Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! Continue reading...

Bump To Birth Overview


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Samburu Woman Giving Birth

The Samburu are sexually permissive toward young people. It is expected that girls and Imurran will be sexually active, and a mother will sometimes formally sanction a relationship between her daughter and an Imurran, who will give the girl a large gift of beads (Spencer, 1965 Straight, 2002). Lmurran and their beaded girlfriends are from the same exogomous clan, and thus cannot later marry. Lmurran and girls avoid pregnancy through the withdrawal method, as it is considered an abomination for an uninitiated girl to give birth. However, should a girl become pregnant, the women in her family will usually assist her in aborting, or else initiate her quickly. These days it is a common precaution to initiate girls early if they are attending boarding school.

An Anthropology of Western Childbirth

The anthropology of Western childbirth has represented a core element in studies of birthing systems from Jordan's comparative research through the 1990s. A consistent theme in this body of research emphasizes that the dominant cultural definition of birth in the United States is a medical one, in which pregnancy is viewed as a pathological state, requiring specialist attention and hospital delivery. Accordingly, the medicalization of childbirth, characterized by use of technological interventions during birth, such as episiotomy (a surgical incision of the vagina to widen the birth outlet), intravenous medication, and the lithotomy (suppine) position for delivery, have become standard procedures (Davis-Floyd, 1992 Jordan, 1978 Romalis, 1981). This widespread use of technology has led Davis-Floyd to suggest the term technocratic birth, in her classic study of birth as an American rite of passage. Technocratic birth predominates in the United States, where 98 of women give birth in...

Contextualizing Birthing Systems Global and Local Perspectives

Among the principal studies of local birthing systems from the decade of the 1980s are those by Sargent, Laderman, and MacCormack. These studies are characterized by ethnographic detail as well as careful articulation of childbirth as an event with broader sociocultural issues such as gender ideology, domestic power relations, professional specialization, and the components of In one case, for example, Ganigi, a woman experiencing her tenth pregnancy, confronted complications during labor that challenged local healers. Ganigi initially adhered to the Bariba ideal of delivering alone but called her mother when she delivered the umbilical cord prior to the birth of the baby. Her labor then stopped. This unusual circumstance led the family to call a respected local midwife, known for her spiritual powers. The midwife diagnosed the protrusion as a woman's affliction known as tigpiru, and offered a herbal remedy. When that failed to accelerate labor, a second midwife and the anthropologist...

Neither Masculine nor Feminine

In all the ethnographic instances cited by Williams (1992), a young, usually preadolescent, boy would set out on a vision quest, seeking a relationship with a spirit being who would then help him determine and strive for his future life. Once he had the vision, he would return to his group and someone skilled in such matters would interpret his vision for him. For some, their vision was interpreted as indicating the two-spirit status. In the traditional world of late 19th century Plains life, they would then wear women's clothes and engage in the daily activities of ordinary women. But they also had unique roles in instances of weddings, childbirth, child naming, and warfare.

Calendar Of Operations

In Texas, Angora does are bred in October to kid in March. Two to three weeks before and after males are introduced (one male to 20 25 does), does may be supplemented nutritionally to enhance ovulation rates. Throughout winter, range and forage conditions are evaluated in conjunction with the body condition of does so that a timely decision on required supplementation can be made. Also, internal parasites are monitored so the goats can be treated with anthelmintics after first frost, when fecal egg counts indicate treatment is warranted. Does are sheared just before kidding, a practice that seems to encourage them to seek out a sheltered place in which to give birth. In range flocks, kids typically remain with their dams until weaning in August, when the kids are sheared for the first time. Replacement selections are made from the 18-month-old does and males at this time, and older animals are inspected for possible culling. A few weeks after shearing, all animals may be treated for...

Husbandry And The Anticruelty Ethic

Food and water during famine and drought, and giving them medical attention and help in birthing. The animals in turn provided us with their products (e.g., wool and milk), their labor, and sometimes their lives, but while they lived, their quality of life was good. Proper husbandry was sanctioned by the most powerful incentive there is self-interest The producer did well if and only if the animals did well. Husbandry was thus about putting square pegs in square holes, round pegs in round holes, and creating as little friction as possible doing so. Had a traditional agriculturalist attempted to raise 100,000 chickens in one building, they would all have succumbed to disease within a month.

Physical Sex Differences Gross Physical Differences

Many human male-female physical differences are immediately obvious compared with women, men on average have more upper-body strength and muscular development, larger jaws, and heavier brow ridges. Women have breasts and hips. Less obvious in some cultures, men have penises and testes, and women have clitora, labia, and vaginas. Many of these differences have obvious selective relevance and reflect our evolutionary history. Women's wider hips (as well as hormonal shifts in childbirth) facilitate giving birth permanently enlarged breasts appear to have evolved in the context of sexual selection (Low, 2000 Low, Alexander, & Noonan, 1987 Mealey, 2000). Men's heavier facial features, versus women's more neotenic faces, appear to relate to sexual selection and mate choice (review in Buss, 1999).

Hormonal Relationships in the Development of Human Cancer

That estrogens are carcinogenic in the human, either by direct or indirect mechanisms, was first exemplified by the report of the development of primary vaginal adenocarcinoma in young women whose mothers had taken diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the first trimester of the relevant pregnancy (Herbst and Scully, 1970). A registry for such exposed women was developed, and in 1987 Melnick and associates (1987) reviewed 519 cases of clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix in which the majority of the patients' mothers had received DES or a related hormone during pregnancy. The risk that such a neoplasm will develop in an exposed female from birth through age 34 was found to be approximately 1 in 1000. On the other hand, the incidence of a nonneoplastic condition resulting from the retention of embryonic glands in the vagina and cervix, termed vaginal adenosis, was much higher, approaching 70 of females exposed to DES in utero (Johnson et al., 1979). As further support for the...

Breast Cancer and Its Treatment

Breast cancer is the leading type of new cancer among women. The ACS estimated that 211,300 new cases of invasive breast cancer would occur among women and 1300 among men in the United States in 2003 (ACS 2004). New cases of breast cancer represented one third of 658,800 cases for all cancers in women, greater than the 12 of new cases of lung cancer among women. The incidence of breast cancer among white women increased at about 4.5 in the 1980s but has risen more slowly in the 1990s. The cumulative probability of developing breast cancer increases as a function of age. Lifetime chances for women from birth to age 39 are 1 in 228 for those aged 40 to 59, they rise to 1 in 24, and they increase to 1 in 4 for those aged 60 to 79. All women, from birth to death, have a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer (ACS 2004).

Butter And Butter Products

By the middle of the nineteenth century attention was given to improvement in methods of creaming. These efforts gave birth to the deep-setting system. Up to that time, creaming was done by a method called shallow pan. The deep-setting system shortened the time for creaming and produced a better-quality cream. An inventive Bavarian brewer in 1864 conceived the idea of adapting the principle of the laboratory centrifuge. In 1877 a German engineer succeeded in designing a machine that, although primitive, was usable as a batch-type apparatus. In 1879 engineers in Sweden, Denmark, and Germany succeeded in the construction of cream separators for fully continuous operation (1).

Body Composition Applications During Growth

Sex differences in FFM have been reported from birth throughout childhood with females having smaller amounts than males. Total body bone mineral content is less in Tanner 1 females compared to males in African-Americans, Asians, and Caucasians. The mechanism for this sex difference in unclear. Gonadal steroids are significant mediators of adult sexual dimorphism of body composition, including fat-free soft tissues. Prepubertal females have higher concentrations of circulating estradiol than prepubertal males, and gonadotropin and gona-dal steroids increase gradually in both males and females from the age of 5 years. Thus, prepuberty is a period with sex differences in circulating concentrations of sex steroids and of changes in these concentrations with advancing age. The earlier skeletal maturation of females, for example, has been attributed to the greater estradiol level in females compared to males. However, non-hormonal (possibly genetic) mechanisms may also play a role.

Positive and Negative Eugenics

Galton identified positive and negative eugenics as the two basic methods to improve humanity. Positive eugenics used education, tax incentives, and childbirth stipends to encourage procreation among fit people. Education would convince fit parents to have more children, out of a desire to increase the common good. Lower taxes on larger families and the provision of a small birth payment for each eugenic child would provide further inducements. Conversely, eugenically educated but unfit people would selflessly forgo procreation, to prevent the propagation of their hereditary taint. Believing that neither altruism nor self-interest would be enough to control the unfit, however, many eugenicists also advocated negative eugenics.

Behavior of Mothers of Altricial Offspring

These species are often predators and frequently solitary, or they live in family groups (e.g., rodents, dogs, cats). Altricial offspring are generally born in large litters, and individuals are small relative to maternal bodyweight. Maternal investment in each individual is, therefore, relatively low, and the survival of some of the litter takes precedence over the survival of all offspring. Mothers of altricial offspring construct a den or nest in which to give birth and maintain the litter for the initial period of

Behavior of Mothers of Precocial Offspring

Within this class of maternal behavior there are two main maternal strategies, termed hiders and followers. 1 Follower species (e.g., horse, sheep) are accompanied by their offspring from birth, are seldom more than a few meters from their young, and show frequent sucking bouts. Both partners show intense distress on separation. Hider species (e.g., cattle, deer), following birth and initial licking of the young, leave the young concealed and the mother rejoins the social group. Mothers return to their young to suckle on a few occasions during the day and maintain large spatial distances from their offspring. The young animals eventually join the social group with their mothers but still maintain large mother young distances,

Control And Regulation Of Maternal Behavior

Particularly by the substantial changes in the relative concentrations of these hormones that precedes birth. This priming functions to prepare the maternal brain by increasing oxytocin receptors in key brain regions. At birth, neural impulses travel up through the spinal cord when the birth canal stretches by the passage of the foetus (the Ferguson Reflex) and these impulses stimulate the release of oxytocin in the brain and into the periphery (Fig. 3). This acts as a trigger for the expression of the suite of maternal behaviors. 2 For example, in the sheep it causes maternal licking of the newborn lamb and many low-pitched bleats or ''rumbles'' (a specific vocalization made by ewes to their lambs). Other chemicals (e.g., opioids, glucocorticoids) act as modulators of maternal behavior expression. In many species, females that are maternal for the first time (primiparas) often show poorer expression of maternal behavior, and mortality of offspring of these mothers is higher than with...

Infanticide and Neglect

There are also more traditional causes for unbalanced sex ratios female-selective infanticide and fatal neglect, as Miller (1987) has reported for rural North India (for an evolutionary view of these customs see Ball & Panter-Brick, 2001 Hausfater & Hrdy, 1984 Hrdy, 1996 Lipson, 2001). An ethnographic example of pervasive female infanticide is provided by the Yanomamo of South America (Chagnon, 1977). A traditional society, noted for its hostile devaluation of women and its stress on warfare, the Yanomamo created a shortage of women (which in turn caused much armed hostility) largely through the practice of female infanticide. Since giving birth to a daughter was viewed as a wifely misdeed, for which the disappointed husband might inflict a severe beating, mothers of female neonates frequently opted for infanticide.

The Range of Androgen Insensitivity Syndromes

AIS occurs in a range of forms, from complete to mild. Most mutations to the testosterone-binding region, and some other types of mutations, cause complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In this form of the syndrome, the XY person is born phenotypically female, and from birth is raised as a girl. Gender identification (the internal sense of being male or female) is female. Sexual orientation is typically heterosexual, and so most CAIS individuals are attracted to males. At puberty, estrogen production by the adrenal glands causes breasts to develop. However, no pubic or armpit hair develops, since in males and females this is controlled by testosterone, and no menstruation occurs. It is at this point that the condition is usually diagnosed. Once discovered, the testes are usually surgically removed to prevent the possibility of testicular cancer, which is more common in people with CAIS. The woman is infertile, but may be able to enjoy sexual relations if the vagina is long...

Speculating on How Endometriosis Develops The Most Common Theories

Retrograde Menstruation

I Uterine anomalies These anomalies can be malformations of the shape of the uterus and can also contribute to endometriosis. Approximately 2 to 4 percent of all women have some sort of uterine anomaly. Uterine anomalies that are congenital (present from birth) often arise from problems with the Mullerian ducts. (Check out the next section.)

Rural Sudanese Women Janice Boddy

The practice of female circumcision is often popularly understood in Western contexts as simply intended to enforce female sexual restraint resulting from Islamic beliefs. Indeed, many scholars have analyzed the practice of female circumcision, arguing that the operation is intended to curb female sexual desire (Boddy, 1989, p. 53). In an important analysis of the issue based on fieldwork in rural Sudan (1976-1977, 1983-1984), Boddy argues that understanding female circumcision as an attempt at controlling female sexuality represents a primarily male perspective and confuses causes with effects (Boddy, 1989, p. 53). While the procedure does effectively restrain women's sexuality, women assert that its intent is to prepare girls for womanhood by making them clean and pure. Further, women emphasize through circumcision their fertility potential over their sexuality. By removing parts of their genitalia, women demonstrate that their value stems from their ability to give birth rather...

Flow Cytometric Informatics

The first accepted FCS format was published in 1984 (Murphy and Chused 1984). It was then revised in 1990 by the Data File Standards Committee of the Society for Analytical Cytology (now the International Society for Analytical Cytology, or ISAC) to give birth to the FCS 2.0 version (Anonymous 1990). In 1997, this version was further revised to handle data files > 100 MB and to support UNICODE text for keyword values (Seamer et al. 1997).

Ancient Greece and Rome

It was with the Greeks that conjectures on the origins of different homosexual activities became common. The Cretan customs of segregating boys and encouraging homosexual relations between boys and men were attributed by Aristotle to a desire to hold down the birth rate. Plutarch suggested that Theban pederasty resulted from a conscious policy of channeling the natural ferocity of adolescent males to socially useful purposes (Murray, 2000). Xenophon contrasted the transitory couplings between men and boys of Elis with the more permanent pairings common in Thebes. Whereas in Thebes, Sparta, and Crete physical relations between a mature mentor (erastes) and a beardless youth (eromenos) were encouraged, Plato argued that in Athens the relationship ideally avoided physical sex at least until one's partner had proved his worth (Murray, 2000, p. 105).

Unilocality and Unilineality

Frayser (1985, pp. 341 ff) points out that patrilineal societies have some difficulty with women's reproduction. They need to have reproduction for their kin groups, but elevating the status of mothers is somewhat antithetical to the patrilineal principle. On the other hand, if patrilineal societies denigrate women too much, they risk having women who are not interested in having children. Patrilineal systems depend upon passing membership in kin groups through males, so it is also important for a man to know that the children his wife gives birth to are his. Frayser suggests and presents evidence to support the notion that patrilineal societies are more interested in limiting a woman's sexuality and reproduction to a particular husband by insisting on premarital and extramarital sex restrictions and by making it harder for a woman to obtain a divorce. Restrictive societies also tend to have elaborate marriage arrangements and ceremonies and honeymoons that isolate the couple.

Gender over the Life Cycle

For Abaluyia, life moves from prebirth or birth through various stages to death and ancestorhood. Transitions between stages are not abrupt but take place through processes of gradual maturation and decline. Even in groups that have (or had) circumcision and initiation rites, full maturity did not arrive in the twinkling of a knife cut initiating boys into a warrior phase, but through a process of social advances involving marriage and having children. Many indigenous life cycle rituals for childbirth and naming, tooth removal, circumcision and initiation, marriage, death, and remembrance of ancestors have become attenuated or are no longer practiced, having been replaced by European and Christian practices.

Socialization of Boys and Girls

Abaluyia value sons highly men want sons to insure generational continuity of self and clan, and women want sons to insure support in their old age. However, girls are also valued for their labor and for the wealth (cattle and money) their bridewealth will bring to their family when they marry, which in turn makes it possible for their brothers to pay bridewealth so they can marry. Increasingly, daughters are also being seen as providers of support for elderly parents. Malnutrition, though fairly common, affects girls and boys about equally, seeming to be more the result of poverty and marital conflicts than gender discrimination. Until recently, people wanted a large family with many sons and many daughters. However, in the past decade Kenya's birth rate has dropped drastically (even in Maragoli, long known for its high fertility), suggesting a new ideal of smaller families in a context of some improvement in women's economic empowerment.

Cultural Overview

Extended families were a part of exogamous clans and wives could be taken from different clans within the same village or from clans in other villages. Clans were led by the patriarchs of extended families, and within these families power and responsibilities were divided according to age, gender, and position within the family. Children and new wives (especially those who had not yet given birth to a son) had the lowest status. In some areas in Armenia a girl lost her individuality after marriage, and in some villages these new brides (nor hars) had to remain mute for several years after marriage as a sign of their modesty and respect for their elders. In many families, the young woman was never addressed by her Christian name, but was always referred to as bride (hars). These women could only communicate with their older children and husband if no one else was around. If they wished to convey a message to anyone else in the family, including their mother-in-law, they would tell the...

Baiting See Bear Baiting Beak Trimming See Chickens Bear Baiting

Hunters who use baits claim that the baiting method allows them to distinguish species and sex of bears and helps to avoid shooting female bears with cubs. However, a study done by the Colorado Division of Wildlife found that a number of female bears killed over baits were lactating, indicating that the bears had recently given birth to cubs.

Cultural Construction of Gender

Major aspects of one's inherent nature and innate temper are determined at birth (at age 0 years) by one's sex. Females are considered imperfect from birth, and this inherent imperfection precludes every female attempt to reach certain social and moral standards. It restricts a woman's capacity and ability to be responsible and accountable and has lasting consequences for her access to information (Rao, 1998a). This, in turn, is largely why she is perceived by others (and ideally also by herself) as incompetent to choose and take decisions.

Choice And Definition Of Problems To Be Studied

Using only a particular discipline's established methods may result in approaches that fail to reveal sufficient information about the problem being explored. This may be a difficulty for research surrounding medical problems particularly important to the elderly, women, men of color, and homosexual males. Pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, menopause, lupus, sickle-cell disease, AIDS, and gerontology represent healthcare issues for which the methods of one discipline are clearly inadequate.

Susan P Levine MA CSW

Everyone would agree that giving birth to a child with Down syndrome is a profound and life-changing experience. Although the struggles can be numerous (particularly struggles with schooling, adult services, and medical needs), many families feel that their child with special needs is truly a gift. However, a child with Down syndrome is born not only to parents but also to membership in the entire family. Brothers and sisters are an important part of the life of their sibling. How are they affected by growing up with a child who has Down syndrome in the family Is the experience for siblings as profound as it is for parents Is the overall experience viewed as a gift for them or as a struggle

Life History Strategies

Species in Eutrophic Ecosystems with Varying Food Levels Species with high birth rates will benefit most in conditions of high food availability. Many small eggs are produced, requiring that juveniles grow substantially before reaching maturity. This makes the juvenile stage vulnerable to low food levels. When food becomes depleted, however, large-sized adults are able to survive for a relatively long period of time, since the metabolic losses per unit of mass are lower for large bodied individuals. These large adult individuals are, however, very susceptible to fish predation. Some typical examples are Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia galeata, and Simocephalus vetulus. When high food levels persist (e.g., because large daphnids become excluded by fish predation), smaller species with high birth rates may become dominant. They have an intermediate egg size and require only a short development time. In order to optimise egg reproduction rates, females continue to grow after...

From the roof of the world to the Deccan Traps

We will see, he subsequently deduced that India had drifted for thousands of kilometers since the Cretaceous Period. Runcorn was among the first to realize that the Earth's mantle is the seat of powerful convection currents, of which continental drift is only the surface expression. In the mid-1960s, the systematic exploration of ocean floors would confirm his ideas and give birth to plate tectonics.2

Husband Wife Relationship

Concubinage was accepted, especially if the wife failed to give birth to a son. The wife and the concubine might have lived in the same house in separate quarters. The concubine did not have the status as a wife and was sometimes treated as a servant. A concubine of a wealthy man might have lived in a separate house. Only after she gave birth to a son could a concubine gain some status in the family.

Clinical Description

In symptomatic individuals, certain clinical manifestations are common. In women, menorrhagia is frequently reported and there is an increased risk of bleeding after childbirth. 9 Epistaxis may occur, whereas petechiae and bruising are rather unusual. 9 Bleeding can be excessive and frequently manifests postoperatively, in particular after surgical procedures involving tissues with high fibrinolytic activity such as dental extractions, tonsillec-tomies, prostatectomies, or urinary tract operations. For other surgical interventions such as appendectomies, orthopedic operations, cholecystectomies, or hysterectomies, the risk of severe bleeding is less pronounced. 10 Sometimes the first bleeding episode is observed after circumcision. 9 Bleeding can be immediate, 9 but typically, it is protracted or presents as persistent oozing after surgery. 10

Malloryweiss syndrome

When patients, generally male, present with a history of upper GI bleeding which developed after an episode of vomiting, one must suspect a Mallory-Weiss tear. The process of vomiting can generate significant intragastric pressures and a large gradient between intragastric and intrathoracic pressures. When vomiting occurs, large fluxes in pressure gradients take place and these increases in pressures are transmitted to the gastric wall and mucosa and can result in mucosal lacerations at the gastroesophageal junction and bleeding. Clinical scenarios in which Mallory-Weiss tears are seen include vomiting in the presence of a paraesophageal hernia, pregnancy with hyperemesis gravidarum, blunt abdominal trauma, GI-associated refractory nausea and vomiting, medical-therapy-associated nausea and vomiting, activities which involve straining (childbirth, weight lifting, and bowel movements), and endoscopy. The common denominator in these scenarios involves an acute increase in the...

The Selective Abortion Controversy

The development of tests to prenatally diagnose genetic diseases and disorders has greatly outpaced the development of effective treatments and therapies. The Human Genome Project promises to accelerate the development of prenatal diagnostic tests. Through procedures like chorionic villus sampling (CVS), which can be performed at ten weeks gestation, and amniocentesis, available at fourteen to sixteen weeks, numerous genetic abnormalities in the fetus can be detected in utero. The tests are routinely administered to women at risk for fetal abnormalities, such as older mothers and those with a family history of genetic disorder. Ultrasound, which is routinely performed throughout most pregnancies, can detect a number of abnormalities as well, including neural tube defects that can result in severe physical and cognitive disability and death. In rare instances, fetal therapy, including surgery, can correct the problems, but the overwhelming majority of pregnant women whose fetuses are...

Docosahexaenoic Acid Supply and Conservation

It is of interest how 22 6n-3 is supplied to the developing retina to meet both its requirement and to be conserved in enriched amounts in the membrane. The intestine (Li et al., 1992) and liver (Scott & Bazan, 1989) appear to play an important role. Oral doses of C14 18 3n-3 and C14 22 6n-3 are esterified to triacylglycerols and phospholipids by the intestinal absorptive cells and transported in chylomicrons to the liver (Li et al., 1992). The liver synthesizes 22 6n-3 from 18 3n-3 and can deliver 22 6n-3 to the retina and brain via lipoproteins or albumin (Scott & Bazan, 1989). Phospholipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol esterified with 22 6n-3 are carriers of 22 6n-3 to nervous tissues (Li et al., 1992 Martin et al., 1994 Wang & Anderson, 1993b). Retinal pigment epithelium is actively involved in the preferential uptake of 22 6n-3 from the circulation and subsequently transports this fatty acid to the rod outer segment (Wang & Anderson, 1993a,b). Wang et al. (1992)...

Model of Pair Formation

Denote the density of single females and males by x and y, respectively, suppose that their densities are increasing by constant rates nx and Ky, respectively, due to the aging of younger generations into a sexually active population (we do not consider here dependence of the birth rate on the density of the population) and that these densities decrease due to deaths proportional to the numbers with mortalities j,x and iy, respectively. Denote the density of pairs formed by a female and a male by p. At this point we must decide what we consider a pair-how we define a pair. If we want to use the model for describing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases then the social or religious aspects of pair formation have to be disregarded. We say that a pair is formed when a female and a male have sexual contact with each other the first time and this pair ceases to exist the first time one of the members has sexual contact outside the pair. Denote the divorce rate (considered to be a...

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Maternal care of children is idealized in the notion of feeding whatever else she may do for them, the primary role of a mother is to feed her children. This does not imply that she should spend all her time with them personally or even play a major part in their upbringing. Rather, it is through her economic activity that children are fed and nurtured. This pattern is similar across West Africa, where it has been noted that a woman who stays at home with her children all day instead of leaving them for the workplace is seen as a lazy and even unfit mother (see also Clark, 1994). Fathers are expected to be stern disciplinarians although, as noted above, they may be very affectionate with babies and young children. Both parents take part in training or preparing children for the rigors of the world, which is expected to involve some suffering and hard work. Fostering children out to other households is a common practice and is the primary route to Western education and civilized status...

Other Cross Sex Relationships

The importance of grandparents as caretakers and as providers of inheritance and names has been noted above. One result of this inheritance system, which led to favoritism toward eponymous children, and toward women more generally, has been that brothers and sisters may often come into conflict over the unevenness of property distribution. In former times, brothers were responsible for working for their sisters if their father could not provide a dowry house, and many dowries have provisions in which brothers promise to provide a certain sum of money for the new couple after a specified time. While this could lead to close bonds, it could also lead to cross-sibling resentment as well. In recent times, with equal inheritance becoming more the norm (although many still show favoritism toward daughters), there are increasing possibilities for property disputes. For example, a brother and sister were having a long-running disagreement over their mother's proposed distribution of her...

The Paradox of Rapid Population Growth in Undernourished Populations

In many historical populations with slow population growth, poor couples living together to the end of their reproductive lives had only 6 or 7 living births. Most poor couples in many developing countries today also have 6 or 7 living births during their reproductive life span. This total fertility rate is far below the human maximum of 11 or 12 children observed among well-nourished couples not using contraception, such as the Hutterites. However, 6 children per couple today in developing countries results in a very rapid rate of population growth because of decreased mortality rates due to the introduction of modern public health procedures. The difference between the birth rate per 1000 and the death rate per 1000, which gives the percentage growth rate, is currently as high as 2-4 . Populations growing at 2, 3, and 4 double in 35, 23, and 18 years, respectively.

Nutritional Value of Fish and Shellfish Introductory Remarks

When included in the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, DHA is thought to be beneficial to infant brain (learning ability) and eye (visual acuity) development. Scientists have found that women who ate fatty fish while pregnant gave birth to children with better visual development. Babies of mothers who had significant levels of DHA in their diet while breastfeeding experienced faster-than-normal eyesight development. Preliminary research also suggests that a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids - and in DHA in particular - may help to decrease the chance of preterm birth, thus allowing the baby more time for growth and development.

Findings about Morbidity and Mortality

In the 1980s some African clinician-activists from countries that practice those rites documented and brought to the world's attention the accompanying morbidity and mortality. Those pioneering medical studies include the ones conducted in the Sudan by Asma El Dareer (1982), in Sierra Leone by Olayinka Koso-Thomas (1987), and in Somalia by Raquiya Haji Dualeh Abdalla (1982). The death, infection, and disabilities associated with the rites are well established, challenging local beliefs that the rites promote health and well-being. For example, as Koso-Thomas (p. 10) pointed out, stable medical evidence discredits the belief that death could result if, during delivery, the baby's head touches the clitoris, and Abdalla (p.16) pointed to the disutility of regional practices of putting salt into the vagina after childbirth because this induces the narrowing of the vagina to restore the vagina to its former shape and size and make intercourse more pleasurable for the husbands.

Applicability To Humans

A second point is that the diagnosis of an n-3 fatty acid deficiency state in the tissues, especially the brain and retina, can well be approximated by analysis of plasma and red blood cells. This is particularly true if the deficient state occurs during pregnancy and from birth onwards, as has already been demonstrated (Cocchi et al., 1984). DHA in erythrocytes correlated well with the DHA of the cerebral cortex. A third point is that the brain presumably has the capacity to synthesize DHA from precursor forms such as EPA. The presumption of this statement is based on the fact that high plasma and red blood cell concentrations of EPA are not mirrored by similar concentrations in the brain instead, it is DHA that predominates so greatly. The alternative explanation is that EPA was rapidly metabolized once it enters the brain, but there is no evidence to support this particular point. Finally, normal monkeys fed 18 3n-3 from soy oil have a pronounced fall in DHA concentrations from...

Male Genital Alteration in Judaism

The Jewish ritual of male circumcision is called a berit milah, or a bris. It has two components the cutting and the naming of the baby. The cutting is performed by a mohel, who may also be a physician. On the eighth day of the baby's life, the mohel comes to the home. The berit milah is a social occasion friends and family are invited. Although there are many variations in how the ceremony is performed, the core ritual commonly begins with the lighting of a candle. One or two people have the honor of bringing the baby to the throne of Elijah, a special chair set aside for the male (often the baby's grandfather) who will hold the baby during the cutting. Traditionally, the mother remains in another room. After the ritual cutting, the baby is rediapered and allowed to nurse. The baby is given his Jewish name, and the mohel or rabbi, if one is present, recites blessings for the rapid healing of the baby and the continued recovery from childbirth of the mother. This is followed by a...

Anthropologists in Health and Economic Development

In the 1950s, applied medical anthropologists were engaged in international public health to examine cultural barriers to health promotion and health campaigns and to design health programs that would be deemed culturally appropriate by local populations (the natives). Their role was to interpret community structures and help foreign or foreign-trained health technicians to implement top-down development programs (Farmer & Good, 1991, p. 137). There was, at the time, little critical reflection on the purpose of such programs or on the perceived needs of the populations the programs sought to serve. Studies of traditional healers, including birth attendants, proliferated at this time. Later, the anthropologists who produced such work were criticized as being handmaidens of biomedicine and cheerleaders of the Western medical industrial complex.

Smell And Sexual Arousal

That women have a greater ability to detect potential pheromones is of significance since the propagation of the species is based on their sexual activity, and, hence, birth rates are maximized by women's appropriate response to pheromones. Existence of pheromones is also suggested based on territorial markings. Gustavson et al. placed androstenol and androstenediol underneath bathroom stalls in a men's room and watched where men sat (67). They tended to avoid those stalls with the androstenol, suggesting that it may act not only as a pheromone but also as a repellent or territorial marker for other males.

Effects of growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor 1 deficiency on ageing and longevity

In contrast to growth and development, ageing is a progressive process orchestrated by decreasing synthesis and secretion of numerous factors and hormones among them growth hormone (GH) and its anabolic effector hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Therefore, ageing is often compared with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (Toogood & Shalet 1998). This assumption is based on the evidence that pituitary GH secretion and serum IGF1 concentrations decline with increasing age (Gil-Ad et al 1984, Arvat et al 2000), reaching low levels in late adulthood, and have similarities to changes of body appearance, composition and function (Carroll et al 1998, Toogood & Shalet 1998) (Table 1). These findings led to trials of GH treatment in elderly people (Rudman et al 1990). The finding that GH increased lean body mass, decreased adiposity and improved apparent skin changes gave birth to an

Driving principles applied in the elaboration of strategies

In the mouth, moving of the food between cheeks and tongue, deformation by mechanical stress and dilution with saliva are involved simultaneously. The original structure collapses and gives birth to a number of secondary patches, available for subsequent dilution with saliva. Actually, after a few seconds, the mouth of the taster contains a variety of scattered pieces of emulsions showing different characteristics. One may wonder which phase stands out as the more relevant token of the disintegration whole emulsion or the continuous phase At oil volumic fractions up to 0.2, numerical data reported by Rabe et al. (2004) on viscosity incline to rebut significant restraint in the mixing of the liquid phases. Even dilution with saliva is assumed and the mouthpiece ends in a homogeneous mass. It is acceptable that further speculation on flavour optimisation is based on

Homocysteine And The Child

Wong et al. (80) studied 35 women who had given birth to a child with orofacial clefts and 56 controls. Both fasting and after load, plasma ho-mocysteine values were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (OR 5.3.8 95 , CI 1.1 - 24.2). The median concentrations of serum and red cell folate were significantly higher in mothers of cases compared to the mothers of controls.

Personality Differences by Gender

A second area of difference concerns the guilty feelings that Hungarian gender ideologies and society more generally have produced in women (S. Molnar, 1999). Women are often depicted as the cause of Hungary's negative birth rate. They are also held responsible for any problems their children have in school or elsewhere. The greatest area of concern, both for many women and for society more generally, is the balancing act that women must engage in with regard to work and home. Since women's wages are socially seen as supplementary to men's, regardless of economic reality, if they continue to work and family problems arise they tend to feel that they are to blame (Toth, 1997).

Disorders of Galactose Metabolism Clinical Manifestations

(FSH) and abnormal stimulation testing, no predisposing factor for gonadal dysfunction can be found. Previous recommendations that dietary lactose restriction from birth may be beneficial have in fact not prevented gonadal dysfunction. In the galac-tosemic male, a complete understanding of gonadal dysfunction has not yet been described. The majority but not all of male galactosemic patients had normal pubertal development, and a few individuals have been found to have normal semen. Growth retardation, cognitive impairment, speech impediment, tremor, ataxia, and ovarian failure are frequent complications in spite of a strict galactose-free diet. Elevated galactose phosphate levels may occur in erythrocytes of even well-treated galactosemic patients. This elevation is attributed to endogenous production of the metabolite. A galactose-free diet is recommended from birth. It is recommended to restrict galactose in the diet of pregnant mothers diagnosed perinatally with trans-ferase...

Attainment of Adulthood

Ordeals of initiation allowed men to emulate the fortitude of women during childbirth, and to grow boys into adult males. Although men never attend birth, since they deem it polluting, male initiation is permeated by symbols of parturition and maternal nurture. This way, men effectively supplant the culturally lauded role of motherhood. Cicatrization purges neophytes' bodies of maternal blood, which inhibits the development of a masculine physique. But the resulting scars, which are visible emblems of manhood, are said by men to resemble the breasts and genitals of woman and female crocodile spirits. The rite forges exclusive masculine identity by aggressively exaggerating birth, maternal feeding, and moral mothering. At the same time, male initiation associates the female body with danger, pollution, castration, and somatic atrophy. Initiation thus constructs Iatmul manhood as an identity that opposes yet emulates motherhood.

Middle Age and Old Age

Middle age offers few real changes to men and women. However, old age confers increased respect and prestige. Older men are the custodians of totemic knowledge, myth, kinship, ritual rules, and overall cultural lore. They also tend to supervise major communal labors and ceremonies. Elderly women are also viewed with respect for their lore, magic, knowledge about childbirth and healing, and general cultural erudition. At the same time, elders ponder the inevitability of death and their waning authority as younger adults assume roles of leadership.

Voluminous Perfectibility Brain

The monotonous and uniform nature of the scenarios, most of which are developed from such a perfunctory matrix. On the other hand, even if the matrix is simple, this simplicity makes it possible to generate a certain number of permutations, which explains the diversity of the scenarios. This diversity may be increased if the original scheme is enlarged by complementary relations, which are used less frequently and are therefore left out of the analyses that will follow. For example, in Fig. 1, some of the strings that stop at 'large brain' could be prolonged in the sequence 'large brain large cranium', then 'large cranium premature childbirth', 'premature childbirth prolonged infancy', etc. So we are dealing with an open-ended structure, capable of being expanded.

Preparadigmatic immunology

The realization that the survivors of a plague having once recovered were not going to succumb to it in the future came not from experiment but from observation, as did so much understanding of the world. So, too, must have come the eventual realization that these survivors were not to be spared from other diseases in the future. But the idea of specific immunity to a specific disease was probably not yet understood. Many examples from antiquity through medieval times suggest that people were aware that they could protect themselves from disease. This 'protoimmunology', the nonscientific awareness that there could be protection to a disease, does not however seem to have played an important part in magic or religious ritual in early societies. Perhaps life was so fraught with danger from diseases of all kinds that freedom from one offered only a small respite. Another disease could strike soon women risked dying in childbirth, men in war, and both by famine. The souls represented in a...

Christian Orientations toward Death

Terms of Marcel Mauss's paradigm of the gift and its reciprocation (Parsons, Fox, and Lidz). Seen in this way, the life of the individual is a gift from God, and like other gifts it creates expectations of reciprocation. Living in the faith is part of the reciprocation, but, more important to us, dying in the faith completes the cycle. The language of giving also permeates the transcendental level of symbolism in the Christian context. Thus, Mary, like any other woman, gave birth to Jesus, God also gave his only begotten Son for the redemption of humankind. Finally, Jesus, in the Crucifixion and thus the Eucharist, gave his blood for the same purpose. By the doctrine of reciprocation humankind assumes, it may be said, three principal obligations to accept the human condition as ordained by the Divine Will, to live in the faith, and to die in the faith (with the hope of resurrection). If these conditions are fulfilled, salvation, life eternal with God, will come about.

Threats to Health among the Urban Poor

The population density found most often in closely inhabited urban centers and settlements is a critical condition for epidemics such as the plague, measles, influenza, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and the HIV AIDS pandemic to thrive, spread, and exist at endemic levels (Armelagos, Ryan, & Leatherman, 1990). The devastating spread of HIV AIDS through both urban and rural areas of the world has been further facilitated by factors including migration for employment, and the interconnection between sex work, and high-mobility occupations such as truck driving (e.g., Decosas & Padian, 2002 Voeten, Egesah, Ondiege, Varkevisser, & Habbema, 2002). Large-scale societies with high birth rates permit a rapid production and replacement of disease hosts (Schell, 1996). Because of the dense concentration of people in urban centers, sanitation has been a past problem for now-industrialized countries, and remains a persistent problem for less developed countries. Although all urban dwellers...

The Deccan is not alone

This model of a plume with a dual structure - a voluminous head and far thinner tail - has been generalized by Mark Richards, Bob Duncan, and myself to cover all active hot spots on the globe, or at least those that have not lost their heads under a subduction zone, as Hawaii may have (Fig. 5.4).6 So the hot spot now located under Yellowstone in the USA was born some 16 Ma ago in the form of the great volcanic province of the Columbia River, located only a few hundred kilometers to the west and 30 Ma ago, the Ethiopian Traps marked the arrival at the surface of the hot spot that still remains not far away, in the Afar region, because the African Plate has moved little relative to the mantle. Even longer ago, 57 Ma, the hot spot of Iceland built the enormous volcanic stacks that today form the cliffs of the east coast of Greenland and the entire northwest margin of both the British Isles and the Norwegian continental plateau. In this case the traps were riven shortly afterwards (like...

Dietary Reference Intakes for Infants

For infants, evaluation of evidence to establish the DRIs consistently revealed a paucity of appropriate studies on which to base an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or UL. A Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) could not be calculated if a value for the EAR was not established, in which case the recommended intake was based on an Adequate Intake (AI). The nutrient recommendations for infants from birth through 6 months of age for all nutrients except for energy and vitamin D were set as an AI, a value that represents ''the mean intake of a nutrient calculated based on the average concentration of the nutrient in human milk from 2 to 6 months of lactation using consensus values from several reported studies,'' multiplied by an average volume (0.780 l day) of human milk. The predicted daily volume of breast milk ingested by an infant was based on observational studies that used test weighing of full-term infants. For infants aged 7-12 months, the AI for many nutrients was based on...

Assessment of Growth as an Indication of Adequate Nutrition

Reference data from normal populations of infants that have been complied into growth charts with centiles indicated. The growth charts from the Center for Disease Control in the United States as revised in 2000 growthcharts charts.htm), were adopted for use in the USA and Canada as well as by the World Health Organization (WHO) for use internationally. The growth charts as shown in Figures 1-6 may be downloaded from the CDC website and copied. Weight gain of exclusively breast fed infants is more rapid than formula-fed infants in the first 2 to 3 months but they weigh less from 6 to 12 months. The longitudinal data that form the basis of the growth charts for infants from birth to 36 months growth represent a mix of both breast and formula fed infants from the American population. A Working Group of WHO has undertaken a project to develop growth charts specifically for exclusively or predominantly breast fed infants but these are not yet available.

The birth of hot spots and continental breakup

There often seems to be a direct relation between the birth of a hot spot and the breakup of a continent. When the continental crust thins out and breaks apart to give birth to an ocean above a mantle at normal temperature (around I300 C), a typical oceanic crust forms, basaltic and some 7 km thick. The rocks of the upper mantle are rapidly decompressed, without losing their heat. So they begin to melt.7 This decompression may be quite rapid on the geological time

Choline And Brain Development

Choline availability during embryogenesis and perinatal development are especially important for brain development. There are two sensitive periods in rat brain development during which treatment with choline (about 1 mmol d administered to the mother during a critical period during pregnancy, or 300 mg kg administered subcutaneously 2 wk after after birth) produces long-lasting enhancement of spatial memory that is lifelong (28-36). The first critical period occurs during embryonic d 12-17 (rats give birth on d 21) and the second occurs during postnatal days 16-30. Choline supplementation during these critical periods elicits a major improvement in memory performance at all stages of training on a 12-arm radial maze. The two sensitive periods for memory responsiveness to supplemental cho-line correlate with the formation of cholinergic neurons (neurogenesis prenatal) and with the formation of nerve-nerve connections (synaptogenesis prenatal and postnatal) in the hippocampus and basal...

Statistical Estimates Of Human Risk From Bioassay Data By Using Mathematical Models

The linear multistage model, first proposed by Armitage and Doll (1954), incorporates the idea of multiple steps into a statistical approach for risk analysis. This multistage model (Figure 13.15) incorporates one aspect of the pathogenesis of neoplastic development, that of multiple stages, but cell cycle-dependent processes, the dynamics of cell kinetics, birth rate, and death

Lactase Nonpersistence

In its pure form, lactose cannot be transported across the mucosa of the small intestine. To be absorbed, it must be hydrolyzed by lactase to free glucose and galactose. These two simple sugars are rapidly and completely absorbed in the normal small intestine. The rate of lactase synthesis is high from birth until ages 3-5 years. Between ages 5 and 14 years, many people undergo a genetically programmed reduction in lactase synthesis that results in a lactase activity level only 5-10 of that of infancy. This reduction, known as lactase nonpersis-tence or primary lactase deficiency, is not related to the continued intake of milk or lactose. As noted, less than one-third of the world's adult population is genetically predisposed to maintaining a high degree of lactase activity or lactase persistence throughout adulthood.

Difficulties with the WHO Definitions

Sound and decayed teeth, both painful childbirth and painful urination, and both the beating of the heart and myocardial infarction (another thing the heart is seen to do), yet the second item in each pair is abnormal. The concept of a human organ and its function is inseparable from the concept of what is normal for human beings (an evaluative, teleological concept), and any definition of normality that refers to the functions of organs assumes the concept of the normal in the attempt to define it. (The biologist's concept of the function of an organ need not depend on cultural assumptions, however. It only presupposes the distinction between normal and abnormal.)

Local Global Perspectives

Three decades of ethnographic and theoretical work on birthing systems have produced a substantial and empirically grounded anthropological literature. Case studies from North America, Europe, and societies of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have generated the material for anthropological analyses of multiple ways of knowing about birth. Anthropologists have begun to address not only the encounter between low- and high-technology birth systems, but also the diverse paradigms of maternity and birth held by different categories of women within heterogeneous societies (Browner & Sargent, 1996, p. 232). In addition, a scant but important literature explores the topic of men in relation to childbirth (e.g., Ebin, 1994 Romalis, 1981 Whiteford & Sharinus, 1988). In spite of the global spread of biomedical obstetrics, a substantial body of research illustrates the continued viability of midwifery and low-technology birthing systems. Biomedicine has emerged as the dominant...

Puberty and Adolescence

Men say the reason why women are clitorectomized is that babies would otherwise have difficulty during delivery since the clitoris would protrude and obstruct the birth canal. However, at least one Hadza man also says that, without cutting off the clitoris, a woman will move around too much and make too much noise during sex.

Vascular Disease Malformations and Flow Abnormalities

Cerebral aneurysms have a distinct male predominance (12 1), occurring most frequently in the distal middle cerebral artery distribution or the posterior circulation.109 They also have a higher incidence of large giant aneurysms compared to adults. They are associated with head and birth trauma, infection (mycotic), fibro-muscular dysplasia, moyamoya disease, coarctation of the aorta, subacute bacterial endocarditis, collagen vascular disease, EDS, Marfan syndrome, syphilis, sickle cell anemia, and tuberous sclerosis. Rupture of the aneurysm may occur, resulting in intracranial hemorrhage. The case of a 7-month-old boy with SDH in association with a cluster of six basilar artery aneurysms was reported by Plunkett.110

Supplementation and Weaning

The marketing of milk substitutes has had a profound effect on breast-feeding practices worldwide. Some women believe that canned or powdered milk is better for their infants and that, at the very least, they should supplement their breast-feeding with bottle feeding. As noted above, this often leads to insufficient milk, and women find they cannot continue to nurse even if they want to. In some cases, particularly among urban populations, work in the public sector and breast-feeding are incompatible and infants may be weaned when a woman returns to work following childbirth. This is one of the most frequently cited reasons for terminating breast-feeding in the West.

Birth and Authoritative Knowledge

The American biomedical model of birth has been exported to much of the developing world, and anthropologists have documented the accommodation and resistance of local birthing systems to encounters with imported biomedical obstetrics. Following Jordan's comparative approach, anthropologists have explored variations in the use of obstetric technology in numerous countries, and have documented cross-national variation in the ways birth is managed within European medical systems. The persistence of midwifery in the Netherlands, where mid-wives attend 70 of births, the home birth rate is still 30 , and maternal and child health outcomes exceed those of neighboring countries, has attracted considerable anthropological interest. As Jordan initially documented, the comparison of biomedical systems among industrialized societies effectively illustrates the ways in which obstetrics is culturally influenced and shaped. The anthropological interest in contested power relations surrounding...

Siegfried M Pueschel MD PhD Jd Mph

I shall first elaborate on a comprehensive study that included 114 children with Down syndrome who were followed closely from birth to their third birthday. One of the objectives of this investigation was to study the interrelationships of biological, environmental, and competency variables of these children (Reed and Pueschel, 1980).

Other Types of Pain Relief

Other types of pain relief provide comfort and relieve stress. Many women learn special techniques in a childbirth class to help them feel more comfortable and in control during labor and birth. These include some of the following techniques Sit on a special birthing ball.

Toward an Anthropology of Birth

Subsequent to 1970, increased anthropological interest in birth assistance and midwifery practice moved the field beyond brief ethnographic accounts and surveys to more contextualized analyses of birth. This growing attention to the ways in which pregnancy and delivery are culturally shaped generated an important literature on the management of birth in industrialized societies. From the 1970s, more women anthropologists entered the field. Inspired by the second wave of feminism and with greater access to information about birth practices derived from empirical observations, they began to explore birthing systems as local systems of knowledge and praxis, grounded in broader cultural and social contexts United States. While midwives usually occupy a respected position in society (e.g., in Jamaica, peninsular Malaysia, and much of Africa), exceptions exist in India, for instance, the position of midwife (dai) is allocated to low-caste women, because of the association of birth and...

Gender and Religion

Most of the major gods were male, with Atea (clear space) having created the universe and each thing in it through procreation with a large number of female deities (Handy, 1923). Similarly, the Marquesan islands were created by a male deity, attended by his female mate. Additionally, much of humans' understanding and use of the natural world is ascribed to male culture heroes. For instance, women were taught by Kae, a chief, to have sex with men instead of with pandanus roots and to give birth by way of the vaginal canal instead of through fatal caesareans (Thomas, 1990).

Nutritional Programming

We have developed a rodent model of fetal programming using maternal undernutrition throughout pregnancy. On day one of pregnancy animals are randomly assigned to a standard rat diet ad libitum throughout pregnancy (ad libitum (AD) group) or 30 of the AD group intake of the standard diet throughout gestation (undernourished, UN group). After birth, litter size and birth weights are recorded and litter size is adjusted to 8 pups per litter. The number of pups born per litter from UN and AD mothers is identical in this experimental approach it is not affected by maternal undernutrition. The UN offspring are cross-fostered within 24 hours of birth onto AD dams to assure adequate and standardised nutrition from birth until weaning. At birth offspring of UN mothers had fetal and placental weights that were 25 30 lower than offspring of AD mothers. A lack of catch-up growth despite a standard postnatal diet4 was accompanied by a transient reduction in circulating IGF-I and hepatic IGF-I...

Montessori Methodtheory

Italian physician (Italy's first woman physician) and educator Maria Montessori (18701952) established an educational system in Italy in the early 1900s that emphasized the self-education of preschool children via the development of initiative by means of freedom of action. The Montessori method theory involves training in sense perception using objects of different colors, shapes, and sizes, and the development of eye-hand coordination in exercises and games. Montessori's educational model offers a prepared environment emphasizing the values of care for oneself and one's property, and includes materials to promote sensory, motor, and language skills education, proceeding in strict sequence according to the teacher's demonstration and facilita-tive leadership, and which combines work and play for the children (cf., synectics model - an educational strategy that focuses on creative problem-solving and the development and implementation of teaching methods that increase students'...

Mechanistic Hypotheses and Comparative Tests

Variation and selection comprise the most important evolutionary processes. For variation, I consider carcinogenic effects that act directly by mutagenesis, defined broadly to include karyotypic and epigenetic change. The different types of heritable change cause different spectra of variation and act at different rates. For selection, I divide mechanisms into three classes mitogens directly increase cellular birth rate, anti-apoptotic agents directly reduce cellular death rate, and selective environment agents favor cell lineages predisposed to develop tumors. Those selective mechanisms may indirectly increase variation. For example, mitogens often increase mutation by raising the rates of DNA replication. Mitogens Increase Cellular Birth Rate

Courtship and Marriage

Despite these changes in patterns of courtship and in the criteria for marriage, three elements remain paramount the social expectation that everyone must marry, the importance of marriage as an alliance between two kin groups, and the centrality of parenthood as the foundation for a successful marriage. Traditional marriage ceremonies, in which the extended families and communities of origin of both the husband and the wife participate, continue to constitute the principal rite of passage marking marriage. Though many couples now choose to be married in their Christian churches, as well as in the traditional ceremony, the traditional ceremony is obligatory, while the Christian ceremony is optional (though, for many, highly desirable). The years after marriage are characterized by great anticipation of pregnancy and childbirth, and nothing is more important in establishing the stability of a marriage than parenthood. The transformation of a couple's relationship from courtship to...

Stridor in Children below 6 Months of

The next most common cause of neonatal stridor is vocal cord paralysis or paresis. Most infants will have a history of birth trauma, shoulder dystocia, macrosomia, forceps delivery, an abnormal cry, or other intrathoracic anomaly. Diagnosis is typically by flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy with visualization of the cords during speech or crying. Endotracheal intubation can be quite difficult in a child with bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Placing the bevel of the endotracheal tube parallel to the small remaining glottic opening and rotating the endotracheal tube one-quarter turn while applying gentle pressure may assist in passing the tube. Force should not be used, as this may damage the laryngeal structures. Needle cricothyroidotomy and subsequent tracheotomy may be required to secure the airway. It is unlikely that the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) would be helpful in this case. Use of the LMA is contraindicated in abnormal or obstructed airways because the path of least resistance to...

Decreasing endometrial pain Presacral neurectomy

Another way of decreasing pain from the pelvis caused by endometriosis is to interrupt the nerve fibers that carry pain messages from the pelvic organs and covering. These fibers are part of the sympathetic nerve system the tiny nerves come from both sides of the pelvis and form visible nerve fibers on the surface of the sacrum, hence the term presacral. These nerves don't have any other known function, so cutting them only affects pain sensation. For instance, these nerves don't affect labor or pushing during childbirth, nor do they affect sexual response.

Religious Perspectives

Even for those who are not actively religious, nascent human life evokes awe and a sense of being in the presence of primal powers of creation. In the procreation of all species, from plants to domestic pets, religious consciousness often senses the divine at play in the natural. In human procreation in particular, human beings not only observe but also participate in that power, and by conceiving and giving birth humans play a small but profoundly personal role in creation.

From Creation to Procreation

Ancient biblical culture is also characterized by the command to propagate (Genesis 1 28) and thus by a strongly reinforced desire for children. In addition to any innate yearning or social pressure for offspring, the infertile in biblical culture no doubt feared being seen as disobedient, and several biblical stories contain impassioned pleas for children. The most notably such plea is that ofpostmenopausal Sarah, the wife of Abraham, who according to the story subsequently gives birth to Isaac from whom all Israel descends. That God can cause this to happen against nature is taken as evidence of God's supremacy over nature.

Development of Microflora

The GI tract is essentially sterile at the time of birth and bacterial colonization begins upon exposure to the environment. Progression of colonization is initially fast, followed by a gradual process of modification over the first few years of life. As the baby passes through the birth canal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are typically acquired and rapid colonization of mainly enterobacteria occurs. The hospital environment, type of feeding, and type of delivery affect the early colonization of the intestine after birth. Normal vaginal birth permits the transfer of bacteria of the mother as the infant passes through the birth canal. However, with Cesarean delivery this transfer is absent and the hospital or other immediate environment can have a more significant effect on colonization. In these infants, colonization with anaerobic bacteria, especially Bacteroides, occurs later than with vaginally delivered infants.

Stage One Active Phase

By now, you have probably arrived at the hospital or birth center. If you have no medical or obstetric complications, you should be able to move around. You may find that it feels good to walk, but you will probably want to stop and lean against someone or something during contractions. If you feel exhausted, sit in a rocking chair or lie in bed on your left side. This might be a good time to take a warm shower or bath if you have access to these facilities. Warm water can help ease the pain of labor, and women sometimes progress quite rapidly with the relaxation that water provides.

Relative Status of Men and Women

Women were not entirely without influence or status as noted, they did maintain rights over the fruits of their own labor, they controlled important elements of childbirth, girl's puberty rites, and the ritual dyeing of skirts, and one assumes that they could exert some informal backstage influence over political affairs. To judge by Arapesh sayings about wives taken in childhood and those taken later in their life, the former were more dutiful towards their husbands than the latter.

Genetics Affects Nutrient Requirements

Differentiation, and in some women (not all) an insufficient intake of folate just before pregnancy and in the early weeks of pregnancy can result in these neural tube defects. It was estimated that 2500 infants per year were born with this problem. As a prevention measure, foods are now fortified with the vitamin. However, many women with very low intakes of folate give birth to healthy infants. It appears likely that some women have an enhanced requirement for folate, and it is the infants of these women who are at risk. Although the specific gene mutations are not clear, a number of candidate genes involved in folate metabolism and transport have been identified.

Development of bifidobacteria in the intestine and beneficial effects

Bifidobacteria form part of the normal intestinal microbiota of human infants and adults and are believed to play a beneficial role in maintaining the health of the host. During birth and the first few days of life, bifidobacteria, amongst other intestinal microbes acquired from the mother and the surrounding environment, colonize the infant intestine (Favier et al., 2003). A succession of microbes occurs commencing with aerobes such as enterobacteriaceae, that create reducing conditions favourable to more strict anaerobic bacteria including the bifidobacteria (Franks et al., 1998 Mackie et al., 1999). The changing microbial ecology is coincident with a marked functional and morphological maturation of the infant gut barrier functions and immune system development (Cebra, 1999 Hooper, 2004). The microbiota in breastfed infants is usually dominated by bifidobacteria within a few days, but following a short delay they also reach high numbers in formula-fed infants (Harmsen et al., 2000a...

Gender Roles in Economics

Men primarily work on the milpa, a corn and bean plot that may be next to the domicile or several hours walk from the house. They clean their milpa, plant corn, beans, chiles, and squash, and, with the help of women, harvest the crops. In coffee-growing communities, women, children, and men cut the crop. Women spin, weave on the backstrap loom, mend, and embroider cloth. Men as well as women weave on standing looms. Women wash clothes, feed the domestic animals, and care for small children. Men usually collect and cut the firewood, hunt, and migrate to work on lowland plantations. Women join migrant labor groups as cooks. Men cut trees in the forests and work in carpentry. Men and women sell produce and crafts in local and regional markets. Adult men and women become shamans and have the ability to communicate with spirits affecting the fertility of crops and the health of humans (Huber, 1990 Sandstrom & Sandstrom, 1986, pp. 72-73). Adult women become midwives who assist in...

Symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction weakness

Urine incontinence may occur when there is a sudden rise in intra-abdominal pressure (classically coughing or sneezing), so-called stress incontinence. If this is demonstrated by objective measurement (UDS), it is called urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). Although occasionally seen in men following traumatic or iatrogenic damage to the urinary sphincter, this is a symptom most commonly seen in women with damage to the muscles and or nerves and or connective tissue within the pelvic floor following childbirth.

Otariidae Eared Seals

The fur seals and sea lions (family Otariidae) have resolved the conflict between marine foraging and terrestrial nursing in a strikingly different manner. Although mothers initially haul out onto land to give birth and remain ashore for 1 1.5 weeks, they then begin a series of periodic foraging trips to sea interspersed with 1 4-day nursing periods ashore. Depending on species and pupping site, the foraging trips may be of remarkable length, from less than 1 day to more than 20 days. 1,2 The mother accumulates high-fat (30 55 ) milk in her mammaries while at sea, 1,8 but the pup remains at the breeding colony initially digesting milk (from the prior nursing bout) and then fasting. It is not known how lactating otariids manage to sustain milk secretion without either a suckling stimulus or milk removal during these prolonged foraging trips. The fact that otariid species with longer foraging trips produce milks higher in fat 10 suggests that mammary storage volume may be limiting. Upon...

Mysticeti Baleen Whales

Grown blue whale attains the largest mass of any animal. This large mass allows females to mobilize vast quantities of nutrients from body reserves during lactation. 4,9 Most of the very large species, such as gray, humpback, fin, and blue whales, migrate back and forth between high-latitude polar regions, where they feed, and warm temperate tropical regions, where they give birth and lactate but fast or feed little. 4 In blue and fin whales, the calves gain about 50 80 kg d, ingest milk containing 32 35 fat, and are weaned at 6 7 months (Table 1). This short lactation, relative to body size, minimizes the time spent on breeding grounds where food resources are sparse. The amounts of milk (220 kg d) and milk-energy (4000 MJ d) that blue whales are estimated to produce far surpass those of other mammals, but in relation to maternal metabolic size, the daily output of milk-energy (0.72 MJ kg075 d) is not remarkable, resembling that of many terrestrial mammals.

Warfare and Population Control

In an earlier appraisal of this matter, Bates (1968) stated that while it was difficult to accurately document by numbers, recurring wars between 1650 and 1950 did not effectively slow the rate of worldwide human growth. He reasoned that there was indeed a decline in birth rate due to disruption of families, and of course there were wartime casualties and attendant mortality due to famine and disease. But postwar baby booms seem to

What Has Care Got to Do with It Its Prescriptive Normative Associations

Despite Kymlicka's critique, the final report recognizes the shaping influence of a version of the ethics of care that fosters care and community and that seeks to prevent adversarial situations whenever possible (Royal Commission 1993a 50). On these grounds the report condemns commercial surrogacy and accepts regulated altruistic surrogacy. In each case the woman gestating and giving birth is declared the legal mother of the resulting child (Royal Commission 1993a 50). While some readers might be in sympathy with these recommendations, the terms of the argument need to be considered. Are commercial surrogacy arrangements any more likely to generate conflictual relationships than so-called altruistic ones This is at least debatable (see Lessor 1993). More important, should bioethical determinations be based on avoiding conflict and preserving relationships We want to ask, are there not times when conflict is appropriate and necessary, especially if exploitation or coercion is...

Preference And Motivation Testing

On the surface, determining the preferences of animals seems like a simple task, but the simplicity is more apparent than real. For example, the preference of pigs* for straw-bedded pens turns out to be remarkably complex. Pigs strongly prefer straw when they are actively foraging they are indifferent to straw when they are using a food or water dispenser and they either select or avoid a bedded floor as a resting area depending on whether the environment is cool or warm. Furthermore, mature sows take a sudden interest in straw when they are building a nest just before giving birth. To characterize the animals' preferences, we need a comprehensive study that asks how this preference varies with the animal's age, reproductive state, and ongoing behavior and with fluctuations in the environment.

Clinical assessment at third trimester visits

Screening for group B streptococcus colonization at 3537 weeks. All pregnant women should be screened for group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GBS) colonization with swabs of both the lower vagina and rectum at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. The only patients who are excluded from screening are those with GBS bacteriuria earlier in the current pregnancy or those who gave birth to a previous infant with invasive GBS disease. These latter patients are not included in the screening recommendation because they should receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis regardless of the colonization status.

Maternal Weight Gain and Birth Weight

Inadequate weight gain is associated with poor fetal growth even when the contribution of fetal weight and factors such as length of gestation are taken into consideration. Birth weight is an important determinant of child health and survival low-birth-weight (< 2.5 kg) infants are 40 times more likely to die in the neonatal period. Low weight-for-length at birth may be a risk factor for chronic disease in later life. It has been estimated that in women with a normal prepregnancy BMI, each kilogram of total pregnancy weight gain has an average effect on birth weight of 20 g. In California, women with pregnancy weight gains below recommendations had a 78 higher risk of the infant being born small, whereas women who gained in excess of recommendations were twice as likely to give birth to a large infant.

Early Intervention Services Part C of the IDEA

Part C, formerly Part H, was added to IDEA in 1986 to expand access to early intervention family services for children with disabilities from birth to 3 years of age. Children 3 and older are served under Part B of IDEA. Part C was designed to provide coordinated service delivery to infants, toddlers, and their families and to fill gaps in existing services as needed.

The Effects of Individual Reproductive Choices on Society

A broader concern is that the very existence of large-scale prenatal testing compromises the possibility of individual autonomous decision making. Feminist critics, among others, point out that prenatal screening has become routinized, with an offer of some sort of prenatal screening standard of care for all pregnant women. These critics assert that in this setting, not being screened, while a possible choice, becomes a marked one that requires justification to one's healthcare providers and one's peers. Concern has also been expressed that mothers who decide to forgo testing and give birth to a child with a disability will be blamed by society and even, perhaps, denied healthcare insurance for the child. There is little empirical support at this time for these latter claims.

Piagets Principle Of Conservation See Piagets Theory Of Developmental Stages

Modes of cognitive development enactive (movement-based), iconic (based on stored memory), and symbolic (based on symbols and words) and skill theory - a reinterpretation of Piaget's stages in terms of information-processing operations whereby each stage is considered to be an extended period of skill acquisition demonstrated by children achieving new competencies, integrating them with others, and transforming them into more efficient, higher-order skills . According to Pia-get, four major and distinct stages occur sequentially in development where each child must pass through all four stages (cf., multistage theories - posit that certain processes go through a number of changes where, in some cases, the stages are clear - as in information-processing - and in other cases, the stages are somewhat arbitrarily set the individual moves from one phase to another in a continuous manner even though events may move in an abrupt fashion). However, Piaget's stages are not rigidly fixed in a...

Stereotypies In Animals

Stereotypies can be shown by humans with neurological disorders, by those with some degree of mental illness, and by those in situations where they have little or no control over aspects of their interaction with their environment. People with no illness may show stereotypies when confined in a small cell in prison or when exposed to situations like waiting for an important interview or waiting for their wife to give birth.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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