Develop Charisma and Become More Likable

Likeability Blueprint

Have you ever wondered why more people don't like you as much as you feel they should? Are you a nice person that simply doesn't get the attention and love from other people that you should? Believe it or not, this is not your fault, and it's nothing about you! All you have to do is find the method to use with people to make them like you, and have NO idea why they like you so much. The method is called Automagnetism. Automagnetism is the way that you carry yourself that suggests things to people's minds that makes them like you without ever knowing way. You will be able to set yourself apart once you use the Likeability Blueprint; people won't know what hit them! All that it takes is a little bit of solid effort, and you can be on your way to getting people all over the place to like you! Continue reading...

Likeability Blueprint Overview


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Gender Power in Organizations

In a classic study French and Raven (1959) differentiated between five kinds of power sources expert, referent, reward, coercive, and legitimate power. Expert power refers to the ability to influence because you possess superior skills or knowledge. Referent power is charismatic power the ability to get another person to change their behavior. Reward power means the ability to mediate rewards, such as money and promotion, in order to obtain change. Coercive power refers to the ability to give punishment. Legitimate power refers to the right to influence. Wilson (1995) argues that all of these forms of power are perceived as belonging to men, since traditionally men have held most of the power in organizations, have controlled and dominated women and also other men, and thus have been able to maintain power.

The Vulnerable Period Of Openingup

The progression from admiration to the hope and demand for reciprocation and, finally, the fruition of love is a journey fraught with uncertainty, particularly in its very early stages. The language of courtship is tentative yet intermittently insistent, teasing and hopeful. Just as long gazes herald the exalted stage of realized mutual love, so the emblem of courtship is the sidelong glance, the fan its ideal prop. The beloved, in turn, may also be frightened, fearing the lover's omnivorous needs. Even if ready to risk being consumed, she may distrust the words of the lover, perhaps having learned through past experience that the suitor may not be sincere. The beloved fears that the lover may only be simulating intimacy and caring to camouflage other needs. Men are often accused of feigning affection and admiration in order to achieve their sexual aims, but both sexes indulge in this duplicity in order to gain their ends companionship, short-term advantage, the gratification of...

Analysis and Explanations

Early 20th century, some of them African American. At first they had many charismatic women preachers, sometimes the founders of sects, but their numbers then fell (Barfoot & Sheppard, 1980). This is true for the rare female founders of modern religious movements such as Ellen G. White, Mary Baker Eddy, and Madame Blavatsky. The groups they started soon came to be run by men.

Teaching thinking programmes and approaches

Widespread publicity is attached to highly charismatic and persuasive advocates of specific thinking skills programmes. One of these is de Bono, whose articulation of a set of thinking strategies, such as those set out in his Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) programme, has been widely applied in both educational and vocational contexts.

Targeting Appraisals and Beliefs

Clients may discount or distort information not consistent with their BDD-related belief systems and referential thinking can play a significant role in the clinical picture (Castle & Phillips, 2002). Clients often disregard positive feedback about their appearance and magnify neutral or negative comments. Therapists can encourage clients to record positive, negative, and neutral comments (both solicited and unsolicited) made about their general physical appearance and their particular BDD preoccupation. Behavioral experiments can also be helpful in testing assumptions about appearance and identity. Therapists and clients can collabo-ratively design experiments such as soliciting feedback from cosmetic staff in department stores about the client's long crooked nose or asking close family members about their most engaging personality and physical traits.

Derived Properties Postulate

The French mathematician and philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650) is regarded by many researchers to be the first writer to deal with laughter from the physiological, as well as from the psychological, point of view however, other researchers attribute this honor to the French physician Laurent Joubert (1529-1582) cf., Roeckelein, 2002, p. 131 . Descartes' theory of laughter begins with a physiological account of what causes the audible explosion in laughter (the blood passes from the right cavity of the heart to the lungs, filling them, and drives out the air). According to Descartes, psychologically there are only six basic emotions (wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy, and sadness), and laughter is found to accompany three of them (wonder, mild hatred, and joy). Descartes asserted that derision is a kind of joy that is mixed both with surprise and hate, and when laughter is natural (and not feigned or artificial), it seems to be due partially to...

Idealization And The Family Romance

But the story is not always the same because idealization, at different points in life, is linked to very different sorts of yearning. Sometimes idealization, or admiration, is primarily connected to identification, the desire to take on the characteristics of that person who appears as exalted. But idealization can also lead to the wish for union, to be joined to the beloved and seek satisfaction from her. The wish for identification, on the one hand, and complementariness, on the other, are often separate, one or the other predominating at different developmental stages, but they may also interact and overlap as they appear to do in mature love.

Rehearsals For Love Crushes Infatuations Flirtations And Fantasies

Sometimes the object of the crush is not anyone known personally rock stars seem to be the icons of choice in modern times. Here the only function the crush serves is that of identification, not of intimacy. But sometimes the crush does provide real bonds with those peers who share in it. The process of communal idealization is, of course, evident in the eruption of group crushes, for example Beatlemania. The bonding (and identification) with peers can be as important as the admiration for the icon, providing the intimacy that would otherwise be lacking in idealization at such a remove. Something comparable to this sometimes occurs later in life, as for example, when two women who love one man become friends instead of or as well as rivals. In essence, they share the intimacy of a common idealization, not the convoluted homosexual attachment that is so often assumed to have drawn them together. I know of one instance in which two such women became each other's major source of...

Cultural Construction of Gender

Boys could go naked until the onset of adolescence, while little girls were given a simple tunic dress. David Duvall, half-Piegan collaborator of anthropologist Clark Wissler, wrote about 1910, Girls are taught to be kind and helpful, to be always willing to lend a hand, to be virtuous and later, to respect their marriage vows (Wissler, 1911, p. 29). Girls carried firewood and water for the home, took care of younger children, and assisted their mothers and grandmothers with household tasks, hide dressing, making clothing, and preparing food. Boys were hardened by daily morning baths in streams, even in winter an elderly man would remind or take the boy. Boys learned weaponry and hunting tactics, and upon entering adolescence, accompanied war parties, serving the men in camp chores. These contrasts in child socialization described by Duvall (Wissler, 1911, pp. 29-30) were tempered by expecting girls as well as boys to snare small animals and to become familiar with weapons and...

Animal Companions Today Dogs Cats and Horses

Distinctive breeds of dogs did not appear until about 3000 4000 years ago. 3 Dogs resembling greyhounds were depicted on Egyptian and west Asian pottery and paintings, and greyhounds may be one of the oldest foundation breeds. The origins and evolution of unique breed characteristics are mostly obscure but were certainly influenced by physical appearance, innate capabilities, and behavior. The development of working and herding dogs illustrates this point. 9

Ethnographic Uses of the Lived Body

Such views of the body contrast with the individualized body of U.S. society and its linkage to sense of self, with its emphasis on individual responsibility, thinking rather than feeling, and bodily control (G. Becker, 1997). Myerhoff's (1978, p. 1) classic work, Number Our Days, opens with an ode to bodily knowledge, with the words of Basha, an old Jewish woman living in California Every morning I wake up in pain. I wiggle my toes. Good. They still obey. I open my eyes. Good. I can see. Everything hurts but I get dressed. I walk down to the ocean. Good. It's still there. Now my day can start. About tomorrow I never know. After all, I'm eighty-nine. I can't live forever. This statement is a direct illustration of Csordas' (1993, p. 138) term, somatic modes of attention, which he defines as culturally elaborated ways of attending to and with one's body in surroundings that include the embodied presence of others. Csordas' (1994b) work on the Charismatic Renewal in the United States is...

General References

This article consists of brief descriptions of fish species of importance to either the commercial or sport fisheries in North America. The description of the each species consists of information about their physical appearance, notes about how they are caught and what food value they hold, their distribution, and their reproductive biology. The common and scientific names used in this article comply with published information (1).

Leadership in Public Arenas

Historically, formal authority took a back seat to highly flexible, short-term de facto leadership wielded by successful male hunters or other charismatic individuals (known variously as dene gan kaltharae or gothare) within the context of winter staging communities or hunting groups (D. M. Smith, 1982). Men who became outpost managers at seasonal trading posts, or who were otherwise prominent in the evolving fur trade economy, also had influence in local-level politics. With the rise of band governments (First Nations in current language) under federal Treaty provisions in the early 1900s, a formal authority structure of elected chiefs, councillors, and other community officials has emerged. Typically, these overt positions of power have been occupied by men, although some young educated Chipewyan women have been pushing for more active involvement in band or First Nations government. Moreover, elected officials are always subject to the backstage power of influential women, the...

Relative Status of Men and Women

During the early historical period, some successful hunters or charismatic leaders, like Hearne's guide Matonabbee, had as many as seven wives. While this may be viewed as pronounced male dominance, stated another way, such individuals were maintained by as many as seven wives. Recent interpretations of Chipewyan gender relations have sought to temper harsh historical stereotypes with models of the complementarity of male and female behaviors in a comprehensive system of hunting (Jarvenpa & Brumbach, 1995) or as asymmetric equals in terms of power, influence and value within society (Sharp, 1995).

Courtship and Marriage

Polygynous mariage was fairly common well into the 19th century when nearly 30 of married men in some communities had more than one wife. In the mid-19th century, however, Catholic missionaries began condemning first-cousin marriages and would sanctify only European-style monogamous unions. By the early 20th century monogamy was all but universal among the Chipewyan. This was a dramatic transition from a century before when skillful hunters or charismatic leaders, like Hudson's Bay Company explorer Samuel Hearne's Chipewyan guide Matonabbee, were maintained by as many as seven wives (Hearne, 1795).

Five hundred thousand years or fifty million years

Strata in the Deccan, vestiges of lakes that had developed temporarily between eruptions. So volcanism certainly began before the end of the Mesozoic. Here I cannot resist retelling the unbowdlerized tale of one of our paleontologist friends' discoveries. Near Nagpur, one of Ashok Sahni's thesis students had been digging for years, filtering and analyzing tons of sediment with no great success. While we were there, drilling a few cores to look at paleomagnetism, another paleontologist, Henri Cappetta, stepped aside to answer nature's call. The resulting less-than-classic agent of erosion revealed, under the very eyes of the unhappy student, a little white fragment a few millimeters long, which immediately attracted attention. Within minutes, and to my great admiration, Henri Cappetta had identified a tooth of a freshwater ray, until then unknown outside the sediments of the last part of the Cretaceous Period (the Maastrichtian) in Niger So the volcanism had begun during the last stage...

Three classic US cases 1979 and Vijay Soman 1981 and John Darsee 1985 and Robert Slutsky

Possibly until recently, more ink has been shed on Darsee's case than on any other. In part, this was because it was the first major publicised case that was not an isolated blemish on the face of science (not mad - rather, bad) in part, because it concerned prestigious institutions, co-authors, and journals in part, because of the charismatic personality of one of the central figures in part, because it started the whole debate about the rights and wrongs of authorship (particularly gift authorship), data retention, the supervision of juniors, and the management of suspected cases of fraud. There was also the realisation of the pressure to publish - and not merely important work but anything that showed a department's activity, though the results should somehow be positive. Finally, the case also shifted the whole climate of feeling of trust to thinking the unthinkable - the possibility that things might not be as they seemed. There was also the new concept once a crook, often always...

Informationprocessing Model Of The Internal Clock See Scalar Timing Theory

The concept of ingroup bias, or ethnocentrism, refers to the relationship between intergroup behavior at the societal level and perceptions attitudes at the personal level and, thus, provides a link between sociological theories of group relations dynamics and psychological theories of interpersonal attraction. The following four - in group dynamics, provides an explanation for coalitions among members that is based on individuals' prior resources, payoffs, and power types where attempts are made to maximize control over others in the group, and where the most likely minimum resource coalitions are those that are sufficient to prevail under conditions where the members own the minimum resources for that purpose and outgroup homogeneity bias effect -refers to a tendency for members of a particular group to assume there is more similarity among members of an outgroup than is actually the case and social identity theory - this perspective combines the basic aspects...

Cbt For Obesity The Past

Since the early 1980s, additional treatment strategies have become routine components of treatment, including cognitive therapy procedures, nutritional training, and exercise. Two key considerations motivated the inclusion of cognitive therapy (Foreyt & Poston, 1998). First, there was the recognition that many obese people engage in negative or self-defeating monologues related to their eating, their physical appearance, and their self-worth. These maladaptive cognitions often result in emotional distress and poor treatment adherence. Second, the problem of weight regain following behavioral treatment heightened the role that cognitive factors play in relapse and suggested the possibility that the inclusion of cognitive strategies could prevent relapse and improve long-term outcome. As a consequence, behavioral treatment of obesity evolved into a comprehensive lifestyle intervention with CBT as its core.

Categorization Theory

Concepts of traits from his personality theory to descriptions of group behavior (called syntality), including the behavior of nations. Evaluations and reviews of Cat-tell's work indicate a mixture of both admiration and uneasiness. Cattell's personality theory may not be popular in the sense that S. Freud's, C. Rogers', H. S. Sullivan's, G. Allport's, or H. Murray's theories have been popular, but it has attracted an active band of adherents, many of whom appreciate the widespread empirical grounding and economy of factor analytic formulations that his theory possesses. See also ALL-PORT'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY INTELLIGENCE, THEORIES LAWS OF NATURE VERSUS NURTURE THEORIES PESONALITY THEORIES. REFERENCES

Lotzes Theory Of Local Signs

Many dictionaries of psychological terms, interestingly, do not even attempt to give a definition of love. Other approaches toward defining love are provided in psychoanalytic theory where it is used variously as any affective state defined as the opposite of hatred, as an emotion liable to sublimation or inhibition, and an equivalent to Eros and an instinctive force close either to the life instincts or to the sexual instincts, depending on early or late Freudian formulation. Only recently have social scientists systematically gathered information about love. Using love in a scientific context leads to several types of conflicts or questions Can love exist independent of sex sexual expression Is love innate, or is it an acquired emotional response Can the feeling of love be dissociated from the behavior, or does the emotion always contaminate the behavior The American social psychologist Zick Rubin (1944- ) distinguishes between the conditions states of liking and loving....

Interaction Process Analysis

Interpersonal attraction refers to a favorable attitude toward, or feeling of liking for, another person. People are attracted to others for a variety of reasons, and there are many different kinds of attraction. One generalization concerning interpersonal attraction is the reward theory, which states that we like people whose behavior provides us with maximum reward at minimum cost. The gain-loss theory suggests that increases in positive, rewarding behavior from another person will have more impact on an individual than constant, invariant reward from that person. Thus, if one considers being liked as a reward, a person whose liking for us increases over time will be liked more than one who has always liked us. Four other theories principles that describe interpersonal attraction are similarity, beauty physical appearance, proximity, and social exchange. The similarity-attraction theory suggests that we like other people whose attitudes, values,...

Context Competence And Personal Responsibility

Although identity is a fluid concept in psychological and sociological terms, we tend to speak of identities in fixed terms. In particular, those aspects of identity that characterize observable physical characteristics, such as race or gender, are perceived as unchanging ascribed identities. Examples of these would include identifications such as Chinese woman, or Korean American woman, or even broader terms such as woman of color, which are ways of grouping together individuals who are not of the hegemonic white race in the United States. We base these constructions of identity upon physical appearance and an individual's declaration of identity. However, even these seemingly clear distinctions are not definitive. For example, I, as a woman of Asian racial background, may declare myself a woman of color because I see

What Is the Secret of Success

The objectives must be based on a careful analysis of the real problem and be achievable in a time-scale set within the program design. Community and local nongovernment organization involvement is essential in the design and implementation so that there is a sense of joint ownership for self-sustaining success. The overall effectiveness depends on coverage, and if interventions are targeted at specific groups there has to be a trade-off between the cost-effectiveness of targeting and wider coverage of the population. Charismatic leadership and good management are essential, and the appropriate mix of components must be accompanied by effective administration with a balance between bottom-up and top-down actions. Most successful programs include strong training and supervision. Effective implementation is helped by setting clear targets and by monitoring and evaluating the process, with flexibility to modify the program where necessary. The attitude of the workers is crucial in...

Sensory Analysis Of Rations

In summary, the engineering of today's military rations is keyed on the criteria of sensory quality and soldier acceptability. Through detailed consumer and sensory analytic testing in the laboratory and subsequent field testing, it can be insured that fielded rations will be well liked and consumed with minimum waste, so that all of the available nutrient content will be used by the soldier to optimize performance and maintain readiness for combat.

Reciprocal Inhibition Techniquetheory See Inhibition

The principle of reciprocity is a basic, common-sense generalization concerning relationships and interpersonal encounters suggesting that we often treat other people as they have treated us cf., the curious phenomena of the passing stranger stranger on a train effect -also known as the ancient mariner effect after Samuel Taylor Coleridge's (1772-1834) poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner in which an old sailor tells his story over and over again to strangers - refers to cases where persons divulge the most private information about themselves to perfect strangers and the hard-to-get effect - cases where one is selective in one's social choices in order to appear as more desirable than those who are more readily accessible or available . In the context of the Austrian-American psychologist Fritz Hei-der's (1896-1988) balance theory, the notion of reciprocity is the principle that social attraction is mutual if I know you like me, it increases the...

Cultural Overview

The political organization of the Shoshone was what Steward referred to as a family level of sociopolitical organization, in which nuclear families were the autonomous political units. Leadership positions among the Shoshone were based on personal charisma rather than the authority of office. Those positions included (1) rabbit and antelope drive boss, who coordinated communal hunts, (2) winter encampment talker (tekwani), who acted as a town crier by passing on information about social events and game sightings, and (3) shamans, who specialized in religious healing. After about 1690, when the horse entered the Great Basin, the Northern Shoshone Throughout most of the year, each nuclear family wandered independently over a large territory in search of food. Toward the end of summer, families moved towards whichever pinyon pine forest was currently beginning to bear nuts. Groups of up to 300 people might gather in the same forest, and families would gather enough pine nuts to feed...

Beinginthe World Dasein

When we look more closely at what is inherent in human nature (constitutive of dasein), we find that not only are we defined by our actions among the things of the world (our comportment among physical objects), but that we are already, whenever we do or think something, with other people. The entities of the world, what Heidegger called facticity (this book, that chair, the sky, rain), are already shared with others. What I can relate to, others can, too. A chair, for example, was made by someone else and can be sat in by anyone these features are given along with the physical appearance of the chair itself. What is more, when an individual thinks of the chair as a chair, a piece of wood, or furniture, she is using a family of concepts that have been passed down and learned from other people. Thus, since the world and the individual are co-determined, and since the world is a public, shared world, the individual is constituted or inhabited by other people, even in the contents of his...

Considerations in the Use of Fading

Once the goal of training is determined, it is important to select a reinforcer. The reinforcer must be something that the individual enjoys and that will serve to reward and maintain responding. When working with adults who are typically developing the reinforcer often is simply the ability to emit the target response. For example, for a shy person, simply maintaining eye contact for some duration may be reinforcing in and of itself. When working with children, individuals with disabilities, nonhumans, or adults for whom the target behavior is not likely to be especially rewarding in and of itself (e.g., coming to work on time, calculating a tip rapidly, without the use of a pencil and paper), it is critical to determine an effective reinforcer. Ideally the reinforcer should be one that is likely to occur in the individual's natural environment. For example, a natural reinforcer for rapid calculations of a tip might be admiration from others, or avoidance of odd looks from restaurant...

Steadystate Theories See Time Theories Of

This effect from the area of group dynamics, named after the American therapist and social cognitive psychologist Bernard Steinzor (dates unknown), states that in a group setting there is a tendency for group members to comment immediately following the comments of the person sitting opposite them. According to the Stein-zor effect, in groups consisting of minimal leadership, members of a discussion group address most remarks to colleagues sitting across a conference table, whereas with a strong leader no spatial effect is observed. The Steinzor effect also reveals a link between eye contact and dominance. Thus, one may find it difficult to gaze directly at, or even to cross lines of sight with, a dominant individual seated nearby at the same discussion table. In task discussions, people direct more comments to those seated across from them in a circle or at a table, whereas in social discussions, they are most likely to talk to the person seated next to them. In a...

The Cognitive Revolution

The Cognitive Revolution

Ellis has described a variant of CT that is conversant with traditional operant behaviorism in that clients are taught to develop a functional analysis of their own upset emotional experience. Specifically, in the early stages of treatment, clients are instructed to identify (a)ctivating events, (b)eliefs, and (c)onsequences that surround individual events resulting in distress. After repeated practice and feedback from the therapist, clients are expected to articulate these sequences readily. Following this, clients are taught to extend this A-B-C analysis to include (D)isputation and (E)ffects of the outcome. This full sequence is then understood as a method of alleviating distress when applied repeatedly. As a means for galvanizing these effects, a number of behavioral activities are typically arranged that allow for in vivo challenge of irrational beliefs. For example, shame attacks are where one seeks out a situation in which the irrational belief may be directly challenged (such...

The Ethics of Genetics

Through an increasingly vigorous and public debate about the ethics of genetics, we have been asked to share in the geneticist's competence as well as in responsibility for the always uncertain consequences of scientific research. The reason genetics is now thought to require the critical attention of all of us is best summarized in the following terms by one exemplary popularist account Genetics, perhaps more than any other branch of science except brain biology, probes deeply into the identity of individual human beings (Suzuki and Knudtson 1989 180). Any such account of modern genetics will describe how a cell's genetic content determines its metabolic processes and physical appearance. We are thus given some insight into how and why geneticists think that genes are ultimately responsible for a body's functioning and appearance and, ultimately therefore, its identity and difference.

TABLE 2811 Mental Status in the Emergency Department An Outline

Important components of the mental status examination include level of consciousness, spontaneous speech, behavioral observation, physical appearance, the relaying of history information, attention, and language comprehension. This information is usually easily obtained during history taking. The more traditional mental status examination relies on specific assessment of orientation, memory, intellect, judgment, and affect.

Gender and Religion

Ritual practices, although these are not prohibited for them. Women have their own access to magic and ritual spheres, for example, in the yipimou ritual. Older charismatic women generally act first in the contexts of some illnesses, such as loss of soul during their maneuvers to recover the vital principle, they cooperate with the shamans and thus contribute to healing.

Behavioral Observations

Physical appearance is inspected, including symmetry of anatomical features, facial expression, manner of dress, and attention to personal hygiene. The patient is asked specific questions regarding unusual sensory or motor symptoms. Affect and mood are assessed with respect to range and modulation of felt and expressed

Types of Religious Leaders

Another elite group found in many religious traditions consists of charismatic leaders who often claim to have been chosen by the spirits for their vocation. Such leaders can have great authority among rank and file members of a religious community, and, because they owe their authority to unseen spiritual forces rather than to routine processes of education and licensing, they are difficult to control. But many religions expect leaders directly inspired by the spirits to be part of the mix of religious authorities and have an honored place for them. Such leaders can be avenues by which innovation comes into a tradition, or they may argue that a more traditional practice would be more pleasing to the spirits. They also may cause the development of new denominations or religions.

Klinefelter Syndrome

Physical manifestations of KS result in impairment of normal genital and sexual development. Although persons with KS enter puberty at the typical age, inadequate testosterone levels prevent normal pub-ertal progress. Hypogonadism is present with a slowed development of or lack of secondary sexual characteristics. In addition, KS leads to smaller than normal testes that often contribute to infertility. Cognitive abilities range from mild mental retardation to above-average intelligence. In general, persons with KS have deficits in verbal abilities, whereas nonverbal abilities are typically in the average range. Behaviorally, individuals with KS may be reserved, withdrawn, and immature, and they are at risk for having poor peer relationships. Self-esteem problems also have been described. In contrast, they also have been described as being easygoing, underactive, compliant, and, consequently, well liked by teachers.

Common Direction Common Fate Good Continuation

In broad terms, communication refers to the transmission of something from one location to another where the thing that is transmitted may be a message, a signal, a meaning, and so on, where both the transmitter and the receiver must share a common code so that the meaning of the information contained in the message may be interpreted without error (cf., interpreter effect - refers to the misunderstanding that may occur between people due to each of them employing a different definition of terms discussed in a research context, this effect may be viewed as a potential experimenter bias effect that results from a misunderstanding of the language used between participant and experimenter and which may, ultimately, lead to invalid conclusions regarding the research findings in question in an interview context, the interview contrast effect refers to the tendency for an interviewer's judgment of the person being interviewed to be influenced by a previous interview of...

Legislative Acceptability Of Microbial Polysaccharides

The definition of EPS, for legislative purposes and for patents, is not particularly satisfactory. They are generally identified by the molar ratio or the composition of their carbohydrate and noncarbohydrate components. More detailed information on structure may be provided, together with properties such as optical rotation, viscosity, physical appearance and ash content. Xanthan is currently described in the National Formulary as .a high molecular weight polysaccharide gum produced by a pure culture fermentation of a carbohydrate with X. campestris, then purified by recovery with isopropyl alcohol, dried, and milled. It contains D-glucose and D-mannose as the dominant hexose units, along with D-glucuronic acid, and is prepared as the sodium, potassium or calcium salt. It yields not less than 4.2 and not more than 5 carbon dioxide, calculated on the dried basis, corresponding to not less than 91 and not more than 108 xanthan gum. When employed as a food additive, xanthan must conform...

Deutschs Structural Model

Theories of development maintain that psychological development is discontinuous, with plateaus (periods of relative stability) separated by periods of rapid change. Psychoanalytic theories of development hypothesize that early childhood is the critical period in development where major personality orientations emerge and continue into childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. An individual's sense of self, and one's self-concept and identity as a female or male, is formed in important ways during early childhood (as indicated in psychoanalytic theories, as well as in various theories of ego development). Two of the most prominent psychoanalytic theories of development are Sigmund Freud's theory of psy-chosexual development, which describes the oral, anal, phallic oedipal, and genital stages of development, and Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, which describes the crises of early childhood (such as trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame or doubt, industry versus...

Hormonal Theory Of Hunger

Sive conflict) and aggression (it was security-protection, not an inborn trait). Horney also criticized the Freudian notions of the id, ego, superego, anxiety, masochism, and repetition compulsion. The primary concepts in Hor-ney's personality theory are basic anxiety and idealized image, which are pervasive learned characteristics of the child that result from feeling isolated and helpless in a hostile environment. A powerful drive for parental security and safety arises in the child out of the feeling of basic anxiety the idealized image is a fictitious, self-deceiving creation of the individual that expresses discontent with one's real self. Horney presented a list of ten neurotic (irrational) needs that are acquired as a consequence of trying to find solutions to disturbed human relationship problems. These are neurotic needs for approval and affection, a partner who will take over one's life, restriction of one's life within narrow borders, power, exploitation of others,...

Protestant Perspectives

This is not to suggest that the members of these denominations are in strong agreement with the official position, and in fact there is some reason to believe that support for these positions is eroding. In addition, the character of Protestantism has been changing in the United States, with the rapid growth of evangelical, independent, and charismatic churches that often criticize traditional denominations for being too accommodating to secular culture on matters such as abortion. As a result, even those who fully support the right of women to choose an abortion as a matter of public policy are recognizing that at the same time, they must acknowledge the moral value of what is lost. Furthermore, some African-American Christians are suspicious of abortion for the additional reason that it appears to them to be a way to limit their numbers.

Dryopteris erythrosora Autumn fern

Culture and comments This is THE species that inspired my interest in cultivation, propagation, and immersion in the wonderful world of ferns. (That was close to 40 years ago when, amazingly by today's market standards, it was unavailable commercially.) My admiration endures and I still hold it in my highest esteem for its universal adaptability and brilliant contribution to the garden's panorama. It is a top-10 recommendation for beginners and experts alike. once established, the plant is drought tolerant. The evergreen winter

Cross Cultural Perspectives on Shamans

Shamans are found among hunter-gatherers and societies with limited agriculture or pastoral subsistence patterns and political integration limited to the local community. Shamans provide healing, divination, and charismatic leadership. Shamans are also capable of malevolent acts, or sorcery. Characteristics of shamans include training and professional practice based upon the use of ASC a soul flight ASC and soul recovery their transformation into animals and control of animal spirits death and rebirth experiences and the provision of hunting magic and assistance in food procurement. Predominant shamanic illnesses result from soul loss, attacks by spirits and sorcerers, and the intrusion of foreign objects and entities into the body. Shamanic world views include a multileveled universe including upper and lower worlds connected by an axis mundi, often a sacred tree through which the shaman travels between worlds. The shamanic ritual was the most significant social event in these...

Differences and Similarities between Female and Male Managers

Rosener argues that femininity is particularly needed in today's work life and claims, along the same lines as Powell (1993) and Gardiner and Tiggemann (1999), that there are profound differences between male and female leaders female leaders concentrate on the relationships between people, whereas men tend to concentrate on the issues or tasks. Women use more personal power, that is, power based on charisma and personal contacts, whereas men tend to use structural power, that is, power based on the organizational hierarchy and position (Eagly & Johnson, 1990). Lundberg & Frankenhaeuser (1999), in turn, argue that there is no difference between men and women in interpersonal style of leadership, but that men are more task oriented than women.

Informal Behaviorist Theory

Integration (IIT), which is an attempt to develop a cognitive theory of everyday life and language, to serve as the basis for a scientific theory of social psychology, and to provide a unified theory (cf., Newell, 1990 1994) and general approach to social and developmental psychology. Thus, IIT covers many substantive areas in psychology ranging from psy-chophysics, perceptual illusions, psychological measurement, memory, social stereotypes, interpersonal attraction (cf., reinforcement theory), person cognition, language processing, and judgment decision-making (cf., sequential decision theory - decisions made in sequences or separate steps, usually at each step of a procedure, to determine the acceptability of the data). The essential notion in IIT is that thought and action typically arise from multiple causes that occur together. In one case, IIT conceptualizes group decision-making and bargaining in terms of a theorem concerning social averaging that provides exact predictions...

Why do Anthropologists Study Human Growth1

The word race is set in inverted commas here because it refers to the scientifically discredited notion that human beings can be organized into biologically distinct groups based on phenotypes (the physical appearance and behavior of a person). According to this fallacious idea, northern European races were tall and had relatively long and narrow heads, while southern European races were shorter and had relatively round skulls. Boas found that, generally, the children of Italian and Jewish European migrants to the United States were Boas used the changes in body size and shape to argue that environment and culture are more important than genes in determining the physical appearance of people. In terms of environment, life in the United States afforded better nutrition, both in terms of the quantity and the variety of food. There were also greater opportunities for education and wage-paying labor. These nutritional and socioeconomic gains are now known to correlate with larger body...

Cbt For Obesity The Future

Does the CBT model of obesity require reformulation Cooper and Fairburn (2002) have agued for the need to reformulate the theory, aims, and procedures used in CBT for obesity. These authors maintain that the problem of poor long-term outcome following CBT for obesity may be attributed to two factors (a) inattention to the cognitive factors that contribute to weight regain and (b) ambiguity over treatment goals in long-term interventions. They note that long-term failure may be directly related to unrealistic expectations about weight loss and its benefits. Indeed, while CBT commonly produces body weight reductions of 8-10 , obese persons typically enter treatment expecting weight losses of 25-32 (Foster, Wadden, Vogt, & Brewer, 1997). Furthermore, Cooper and Fairburn observe that obese persons also have personal goals that they hope weight loss will produce for them, such as dramatically improving physical appearance, enhancing social acceptability, and increasing self-confidence...

Cyrtomium caryotideum

Var. intermedium, a Japanese endemic, presents a low rosette of striking, lime-green pinnae with prominent veins and blackish midribs. Six to ten pairs of 1-in. (2.5-cm) wide, broad-based pinnae are slightly auricled. Site it in the dark depths of the woodlands where it is guaranteed to attract attention and admiration as a relaxing visual for the gardener. Both varieties come true from spores.

Exafference Principle Of

Thibaut and Kelley also invoke the concept of reflexive control, which refers to the extent that an individual can unilaterally affect her or his own outcomes in a relationship via chosen behaviors. Through analyzing the particular aspects of power in a given encounter, Thibaut and Kelley were able to predict the likely course of social interaction. They also analyzed persons' attractions to relationships based on how the outcomes received in a relationship compare to the individual's comparison level (i.e., a standard for evaluating the goodness of outcomes from a relationship based on a central tendency of the distribution of all outcomes from previous salient relationships). Although Thibaut and Kelley's analyses are concerned primarily with dyadic relationships, their same principles have been applied to larger groups in studying topics such as coalition formation, status, and role differentiation in groups. Some theoretical approaches to social...

Mental Laws Of Association

Partly explains the mere exposure effect), and the role of human choice in the exposure-familiarity association, especially as regards the class of stimuli consisting of first names. See also INFORMATION AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY IMPRESSION FORMATION, THEORIES OF INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION THEORIES ZAJONC'S AROUSAL AND CONFLUENCE THEORIES. REFERENCES

Possession Religions as Worship and Tradition

Pentecostal and Charismatic churches have a long and variable history in this country. Here the faithful experience possession by the Holy Spirit, speak in tongues (glossolalia), and manifest other Gifts of the Spirit. They are associated with healing only to a limited extent. They have widespread appeal as well in Latin America and Africa, where they may be in competition with established Possession Trance religions.


These species have a strong preference for a challenging life in the limestone mortar of walls and a corresponding distinct disdain for luxury living in a traditional (even customized) garden situation. Spore sowings are usually quite promptly productive. Cultural problems do develop, however, usually in adolescence. The sporelings are difficult to cultivate and transitioning them from the propagation bed to the garden is very challenging indeed. For best results tend the plants in a scree of basic rubble or shoehorn them in between rocks and secure with moss on a vertical wall. Good drainage is mandatory, and watering should be kept to a minimum. Are they worth the effort A good display (or even a living plant) can make for a proud gardener and bring forth the admiration of the cognoscenti.

Cancer Inheritance

The physical appearance or phenotype of an organism, whether plant, animal or human, is determined by its genetic composition or genotype. The mechanism of inheritance was explored by Gregor Mendel who, from observations on the propagation of peas in a monastery garden, is credited with suggesting that the qualities of the parent were transmitted to offspring in 'units' - now known to be genes, and not, as was then believed, 'blended' together. Genes were defined as being 'dominant' or 'recessive'. A 'dominant' gene exerts a specific phenotypic effect but there may be < 50 chance of inheritance depending on the degree of

Case Example

The fact that she became depressed because she was not responded to as a superstar reflects ongoing narcissistic issues. From a self psychology standpoint, it is apparent that T. needs a great deal of validation and admiration from others or her self-esteem collapses into depression. The object-relations piece might be that she has an internal model of herself needing to be perfect or she will be rejected as bad by others. The interventions that would follow from formulating this aspect of the case in this manner might be to empathize with how difficult it must have been for her to get the reaction she did, and to try to help her reflect on her tendency to condemn herself for not being perfect, ending up becoming depressed.

Ethical Dilemmas

Because dentists rarely make life-or-death decisions, some people are unaware that the professional obligations of dentists require careful study. Important human values are at stake in dental care relieving and preventing intense pain as well as less intense pain and discomfort preserving and restoring patients' oral function, on which both nutrition and speech depend preserving and restoring patients' physical appearance and preserving and restoring patients' control over their bodies. These matters are important, and as a result dentists who are committed to responding to them in accordance with ethical standards often face complex questions.

Expert testimony

The difference between a fact and an opinion is the degree of concreteness of the description, or the difference in the nearness or remoteness of inference (McCormick, p. 26). The courts and the public receive expert testimony with both admiration and suspicion. There is appreciation for the clarity provided, but fear that experts may control the legal outcome. This fear may be accentuated in a democratic society that mistrusts those with special knowledge. In 1986, the American Medical Association (AMA) took the position that as a citizen and as a professional with special training and experience, the physician has an ethical obligation to assist in the administration of justice (Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the AMA, p. 138). The participation of the medical expert may be justified on the basis that a meaningful concept of justice requires empirical data on the function of the human organism in health and disease data that the medical expert can provide (Ciccone and...

Patient Factors

Therapeutic narcissism takes many forms. Some practitioners pride themselves in their loyalty and dedication to their patients, because they consider how poorly their patients may do in their absence. They overestimate their importance in their patients' lives, and assume that the patients may not be able to survive without their help. Other variants are that therapists believe they are smarter than they are, or that they are more skilled than they are. Often they believe that charisma is an adequate substitute for skill and that theoretical grounding in any psychotherapy model is unnecessary.

Case Study

Directly trophically mediated (Vander Zanden et al., 2000 Knapp et al., 2001 Beisner et al., 2003 Vander Zanden et al., 2003). Recently, the improved understanding of the impacts of fish introductions on Sierra Nevada lake ecosystems has resulted in increased scrutiny of fish stocking practices. However, in the development of new stocking management strategies, community-level impacts of trout have generally been ignored and all focus has been directed at a single 'charismatic' species, the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) whose distribution and abundance is strongly influenced by introduced fish (Bradford, 1989 Knapp and Matthews, 2000 Knapp et al., 2001 Vredenburg, 2004). As a consequence of strong predation by trout on R. muscosa tadpoles and adults, this species is now extirpated from 50 -80 of its historic localities (Bradford et al., 1994 Drost and Fellers, 1996 Jennings, 1996). Consequently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently determined that the listing of R....

Case Illustrations

The interviewer, however, did not retreat from his paranoid position, remarking that he was older than the patient and had perhaps seen more of the world's injustice. The patient, in turn, did not retreat from his almost anti-paranoid position, speaking of his continuing surprise at injustice and his strong expectations that the world should he a better place. (Naivete has often been reported among paranoid cases.) The interviewer expressed admiration for the patient's idealism and also expressed the interviewer's own hopes that such idealism should someday be implemented. They seem to he approaching a position in which they could agree to mildly disagree. Essentially, the interviewer was warning the patient that disappointments in his ideals might throw him into an alienating paranoia. The patient was warning the interviewer that his greater experience might render him disillusioned and cynical. She had given herself away, also to a charismatic mother who was the cynosure of all...


In mid-December 1994 we approached Dr Wells and met to discuss our problem. He clarified our position confirming that we had a professional duty to report our concerns to the General Medical Council. In the following three months from December 1994 to February 1995 we discovered further evidence in the medical records of patients, including forged consent forms and appointment diaries clarifying how electrocardiographs (ECGs) were to be produced with fictitious dates. Up to three electrocardiograms were recorded from a patient consecutively. The date recorded by the machine on the tracing was changed between each ECG so that it appeared as if the traces had been recorded on different dates and times over a three-month period. Our practice nurse had been asked to do this on a regular basis by Dr Fairhurst. He could thus complete trial data quickly with the minimum of effort. It is a testimony to his charm and charisma that our nurse had been complying for some time with these requests....


As with scientists' deciding what to do about biotechnology (i.e., should there be human cloning ), lawyers cannot claim to resolve the future of the common law as though it were a technical matter they are both matters of philosophy, politics, and even theology. There is a technical component, but it is much more limited and much less contained than lawyers or scientists would have us believe - and even technical matters are much less technical than lawyers or scientists claim.35 In both science and law, the central issue becomes a political one. Having the power to impact and manipulate the broader physical environment and social landscape, the agenda of study and research must explicitly include questions such as, What do we want to accomplish and What are we willing to do or give up to achieve that goal In addressing those questions, be it in law or science, viewpoint will matter -Who are we asking How do we decide who to ask What criteria are they to use How do we decide between...


Trichomanes reniforme (kidney-shaped) is one of Mother Nature's gifts of elegance to New Zealand where it is an endemic filmy fern and as such only one cell thick. But what a filmy fern it is. The long-creeping rhizomes produce brilliant green, round to kidney-shaped, 3-in. (7.5-cm), translucent garlands of fronds. Sori held in distinctive tubular indusia stand shoulder to shoulder trimming the pinnae margins. Often in the company of native orchids, the species forms thick curtains on trees and floors of damp forests, and carpets rocks throughout the country. It seems tolerant of most every habitat except, regrettably, those of cultivated gardens. It is a must see for fern lovers traveling to New Zealand. Attempts at cultivation are attended with hopeful expectations, but, as with most filmy ferns, usually result in short-lived displays of struggling and straggling bits and pieces of the desired fern. Give it instead the attention of your camera along with your respectful admiration.

Clinical Features

Down syndrome is associated with a characteristic physical appearance, mental retardation, and specific birth defects or health conditions. The facial features, in addition to low muscle tone (called hypotonia), are often the first signs that alert a physician to a potential diagnosis of Down syndrome. These features include an up-slant of the outer corners of the eyes, small skin folds over the inner corners of the eyes, a small nose with a flat nasal bridge, a flat profile, and a large, grooved tongue that often protrudes from

Ambivalent Surrender

The lover's attempts at pursuing or preserving his autonomy may be sparse, laconic, symbolic, and indirect. One very intelligent and accomplished woman, passionately in love with a world-famous academician and theoretician, was unable to force herself to read his work. She feared she would be overcome by the sheer force of his intellectual prowess and would experience her own gifts as inferior therefore she shielded herself from any firsthand knowledge of his genius. Even so, she knew her self-esteem was dependent on his admiration and love. She basked in his glory, but was simultaneously fearful of being overwhelmed by him. She remained poised between the impulse to surrender and the impulse to flee.

The Power Of Charisma

The Power Of Charisma

You knowthere's something about you I like. I can't put my finger on it and it's not just the fact that you will download this ebook but there's something about you that makes you attractive.

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