with hypokalaemia in cats A delayed form of neurotoxicity can occur in cats with prolonged exposure to organophosphate compounds, even days to weeks after initial exposure. The delayed form of toxicity is characterised by neuromuscular weakness without autonomic dysfunction. Low serum cholinesterase values (< 25 reference values) may confirm a diagnosis. Cats improve without treatment if there is no further exposure to organophosphates, however, diphenhydramine (4mg kg every 8h) can hasten recovery. Dihenhydramine blocks the effect of nicotinic receptor overstimulation. Muscular weakness due to congenital or acquired MG is the result of a postsynaptic defect at the nicotinic neuromuscular junction. Both congenital and acquired MG have been documented in the cat (Ducote 8c Dewey, 2001). There may be a higher incidence in Somali and Abyssinian cats. Both forms are rare compared with the dog. In the acquired form autoantibodies directed against...

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