Healthy Chocolate Recipes

600 Chocolate Recipes

600 Chocolate Recipes

Within this in cookbook full of chocolate recipes you will find over 600 Chocolate Recipes For Chocolate Lovers.

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Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul

Chocolate doesn't just taste amazing, it is great for your whole body, and this eBook shows you how eating plenty of chocolate can help you live longer. This book contains a large variety of recipes to help you get the most out of your chocolate. Chocolate reduces the risk of heart disease, promotes good blood flow, and helps with alertness. You will also learn how chocolate helps to lessen pain and anxiety, and how it has powerful antioxidant properties. You don't have to always eat foods in very small amounts that taste amazing. Chocolate is the best guilt-free indulgence food that is possibly. This book was penned in 1896 by Fannie Farmer, and contains time-tested and proven recipes that are great for your health and even better: they taste amazing. This book has recipes for everything from cakes to bonbons to truffles, and all of them work together to improve your health and well-being.

Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul Summary


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Author: Heidi Walter
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The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

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Sweet And Milk Chocolate

Most chocolate consumed in the United States is consumed in the form of milk chocolate and sweet chocolate. Sweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which sugar and cocoa butter have been added. Milk chocolate contains these same ingredients and milk or milk solids. U.S. definitions and standards for chocolate are quite specific. Sweet chocolate must contain at least 15 chocolate liquor by weight and must be sweetened with sucrose or mixtures of sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup solids in specific ratios. Semisweet chocolate and bittersweet chocolate, though often referred to as sweet chocolate, must contain a minimum of 35 chocolate liquor. The three products, sweet chocolate, semisweet chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate, are often simply called chocolate or dark chocolate to distinguish them from milk chocolate. Sweet chocolate can contain milk or milk solids (up to 12 max), nuts, coffee, honey, malt, salt, vanillin, and other spices and flavors as well as a number of specified...

Identify the important product attributes for the product concepts of a new chocolate product and a vegetarian

There are three levels of understanding the consumer product relationship as an individual product, as a meal and as an eating pattern. The bar of chocolate could be eaten alone, but many food products are eaten together. For example the hamburger is in a bun with lettuce, tomato, a sauce, and it is sold with French fries and a soft drink. Sometimes this juxtaposition of foods is ignored in product development. The consumers also have eating patterns, which do change with time, and the foods have to fit into this eating pattern. So the consumer behaviour is more complex than the single product action model, as each model is interrelated with other product models. The success of the takeaway industry is based on its understanding of these interrelationships. In some cases it has also been used in the supermarkets, for example relating pasta and meat to sauces.

Chocolate And Cocoa

In the United States, chocolate and coca are standardized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The current definitions and standards resulted from prolonged discussions between the U.S. chocolate industry and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The definitions and standards originally published in the Federal Register of December 6, 1944, have been revised only slightly. The FDA announced in the Federal Register of January 25,1989 a proposal to amend the U.S. chocolate and cocoa standards of identity. The proposed amendments respond principally to a citizen petition submitted by the Chocolate Manufacturers Association (CMA) and, to the extent practicable, will achieve consistency with the Codex standards. The proposed amendments would allow for the use of nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, neutralizing agents, and emulsifiers reduce slightly the minimum milkfat content and eliminate the nonfat milk solids-to-milkfat ratios in...

Wine and Chocolate

Epidemiologic studies of wine and alcohol have found a J-shaped curve, with nondrinkers and heavy drinkers at increased risk for all-cause mortality compared to moderate consumers. It is difficult to separate the effects of flavonoid and alcohol in these studies. There are limited epidemiologic data linking chocolate consumption with risk of chronic disease The available data suggest that there is no association between chocolate consumption and risk of coronary heart disease.


Chocolate A 2.2-6.6 self-reporting of reactions to chocolate are reported in two questionnaire surveys (Niestijl Jansen et al. 1994, Young et al. 1994). In an American population-based birth cohort study of 480 children followed up to three years old, 1.7 complained of adverse reactions to chocolate, but none was confirmed on food challenge (Bock 1987), and chocolate is rarely a cause of positive food challenge in allergy clinics (Bock et al. 1988, Crespo et al. 1995). It is likely that the majority of the reported reactions are to other components in the chocolate, for example cows' milk and nuts.

Summary and Research Needs

Such molecular-based studies, guided by epidemiological data and incorporated into future supplementation trials, will help answer the questions about the mechanisms of action and which, if any, antioxidants are important, how much, and for whom. However, while many questions relating to dietary antioxidants and health remain unanswered, to understand how to obtain a mixture of antioxidants and promote health we need look only at the macro level of food rather than at the micro level of specific constituents or molecular level of response. Fruits, vegetables, teas, herbs, wines, juices, and some types of chocolate are rich in antioxidants. It is known that diets rich in a variety of such foods are beneficial to health. The results of molecular-based experimental studies will determine whether these two truths are linked in a cause-and-effect relationship.

Weight Fraction Of Solids

It should be noticed that these changes have been known to occur above a critical water content or aw during food storage. According to Levine and Slade,10 collapse phenomena may include or have an effect on stickiness and caking of food powders, plating of particles on amorphous granulas, crystallization of component compounds, structural collapse of dehydrated structures, release and oxidation of encapsulated lipids and flavors, enzymatic activity, nonenzymatic browning, graining of boiled sweets, sugar bloom in chocolate, ice recrystallization, and solute crystallization during frozen storage.

Current And Future Trends

Gourmet cookies are achieved by formula variations that are heavy on chocolate, fruit preserves, nuts, butter, and other highly indulgent ingredients. Pricing structure usually restricts such products to select market niches. Other gourmet cookies can be made by the addition of perishable components such as whipped cream, butter-cream fillings, and other adjuncts that are practical only for freshly prepared items or for cookies that are distributed in frozen form.

Direct Solvent Extraction Of Solid Samples

An entirely different process of sample-preparation technique involves direct solvent extraction, which is a very simple and convenient technique. Probably the easiest way to do such an extraction is with a Soxhlet extractor. A dried sample such as a spice, chocolate nib, R& G coffee, or a grain can be ground finely and placed in a Soxhlet thimble and extracted with an organic solvent. Either diethyl ether or methylene chloride may be used in such a system. After a number of cycles, the solvent can be combined and concentrated. Nonvolatile organic materials such as lipids, alkaloids such as caffeine and theobromine, and pigments will also be concentrated. The sample may be analyzed directly (with trepidation) or it may be treated as described in the section below, after removal of the solvent. If the sample contained large amounts of lipids (e.g., coffee, chocolate), then the volatiles may be removed by subsequent steam distillation or by a high vacuum stripping technique as...

Background And Historical Significance

With the various combinations of these three hazard characteristics, five categories were created that reflected the potential risk to the consumer. Category I included food products intended for use by infants, the aged, and the infirm, that is, the restricted population of high risk. Category II included processed foods that were subject to all three hazard characteristics (ABC) listed above. Category III included those products subject to two of the three general hazard characteristics. These would include such products as custard-filled bakery goods (AC), cake mixes and chocolate candy (AB), and sauce mixes that do not contain a sensitive ingredient ( BC). Category IV included products of relatively minor microbiological health hazard level, subject to only one of the hazard characteristics. Examples include retail baked cakes (A) and some frosting mixes (B). Category V includes foods that are subject to none of the

Hydrogenation Of Phospholipids

Erols to generate semisolid or plastic fats more suitable for specific applications, it may also be applied to phospholipid fractions. Hydrogenated lecithins are more stable and more easily bleached to a light color, and therefore are more useful as emulsifiers than the natural, highly unsaturated lecithin from soybean oil. These advantages are exemplified by a report that hydrogenated lecithin functions well as an emulsifer and as an inhibitor of fat bloom in chocolate 32 .

Fermentable Carbohydrate

A wide variety of foods contain carbohydrate that is capable of giving rise to acids as a result of bacterial metabolism (fermentation) within dental plaque. Of the common dietary sugars, sucrose, fructose, and glucose are found in fruit and fruit juices, soft drinks, jams, honey, chocolate and other confectionary, and an immense variety of composite foods and drinks. Lactose arises naturally in milk and milk products but is also widely used as an ingredient in its own right by the food industry. Clearly, the wide range of individual dietary choices and eating habits may influence the risk of developing caries. The physical characteristics of fermentable carbohydrates will affect the rate at which they are cleared from specific sites in the dentition. Foods that are inclined to remain for long periods in stagnation sites (for example, between the teeth), such as toffees or raisins, are likely to give rise to a greater local fall in pH than are those that are rapidly cleared, such as...

Characteristics of the organism and its antigens

It grows poorly on most ordinary culture media. Growth is, however, well supported on blood agar enriched with L-cysteine and glucose. Chocolate agar, such as used for the isolation of gonococci, also maintains the growth of F. tularensis. F. tularensis is strictly aerobic, weakly catalase-positive, and oxi-dase-negative. Carbohydrates are weakly catabolized with the production of acid but no gas. The organism has a characteristic pattern of cellular fatty acids, including long-chain (C20-C26) acids and the hydroxy acids 2-hydroxydecanoate, 3-hydroxyhexa-decanoate and 3-hydroxyoctadecanoate.

Egg Yolkbased Products

This product group is sweet and moist. The tender gel is made from egg yolks, sugar, milk or cream, and flavors such as vanilla, chocolate, or fruit. The most famous custards, the French creme caramel and the Spanish flan, are available in many countries in restaurant and retail. Quiches are unsweetened baked custard pies with filling made from egg yolks, eggs, milk, and cheese (Fig. 6). The most famous one, quiche Lorraine, came from Alsace in northeastern France. 3. Ice cream Eggs have limited use in ice cream and they are used mainly in the French vanilla ice cream and chocolate ice creams, which are commercially available in large volume. Many low-volume specialty ice creams also use eggs.

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

Shaw et al. (1959) first identified milk as an anticariogenic food in 1959 when they reported a reduction in dental caries incidence in rats fed milk and flavored milks. Rat diets were supplemented with milk, chocolate drink, chocolate milk, and a shake-like mixture that contained milk or chocolate milk plus vanilla ice cream. In addition, they also included a group that consumed cheese. All of the groups with milk (except the chocolate drink) demonstrated caries reduction with the cheese variable having best results. Early researchers observed that dairy products (milk, casein, caseinates, and cheeses) have anti-caries activity (Schweigert et al., 1946b, Shaw, 1950). Several studies proved casein was an effective anticariogenic substance, but casein's adverse organoleptic properties and the large amount required for efficacy disqualified its use as a food or toothpaste. Acid casein as an active ingredient in toothpaste was effective at reducing dental caries, but was required at very...

Cows Milk Protein Avoidance

Butter, margarine, cream, cheese, ice cream, and yogurt all need to be avoided. Fats that can be used instead include margarines made from pure vegetable fat (e.g., Tomor) and lard. Caution is required with baby foods, as a large number of manufactured products, e.g., rusks, contain milk protein. A common trap is so-called 'vegetarian' cheese, often wrongly believed to be safe for subjects with cows' milk allergy. In fact, it differs from ordinary cheese only in the use of nonanimal rennet and is unsuitable for people with cows' milk allergy. Meat, game, and poultry are all allowed, but sausages and pies should be avoided unless it is known that they are milk free. Intolerance to cows' milk protein is not a reason to avoid beef. Eggs are allowed, but not custard or scrambled egg which may contain milk. Fish is permitted, unless it is cooked in batter (which unless otherwise stated should be assumed to contain milk) or milk. Lemon curd, chocolate spread, chocolate (unless stated to be...

Gender Roles in Economics

Various activities are carried out by each gender males slash underbrush, fell trees, burn the garden area, hunt with bows and arrows and firearms in addition to clubs, and make weapons, basketry, ritual ornaments, household utensils, canoes and, nowadays, craft items for sale. They may also collect Brazil nuts, animal pelts, or other natural commodities for sale. Women prepare food in the stone earth ovens, boil and sieve manioc, make salt from palm stalks, make cotton string (an essential item for ornaments), collect firewood, and plant, weed, and harvest gardens. Both genders cooperate in housebuilding, although men cut the logs needed for houses modeled after the Brazilian backwoods style. Formerly, women erected house structures. Both genders collect wild products, such as piqui, although males specialize in honey (even though many, such as the menorony, cannot eat it), palmito, bacaba, and assai. Women tend to focus on other resources, such as wild legumes and chocolate and...

Databases And Coverage

Art formats, and the appearance of the database on the Internet further demonstrates the commitment of IFIS in this direction. The database can be accessed via seven hosts (DataStar, Dialog, DIMDI, EINS, Orbit, Questel, and STN). The database contains approximately 530,000 records covering the period 1969-1999 inclusive and is updated monthly (except for the CD-ROM, which has quarterly updates). FSTA is growing at a rate of approximately 20,000 records per year. Approximately 1800 different primary journals are scanned regularly for articles of relevance to FSTA. Several hundred other journals and relevant literature are also scanned on an intermittent basis. FSTA contains records on basic sciences relevant to food (eg, chemistry, biochemistry, physics, microbiology, biotechnology, hygiene, and toxicology) as well as food processing, food products, packaging, economics, and legislation. Of the 18 different sections into which the database is subdivided, 12 contain records on specific...

Dryopteris lepidopoda Sunset fern

Description The erect rhizome and stipes are adorned with dark chocolate scales. The proportionately tall stipes are one-half of the frond length. The bipinnate, glossy blades, with an average of 20 pairs of pinnae, are broadly lanceolate. They emerge in richly decorative hues of salmon, orange, pink, and deep rose that subside into warm green tones. With the base of the blade squared and blunt (truncate), the frond looks like a glowing arrow. The sori are covered with kidney-shaped indusia and are carried on the upper portions of the blade.

Products From Lactose

Lactose is a reducing disaccharide with the aldose d-glucose at its reducing end. Reduction (hydrogenation) yields the disaccharide alditol (polyol), lactitol (1,4) (see the article Carbohydrates classification, chemistry, labeling). Lactitol can be crystallized as either a monohydrate or a dihydrate, both of which are nonhygroscopic. Therefore, it can be used in the manufacture of products such as chocolate that require that there be no moisture pickup during processing and bakery products that should remain crisp. Lactitol provides a clean, sweet taste (30-40 of that of sucrose) and provides foods with a bulk and texture similar to that provided by sucrose. Its solubility is slightly less than that of sucrose. Its heat of solution is slightly higher than that of sucrose and much below that of sorbitol. Lactitol is not acted on by human digestive enzymes, so it does not effect an increase in blood glucose or insulin levels and, thus, is safe for diabetics. Neither is it cariogenic....

Influence of food processing practices and technologies on consumerpathogen interactions

All raw foods contain microorganisms that will eventually cause spoilage unless they are controlled or destroyed. Many of the thousands of microorganisms that have been discovered and identified perform some useful function, such as the production of fermented foods (breads, cheese, wine, beer, sauerkraut, sausages, olives, tea and chocolate, to name just a few). However, it is also true that many raw foods contain pathogens that, if not controlled, can result in human illness. Thus, there are two major roles of food processing - to preserve food against spoilage and to render a food safe for consumption by eliminating or controlling pathogens. Pathogen control in foods results from preventing contamination, applying an inactivation treatment, preventing pathogen growth, or a combination of these practices.

TABLE 785 Pruritus

Numerous dietary factors have been implicated and are associated with secondary pruritus ani, although proof of cause is lacking for most of them. Those dietary factors most commonly listed include excessive consumption of caffeine-containing liquids, such as coffee, tea, or colas, and beer, although one recent study failed to demonstrate any correlation between pruritus ani and alcohol consumption. Milk, chocolate, tomatoes, and citrus fruits are other food products that allegedly contribute to pruritus ani. Likewise, certain drugs, such as colchicine and mineral oil, have been associated with pruritus ani. Ingestion of these products can result in increased liquidity and seepage of fecal material, which in itself is a probable cause of pruritus ani.

Drug Induced Oxidative Hemolysis

Oxidative hemolysis of RBCs can result from exposure to a number of drugs that cause the formation of methemoglobin. These drugs oxidize ferrous hemoglobin (+2) to ferric hemoglobin (+3), which is methemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen, so the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is decreased. A large number of commonly used drugs can cause methemoglobinemia, but not at therapeutic doses (Tab. e,214-3). Toxic methemoglobinemia occurs when more than 10 percent of the hemoglobin has been oxidized to the ferric form. Clinically, methemoglobinemia should be suspected in patients who are cyanotic without cardiopulmonary disease. This cyanosis is not relieved by oxygen. The venous blood appears chocolate brown. The arterial blood gas will reflect a normal Pa o2, but decreased measured oxygen saturation. Tabje,214 4 shows the clinical effects of acute methemoglobinemia. Levels of methemoglobin greater than 20 to 30 percent of the total hemoglobin should be treated. Methylene blue...

Control of allergens throughout the supply chain 841 Crosscontamination

Cross-contamination is the risk of small particles of one ingredient being transferred from a product where they are added to another product where that ingredient is not present. Although it is a term that sounds negative, from a food industry point of view it simply represents the risk of small amounts of certain ingredients being present in a product to which they were not initially added. This can occur when two or more slightly different products are manufactured or packed on the same line and have different ingredients, such as cereal products with different additions or different flavours of chocolate bars. Cross-contamination of ingredients or products can occur at the level of the raw material supplier (who may process many raw materials), during transport or storage of raw materials or, indeed, during manufacture or packing of the finished product. HACCP studies, as detailed earlier, are used to identify any risks of cross-contamination, which can occur at any point within...

Purchasing raw materials

All raw ingredients such as flour, milk, nuts and fruit, and compound ingredients such as processed cereals, chocolate, biscuits or toffee must be purchased against a detailed specification. This must include the nature of the product, the ingredients included in a compound ingredient, and any risks of cross-contamination that may occur in the production or packing of the ingredient that is purchased. Supplier Quality Assurance is a system whereby suppliers are audited to ensure that they meet the high quality standards demanded by food manufacturers it places the responsibility of meeting the standards set by the manufacturer clearly within the remit of the supplier. The initial audit procedure is a detailed analysis of the supplier and the operations that occur within their facilities. It is essential that it includes a detailed risk assessment relating to the presence of allergens and particularly the use of peanuts and nuts at the supplier's location. The presence of allergens in...

Confirmation of presence of allergens

Once all the above steps have taken place, food manufacturers are able to make a judgement based on all the evidence obtained as to whether a product contains or is free from a particular allergen. Information should be provided to allergy sufferers to enable them to select suitable foods for their diet. The provision of information to consumers on packaged food and food sold loose is discussed later in the chapter. In addition, a number of tests are available that can be used to analyse products for the presence of a given allergen. Generally a radio-immunoassay technique is used which checks samples of a product for specific proteins that have been previously identified as allergens. These tests can be useful, but in some instances results do need to be interpreted with care. Any analysis is only as accurate as the samples that are taken. The sampling of liquid or fluid foods gives a relatively reliable sample, as the food can be further blended to give an even distribution of all...

Serving Suggestions

Whenever possible, lower the amount of fat in a recipe by substituting a lower-fat milk. A cream soup made with low-fat milk is just as rich tasting, especially if you thicken the soup with a bit of flour. A cup of cocoa made with skim milk provides more nutrients and fewer calories than the average chocolate dessert, and it is just as effective for satisfying a sweet tooth.

Food labelling in Europe an outline

Labelling requirements are detailed by Directive 79 112 EEC, as amended several times. The provisions of this Directive apply to most prepacked foods (the labelling of a number of products such as cocoa and chocolate products, certain sugars, honey and preserved milks is still controlled by vertical or product-specific standards, but revisions to these intended to simplify and streamline provisions on these product categories are currently under discussion). Foods prepacked for direct sale, i.e. prepacked on the premises for sale over a delicatessen counter or similar, and non-prepacked foods are not covered by the scope of the Directive Member States of the European Union (EU) may establish their own rules in this area. Other key labelling directives are 89 396 EEC on lot marking and 90 496 EEC on nutritional labelling.

With a bactericide in surface cleaning

The use of ultraviolet light as an aid to disinfection and to aid food preservation is well known and well used within the food industry. Ultraviolet light has been used to inactivate Salmonella in thin aqueous and chocolate films (Lee et al., 1989). They compared the results obtained with those from the use of ultrasound as a method to inactivate the bacteria. Serotypes such as the heat-sensitive S. eastbourne to the less sensitive S. senftenberg were examined. They discovered that the thermal resistance of salmonella was greater in the chocolate than in the aqueous media. Decimal reduction times at 710C were 4.5 hrs, 4.6 hrs and 6.6 hrs for thermal treatment of S. eastbourne, S. senftenberg and S. typhimurium serotypes. Using ultrasound a 4log10 reduction was observed at 50C after only 10 minutes sonication in peptone water whilst a 0.78log10 reduction of the bacteria was observed in milk chocolate after 30 minutes. High temperatures were observed in the chocolate medium and this...

Polystichum retrosopaleaceum

The grooved stipes are dark chocolate in color, one-fourth of the frond length, and trimmed on opposite outer sides with down- and forward-thrusting pale tan scales. The lanceolate blade with earthward-pointing basal pinnae is bipinnate with 20 or more pairs of pinnae. Sori are medial with peltate indusia.

Cheilanthes bonariensis

Description The rhizome is short-creeping to erect with dark chocolate-colored, slight stipes to one-fifth of the frond length. The narrow 1- to 11 2-in. (2.5- to 3.8-cm) wide, linear once-pinnate blades have 30 to 40 pairs of many lobed pinnae. The blue-green upper surface is lightly dusted with an occa

Changes in Sucrose Consumption

It was not until the early 1700s, however, when the supply of sugar boomed, its price fell, and coffee, tea, and chocolate entered the British diet, that ordinary people finally began to buy significant amounts, and the per capita consumption reached 1.8 kg per year. The changeover from honey to sugar occurred more gradually in rural areas than in the cities. From this point sugar consumption rose inexorably, while honey consumption declined. Beekeeping ceased to be the general custom that it had been in former years there was no longer a hive in every garden. By the beginning of the twentieth century the availability of refined sugar reached about 50 kg per head per year in most industrialized nations. Surprisingly, it did not continue to increase but remained at approximately this level or declined throughout the next 100 years. The 'steady state' suggests that the market and the taste buds have reached saturation.

In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evidence of Antioxidant Properties of Polyphenols

Similar to tea polyphenols, resveratrol, a major polyphenol in red wine, has also been found to have a protective effect against LDL oxidation in some but not all studies. In contrast to the disparate findings from wine and tea and their flavonoids on LDL protection, studies consistently suggest that cocoa, chocolate, and the procyanins found in cocoa protect LDL from oxidation, both in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro studies of apples, apple juice, and apple extracts (rich in anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols) indicate that these foods also protect LDL.

Character Impact Flavors In Foods

In recent studies, potent aroma compounds have been identified using various gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) techniques, such as Charm Analysis and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) (7,8). The flavor compounds that are identified by these methods are significant contributors to the sensory profile. In some cases, these sensory-directed analytical techniques have enabled the discovery of new character impact compounds. However, in other instances, key aroma chemicals have been identified that, while potent and significant to flavor, do not impart character impact. For example, in dairy products, chocolate, and kiwifruit, these flavor types appear to be produced by a complex blend of non-characterizing key aroma compounds.

Antioxidant and Biomarker Evidence from Intervention Studies in Humans

There are limited data from diet-controlled randomized crossover studies of humans on tea and other flavonoid-containing foods. Most intervention studies, apart from design considerations, suffer from lack of diet control, making them difficult to interpret. Results from intervention studies that employ dietary recalls, food records, and self-administered diets are notorious for introducing error that can mask treatment effects. Clinical studies in humans have focused on the antioxidant capacity of blood and oxidative damage to protein, lipid, and DNA as well as a number of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including lipids, hemostasis, platelet aggregation, endothelial function, and blood pressure. Interventions have included high- and low-flavonoid diets, tea, chocolate, cocoa, wine, grape extracts, and fruit juices.

Changes in Antioxidant Capacity

Antioxidant capacity of the blood may be one indicator of a food's ability to act as an in vivo antiox-idant. Two commonly used measures of overall antioxidant capacity are the ORAC assay (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and the FRAP assay (ferric reducing ability of plasma). Dietary interventions do alter the antioxidant capacity of blood. For example, individuals consuming a high cocoa and chocolate diet for 2 weeks have higher serum ORAC than when they consume a control diet. However, these results are not always consistent. For example, in individuals consuming pro-cyanidins in similar amounts of cocoa powder and chocolate, there is no change in plasma ORAC after 6 or 12 weeks.

Lipid Oxidation and Damage

Whereas intake of quercetin from black current and apple juice appears to increase protein oxidation, it decreases plasma malondialdehyde concentration, a marker of lipid oxidation. Isoprostanes, which are specific and sensitive markers of lipid peroxidation, are not different after consumption of a high-flavonoid or low-flavonoid diet, after consumption of green or black tea, or after consumption of black tea and hot water. Similarly, there is little change in urinary isoprostane excretion after supplementation of dark chocolate and cocoa or after consumption of red and white wine (although dealcoholized wine does decrease urinary isoprostane).

Biomarkers of Diseases

Of black tea per day compared to a control, caffeine-containing beverage resulted in a 6.5 decrease in total cholesterol and an 11.1 decrease in LDL-cholesterol after 3 weeks of consumption. There were no concomitant changes in HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides. A cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract has also been observed in a large (N 240), double-blind, randomized outpatient study of individuals with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In this study, individuals consumed either a capsule containing 375 mg of theaflavin-enriched green tea extract or a placebo capsule. After 12 weeks, the individuals taking the theaflavin-enriched green tea extract capsule had an 11.3 decrease in plasma total cholesterol and a 16.4 decrease in LDL-cholesterol from their pretreatment concentrations. The were no significant changes in total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol in the placebo group and no change in HDL-cholesterol or triglyceride concentration in either...

Microorganisms and food

To the general public, the association of microorganisms and food conjures up negative images of rotten fruit or food poisoning. On reflection, many people may remember that yeast is involved in bread and beer production, but how many realise that microorganisms play a part in the manufacture of soy sauce, pepperoni and even chocolate In the following pages, we shall look at the contribution of microorganisms to the contents of our shopping baskets before considering one of the negative associations referred to above, the microbial spoilage of food.

Courtship and Marriage

In Zapotec communities in the Valleys of Oaxaca, traditional engagement parties involved the young man's family coming to petition for the bride at 4 a.m., bearing large baskets of chocolate, bread, and giant candles. This ceremony is one of several ceremonies associated with traditional weddings performed over a period of years. After the official engagement ceremony, a young woman will go to live with her future husband and will often have one or two children with him before the church wedding. Even this formal set of ceremonies exhibits an interesting disjuncture between virginity and formal marriage. The other prominent form of engagement is por robar (by theft), which usually means a carefully planned voluntary elopement. Most women in the community, whether young or old, are concerned with protecting their sexual reputations. Many girls are still strictly watched and not allowed to walk the streets alone after the age of 10 or 11.

Formulas And Procedures

In general, formulas can be divided into different groups. Saltines and other fermented products use a sponge-and-dough system that is normally formulated with yeast. In contrast, straight cracker doughs and the like will have small amounts of sugar, fat, and other characterizing additives and are chemically leavened. Cookie formulas will contain moderate to high amounts of sugar and shortening and are primarily leavened with sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate in combination with a leavening acid to produce a baked good with high volume. Cookies may also contain other ingredients such as icings, fillings, fruits, nut pastes or pieces, flavors, and chocolate to give them distinctive value. dough should be sufficiently cohesive enough to hold together as it is extruded through orifices. Yet it must be relatively nonsticky and short enough, so that it separates cleanly when cut by the wire. Such formulas may contain several times as much sugar as flour, shortening up to 100 of...

The use of disclaimers on food labels

In February 1994, one of the founder members of the Anaphylaxis Campaign gave a shrewd warning about the possible negative effects of any food labelling campaign companies would begin to take the easy way out by printing disclaimer notices. A leading chocolate company had already begun to include a warning under the ingredient list of two of its brands stating 'May on rare occasions contain nut traces.' And dire warnings were given that this might conceivably catch on. A key question is How likely is it that someone with nut allergy will come across a particle of nut on, say, a spoonful of breakfast cereal that is supposed to be nut-free The answer is that it is probably very unlikely indeed, but it does occasionally happen. A young boy visiting a football match with his grandfather decided at half time to have his usual treat - a milk chocolate bar that he had eaten many times before. He suffered a mild allergic reaction. Looking at the label he saw the warning in small print 'May on...

Near infrared absorption technology for analysing food composition

Near infra-red (NIR) measurement technology offers an amazingly diverse capability for the analysis of many different constituents or properties of food products. Moisture, fat, protein and sugar content are perhaps the most well known applications in products such as grain, flour, cereals, dairy products, snacks and coffee but NIR has also found application for the measurement of chocolate thickness on refiner rollers, the thickness of sausage casings, the alcohol content of beverages, the maturity of peas and even the quality of fruit juices. The technique can also provide food technologists with information regarding the thickness of critical barrier layers in multi-layer packaging films, protective coatings applied to plastic, paper or metal food packaging materials which all can impact on food storage properties if not controlled.

Clinical Conditions in Reproductive Age Females

ENDOMETRIOSIS After dysmenorrhea, endometriosis is the second most common cause of cyclic pain in reproductive-age females.18 A prevalence of 5 to 10 percent is widely accepted, although it has been reported in up to 60 percent of patients with infertility. There is a genetic predisposition for endometriosis, and the mean age at diagnosis is 25 to 30 years.13 In patients with endometriosis, endometrial glands and stroma develop outside the endometrial cavity, initially causing pain with menses. As the disease progresses, pelvic adhesions develop and pain occurs throughout the cycle. If located within the ovarian capsule, endometriomas, or chocolate cysts, may result. The precise pathophysiology of endometriosis is not clear, but it is commonly believed to arise from retrograde menstruation and seeding of menstrual glands. Pain is cyclic or constant and may vary in character and intensity. It is generally worse just prior to or during menses. The number of adhesions and severity of...

Functional Roles of Sucrose in Foods

For example, sucrose contributes to the bulk and texture of cakes and cookies and it provides viscosity and mouth feel in liquids such as soft drinks and fruit juices. Sucrose is also a powerful preservative and contributes the long storage life of jams and confectionery. In frozen products like ice cream, sucrose has multiple functions It acts as an emulsifier, preventing the separation of the water and fat phases it lowers the freezing point, thereby making the product more liquid and 'creamier' at the temperature eaten. The presence of sucrose retards the crystallization of the lactose in dairy foods and milk chocolate (tiny crystals of lactose feel like sand on the tongue). In canned fruit, sucrose syrups are used to prevent mushiness caused by the osmotic movement of sugar out of the fruit and into the surrounding fluid. Because sucrose masks unpleasant flavors, sugar syrups are used as carriers for drugs and medicines, especially for young children who cannot swallow...

Hyperactivity and Antisocial Behavior

In children, there is an increasing frequency of the diagnosis of ADHD, a condition characterized by inattention, impulsive and disruptive behavior, learning difficulties, and increased levels of gross motor activity and fidgeting. Also, the prevalence of food allergies and intolerances has been increasing. Perhaps it is not surprising that dietary explanations and treatments for ADHD have been sought regularly for several decades, given theories of allergic reactions or intolerance to food additives, ingredients in chocolate, and even refined sugar (often grouped as the 'Feingold theory', after an early instigator of unproven dietary intervention). There has also been a long-standing interest in the possibility that antisocial behavior in children and adults might in part result from poor nutrition, although early studies were poorly designed. Behavioral effects of sugar and of many additives have by and large not been supported by controlled studies however, determining...

Ice Cream Composition And Physical Properties

Ice cream mix contains a minimum of 10 milkfat and 20 total milk solids, except when fruit, nuts, chocolate, or Vanilla is by far the most widely used flavor. Vanilla flavors are available from each of the three categories I, II, or III pure vanilla flavor is a product of vanilla bean fermentation. Most vanilla flavors used are of the category II, pure vanilla plus some artificial components. Chocolate products are the second most popular flavorings. They come in many forms cocoa powders, chocolate syrups, and chocolate liquor are the most predominant. Flavor intensity, color, and texture can be manipulated by using different types of cocoa products. Fruits and fruit extracts are also very popular as flavorings. They can be added fresh, dried, candied, as concentrated juices, or as fruit essences. Nuts, spices, candies, cookies, and sugars such as honey are also added to ice cream to provide a wide variety of flavors. Other substances are swirled throughout the ice cream to produce a...

Drugs That Change Alertness A Stimulants

The methylxanthine derivatives (caffeine, theophyl-line, and theobromine found in coffee, tea, and chocolate, respectively) are the most popular and commonly used stimulants. They increase the release of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Fatigue is reduced and there is an increase in alertness and improvement in vigilance performance. However, caffeine consumption can impair complex motor tasks. At doses exceeding approximately 250 mg (the quantity in three fresh-brewed cups), tremor, nervousness, and anxiety can result. Contrary to popular belief, caffeine does not counteract the effects of alcohol Caffeine (or another stimulant) will arouse a drunk but will not make him or her sober.

The destructive process literally eats away the area of the ovary that houses the primordial follicles leaving you with

Encountering endometriomas (chocolate cysts) Scar tissue that covers the surface of endometrial implants on the ovary is tough and fibrous. As this endometriosis spreads across the ovary, it takes the path of least resistance by growing into the softer stroma (the inside) of the ovary. As a result, chocolate cysts, or endometriomas, form from the surface of the ovary inwards. (The term chocolate refers to the brown-colored liquid made of old blood and tissue that's inside the cyst.)

Multicomponent analysis of food products

Traditionally, many of these other parameters would have been measured off line possibly using NIR on the basis of the belief that their variation was limited enough to make batch testing representative enough. In reality there is variation in most process streams and so on-line measurement is the only way to be certain that the product is adequately quantified. In processes where a constituent other than moisture can be adjusted, on-line measurement offers tremendous potential to reduce production costs through not over-specifying and optimising product quality. In most cases such measurements will be required simultaneously with moisture since this allows dry weight calculations to be performed in instances where another component may be added to a process stream. For example, in chocolate manufacture cocoa butter which is very expensive may be added to the bulk. Fat and moisture in chocolate processing is a very successful and important application at most stages of the process...

Fluorimetric control of food

Fig. 8.1 Difference of profile between laser induced fluorescence spectra of cocoa butter and other vegetable fats used in chocolate making. Fig. 8.1 Difference of profile between laser induced fluorescence spectra of cocoa butter and other vegetable fats used in chocolate making. Recently, Papadopoulos et al. (2002) have reported investigations of the adulteration of extra virgin olive oils with seed oils using their fluorescence spectra. Our experiments with laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy on different fats used in chocolate making and on lipidic extracts of green and roasted coffee beans has shown that this technique is able to distinguish the botanical origin of vegetable fats because of the differences in polyphenol, sterol and chlorophyll composition. Spectra of cocoa butter and other vegetable fats used as substitutes for cocoa butter in chocolate are presented as an illustration of this observation in Fig. 8.1.

Invasive Bacteria Salmonella Infections

Other potent sources of contamination are sewage, polluted water, or direct fecal contamination of foodstuffs. Thus, many foods are bought already contaminated. Recent examples include mung beans, black pepper, dried herbs and spices, chocolate, spent yeast (used as a flavoring vehicle in packet potato crisps), infant dried milk, salamis, and sausages. Indeed, it is important to note that almost any food can be contaminated given the right circumstances. A multistate outbreak of salmonello-sis in the United States was traced to tomatoes that had been washed in a contaminated water bath. An extensive outbreak in the United Kingdom was shown to be caused by lettuce. These episodes are particularly worrying because they show that any vegetable eaten raw may cause a salmonella infection. Cross-contamination from raw meat to relishes and dressings in a kitchen may also occur. Direct contamination of a food by a food handler, at any rate enough to cause an outbreak, is rarely documented....

Collaboration with the food industry retail and manufacturing

So much for what has been achieved - but what about the mistakes that occasionally occur What happens when a nut chocolate bar ends up on the shelves bearing the wrong wrapper Or a customer opens a box of chocolate raisins to find the peanut variety inside A crisis management expert who addressed a food industry conference in 1996 stated categorically that in such cases, the best course open to food companies was to come clean. Sweeping such mistakes under the carpet, he warned, would only lead to disaster. Fortunately, this is the thinking adopted by most - if not all - food companies Packs of chocolate raisins found to contain the peanut variety.

Specialty Shell Eggs Production

Shell eggs are still a commodity item. They are packaged in simple and low-cost fiber or plastic cartons or flats that rarely have a brand name. These are sold at a low price, which strongly fluctuates with a small surplus or shortage of eggs. In countries where eggs are protected and prices are higher, sophisticated packages can be found, which can also cater to specific target groups. For example, a dozen eggs in clear packages wherein two eggs are chocolate eggs was developed to target children in Austria. In order to get out of the commodity market, several higher-priced specialty items were developed,

Maillard Reaction And Formation Of Heterocyclic Flavor Compounds In Food

Maillard Reaction Food

Flavors can be produced either naturally by the action of enzymes or by thermal processing due to the interaction of different food components or their pyrolytic degradation. The interaction of reducing sugars with amino-containing components and their subsequent reactions is termed non-enzymatic browning or Maillard reaction (17-21). This reaction is considered to be the most important reaction in food chemistry because in addition to flavors, it is also responsible for the formation of color, antioxidants, carcinogens, and so on. It can also reduce the nutritional value of foods by effectively decreasing the concentration of essential amino acids. The Maillard reaction results in the formation of distinctive brown color and aroma of broiled, baked, and roasted food products. Consequently, many unpleasant-tasting raw foods can be transformed by Maillard reactions into desirable products via processes such as bread baking, coffee roasting, and chocolate manufacture. The Maillard...

Dynamic Light Scattering

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is an alternative method for determining food microstructure that is based on scattering of light by moving particles. Details of this noninvasive and relatively rapid method are given elsewhere (63). In the food industry, DLS is used for determining particle sizes in the range of 1 to 300 im in such diverse products as chocolate, wheat and soy flour, confectionery sugar, spices, and mayonnaise. More specific instruments have been developed to detect particles outside this range (64). The main application of this technique has involved very dilute systems (milk and oil in water emulsions), because the concentration of scatters had to be sufficiently low that an incident photon of light is scattered only once by the sample (63). Therefore, DLS can rarely be used directly on most foods, since particulate concentration is too high and native structure is difficult to maintain upon dilution. Nevertheless, DLS has been used to look at the changes in the...

Removing your ovaries

In some cases, you and your doctor may elect to remove one or both ovaries (an oophorectomy) and not the uterus. This decision is unusual but has some good reasons. Sometimes one ovary keeps forming chocolate cysts and adhesions that cause pain and hormonal changes. When more conservative treatment has failed or the disease has recurred quickly, removing the bad ovary may be beneficial.

Sensory Stimulation and Palatability

However, the second definition should not be taken to indicate that there is a direct correlation between the perceived palatability of a food and the amount of that food which is ingested. As with hunger, the coupling between the expressed sensation and the amount of food or energy ingested is loose. This definition takes account of the fact that the palatability of the food is jointly determined by the nature of the food (smell, taste, texture, and state), the sensory capabilities and metabolic state of the subject, and the environment in which the food and subject interact. Palatability is therefore not stable indeed, the palatability of a food typically declines as its own ingestion proceeds. Work on military personnel suggests that the decline in preference for highly preferred foods (e.g., chocolate) is greater than that for staple foods such as bread, which exhibit more stable preference profiles. Palatability can be dissociated from sensory intensity since sensory...

Polypodium formosanum Caterpillar fern

Description The striking creeping rhizome, crisscrossing itself freely in a tangle, is thick and a chalky pale green. It has small black scales as well as minute black craters (technically known as phyllopodia) that are the scarred stumps left after the fronds are shed. The chocolate-colored stipes are one-half

Advantages and disadvantages

The concern for materials with large particle size, especially those that have recently been dried or steam conditioned, is whether the surface moisture represents the internal condition. Indeed, it is frequently the case in drying processes that the surface and internal moisture levels of bulky materials differ. In many situations, this potential difficulty is not a problem because there is some form of relationship between the surface and total moisture content which can be exploited to provide a measurement. It is often the relatively constant conditions employed to dry a foodstuff that ensure this assumption is valid The classic example of this is the on-line measurement of biscuit moisture. After oven drying, the surface moisture content of biscuits is very low, and will even vary across the surface, while the internal moisture is at a higher level. However, the oven drying characteristics are very consistent and therefore the on-line measurement of surface moisture provides the...

Components from skimmed milk and weight loss 121 Calcium and weight loss

Dietary calcium and magnesium have a modest impact on overall energy balance through inhibition of fatty acid absorption via formation of calcium and magnesium soaps (Vaskonen, 2003). A randomized crossover study (Jacobsen et al., 2005) evaluated the short-term effect of dietary calcium on fat absorption. A total of 10 subjects consumed a low calcium and normal protein diet, a high calcium normal protein diet or a high calcium and high protein diet. The high calcium normal protein showed a 2.5-fold increase in fecal fat excretion compared to the other two diets. Another study (Shahkhalili et al., 2001) compared the absorption of cocoa butter with calcium (900 mg day) or without calcium in a chocolate supplement. In this randomized, double blind, crossover study 10 men were fed control diets with or without the calcium supplemented chocolate. The results of the study showed a 2fold increase in fecal fat excretion and a 9 decrease in absorbable energy. These two studies (Jacobsen et...

The relevance of propriosense to flavour learning

Obviously important to the appreciation and enjoyment of the flavour of food and fMRI has been used to investigate the changes in brain activity as a single food (chocolate) is consumed beyond satiety, when the experience changes from being pleasant to being aversive (Small, Zatorre et al. 2001). One very well known phenomenon that dramatically changes the liking of a flavour and one that has been extensively researched in animals is post-ingestive nausea. This has been most studied in rats which develop an extreme aversion to the flavours of foods that have been eaten prior to gastric distress, even if this has been induced other than by the food itself, e.g. by direct intubation of gastric irritants into the stomach (Sclafani 2001). Humans also show such behaviour and learn to dislike a flavour particularly if it is associated with nausea or vomiting and in extreme cases they may then reject foods with that flavour throughout life (Kalat 1985). Less easy to understand and predict...

Prevention of Bacterial Food Poisoning

With the increasing trend toward the manufacturing of foods in large quantities for distribution not only nationally but also internationally, the potential for vast outbreaks of foodborne disease is considerable. Outbreaks of salmonellosis and E. coli FP caused by cheese, salami, chocolate, beef jerky, infant dried milk, minced beef, hamburgers, and even potato crisps have all been documented. In one outbreak of E. coli O157 H7 infection, 34 lots of 281 000 lb of beef patties were manufactured in one plant, and 7 of 21 lots tested were found to be contaminated. The introduction of HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) in food manufacturing processes has been a significant advance in the production of safer food and the prevention of FP. Microbiological guidelines now exist for ready-to-eat foods. The establishment of Enternet in countries in Europe and elsewhere is an important step in the early detection of such outbreaks and the curtailment of their effects. This is a...

Major Contributors of Dietary Saturated Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol

According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) recall data from 1999-2000, the 10 major dietary sources of saturated fatty acids in US diets are regular cheese (6.0 of the total grams of saturated fatty acids consumed), whole milk (4.6 ), regular ice cream (3.0 ), 2 low-fat milk (2.6 ), pizza with meat (2.5 ), French fries (2.5 ), Mexican dishes with meat (2.3 ), regular processed meat (2.2 ), chocolate candy (2.1 ), and mixed dishes with beef (2.1 ). Hence, the majority of saturated fatty acids are contributed by regular dairy products (16 ), and the top 10 sources contribute 30 of the total saturated fatty acids consumed. The increased prevalence of fat-free and low-fat dairy products provides a viable option with which to encourage a populationwide decrease in saturated fat intake. To put the value of decreasing populationwide intakes of saturated fat into perspective, it has been estimated that the isocaloric replacement of 5 of energy from saturated...

TABLE 712 Causes of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Comprehensive treatment of reflux disease involves decreasing acid production in the stomach, enhancing upper tract motility, and eliminating risk factors for the disease. As noted above, mild disease is often treated empirically. H 2 blockers or proton-pump inhibitors are mainstays of therapy. Dosage is titrated for each patient. A prokinetic drug may also greatly decrease symptoms. Simple discharge instructions should be given to all patients thought to be experiencing reflux-related symptoms Avoid agents that exacerbate GERD (ethanol, caffeine, nicotine, chocolate, fatty foods), sleep with the head of the bed elevated (30 ), and avoid eating within 3 h of going to bed at night. Management of Barrett's esophagus includes intensive treatment of the underlying GERD with proton-pump inhibition. Often, laser or photodynamic ablation therapy and surgical treatment are employed as well. Close monitoring for dysplastic changes is essential.

Dietary Management

Small tub of diet cottage cheese 1 tomato, can of diet pop Midafternoon Chocolate eclair 2 dishes of blackcurrant cheesecake, a choc ice, 4 bowls of ice cream, 6 snack-size chocolate bars, 5 cheese biscuits with butter and cheese, 5 slices of toast with butter and peanut butter, 2 packets of chocolate biscuits, 2 bowls of cereal, 1 packet of crisps and 1 chocolate and mint biscuit 6 glasses of water 1 chocolate or cream biscuit 6-8 tablespoons custard or rice pudding 1 packet crisps or nuts and raisins 1 average-sized chocolate bar

The legal background labelling

This fish sauce may contain many ingredients which might include shellfish capable of causing an allergic reaction in susceptible people, yet the labelling meets the requirements of the law. Also, the stipulation for the labelling of functional additives may itself give rise to problems. A garlic puree used in garlic bread may have contained sulphur dioxide as a preservative, but because this preserving effect is no longer required in the finished product, possibly because it is frozen, there is no need to label its presence. This may present a hidden problem for asthmatics. Other exemptions may be realised through the provisions which permit the use of generic names for certain ingredients or because the ingredient is a food which itself is not required to be labelled with an ingredients list. Certain foods such as chocolate currently fall outside the requirements of food labelling law and are subject to the specific requirements of their own legislation. Typically, this may not...

In a public health context

Psychoactive drugs are substances that alter the mental state of humans after ingestion. There are a wide variety of those substances, both naturally occurring and synthesized, including tobacco, alcoholic beverages, coffee, tea, chocolate, and some spices, as well as substances that are legally available only through medical channels, such as benzodiazepides, cannabinols, opiates, and cocaine. Such substances often have other use values along with their psychoactive properties. Users may like the taste or the image of themselves that the use of those substances conveys. Substance use may be a medium of sociability (Partanen) or part of a religious ritual. Some substances have other useful properties alcohol, for example, is a source of calories and is used as a solvent in many tinctures.

Indirect Methods Of Total Lipid Determination

Time domain low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (referred to as wide-line NMR) and frequency domain NMR could be used to determine the total lipid content of foods. In time domain NMR, signals from the hydrogen nuclei ( H or protons) of different food components are distinguished by their different rates of decay or nuclear relaxation. Protons of solid phases relax (signal disappear) quickly, while protons in the liquid phase relax very slowly. Protons of water in the sample relax faster than protons of the lipid. The intensity of the signal is proportional to the number of protons and, therefore, to the hydrogen content. Thus, the intensity of the NMR signal can be converted to oil content of the sample using calibration curves or tables 57-60 . This method can be used to determine the contents of water, oil, and solid-fat and solid-to-liquid ratio of the sample. Time domain NMR has been used to analyze the fat content of foods, including butter, margarine, shortening,...

Egg Whitebased Products

Confectionery The first egg confectionery had to wait until sugar was brought from the New World. In 1550, marzipan was developed in Milan, Italy by beating egg whites with sugar. Meringues were invented in France and were widely distributed after Luis XIV made it a royal dish. Nougats (egg whites, gelatin, vegetable oils, and dried coconut and other fruit), marshmallows, and other similar products are commercially available. The incredible emulsification and water-holding capabilities of the egg yolk were well used in chocolate-type confections in earlier times however, cheaper soy phospholipids and leuiting thin replaced most of the eggs in chocolate confections. Eggs are still used in some specialty products such as chocolate truffles.


Movement per day tended to have NSP intakes at the lowest end of the distribution spectrum. The mean intake of nonmilk extrinsic sugars (a proxy for added sugars) was 16 of energy, around 4 percentage points higher than the DRV of 11 food energy. Key sources were soft drinks (providing 42 of sugars), sugar preserves, and confectionery, particularly chocolate. Children from lower income households tended to have lower intakes of total carbohydrate, nonmilk extrinsic sugars, and NSP compared with children from higher income households.

Aqueous Samples

When concentrated aqueous samples are available, direct injection techniques can be employed. In industry, aqueous materials are frequently available from industrial operations. Examples of this would be condensates from coffee grinders, vapors from chocolate conching operations, and aqueous materials from citrus juice concentrators.

What Is a Drug

Most people would agree that heroin is a drug. It is a white powder that produces striking changes in the body and mind in tiny doses. But is sugar a drug Sugar is also a white powder that strongly affects the body and some experts say it affects mental function and mood as well. Like heroin, it can be addicting. How about chocolate Most people think of it as a food or flavor, but it contains a chemical related to caffeine, is a stimulant, and can also be addicting. Is salt a drug Many people think they cannot live without it, and it has dramatic effects on the body.


Shortenings are essential components of most crackers and cookies. The type and amount of shortenings and emulsifiers in a formula affect both the machining response of a dough or batter and the quality of a finished product. Coatings (such as chocolate) and fillings (such as sandwich cremes) depend on specific fats and oils to furnish the structural part of such components. When formulating cookie doughs, most food technologists add sodium bicarbonate in combination with a reactive acidic material, in proportions appropriate to the pH of the dough, rather than rely on premixed baking powder. Other types of chemical leaveners (eg, monocalcium phosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate) have specific characteristics that can be tailored to the requirements of a given dough formula. The goal is usually to obtain a finished product with a pH close to neutrality, although this generality may not apply to certain products (eg, chocolate doughs containing Dutched cocoa, with a resulting higher...

Cocoa Beans

The cocoa bean is the basic raw ingredient in the manufacture of all cocoa products. The beans are converted to chocolate liquor, the primary ingredient from which all chocolate and cocoa products are made. Figure 1 depicts the conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate liquor, and in turn to the chief chocolate and cocoa products manufactured in the United States, ie, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, and sweet and milk chocolate. Most cocoa beans imported into the United States are one of about a dozen commercial varieties that can be generally classified as Criollo or Forastero. Criollo beans have a light color, a mild, nutty flavor, and an odor somewhat like sour wine. Forastero beans have a strong, somewhat bitter flavor and various degrees of astringency. The Forastero varieties are more abundant and provide the basis for most chocolate and cocoa for formulations. The main varieties of cocoa beans imported into the United States, usually named for the country or port of origin, are Ivory...

Cocoa Butter

Cocoa butter is the common name given to the fat obtained by subjecting chocolate liquor to hydraulic pressure. It is the main carrier and suspending medium for cocoa particles in chocolate liquor and for sugar and other ingredients in sweet and milk chocolate. The FDA has not legally defined cocoa butter, and no standard exists for this product under the U.S. Chocolate Standards. For the purpose of enforcement, the FDA defines cocoa butter as the edible fat obtained from cocoa beans either before or after roasting. Cocoa butter as defined in the U.S. Pharmacopeia is the fat obtained from the roasted seed of Theobroma cacao Linne. Cocoa butter is a unique fat with specific melting characteristics. It is a solid at room temperature (20 C), starts to soften around 30 C, and melts completely just below body temperature. Its distinct melting characteristic makes cocoa butter the preferred fat for chocolate products. In the past 25 years, many fats have been developed to replace part or...

Economic Aspects

Chocolate consumption (wholesale Dollar value) on a global basis was approximately 23 billion in 1992. In the United States, Hershey, Mars, and Nestl control about 70 of the market. The leading chocolate companies continue to pursue a global confectionery business strategy with an increase in the early 1990s of confectionery business activity in the Eastern Bloc countries, Russia, China, and South America. Generally, as per capita income increases, chocolate consumption increases and sugar consumption decreases. Consumer demographics, the declining child population, and the increase in consumer awareness of health issues play important roles in the economics of chocolate consumption. Chocolate confectionery business trends during the early 1990s include product down-sizing leading to snack size finger foods, increased emphasis on specialty chocolates with concentration on dessert chocolates, and chocolate brand equity spread into beverages, baked goods, frozen novelties, and even...


Milk fat fractionation has been described by Deffense (1993). By combining multistep fractionation and blending, it is possible to produce modified milk fats with improved functional properties. The use of anhydrous milk fat fractions in milk chocolate formulations has been described by Full et al. (1996). Dimick et al. (1996) reported the chemical and thermal characteristics of milk fat fractions isolated by a melt crystallization. Methods for determining thermal fat crystal properties for the fractionation of milk fat were developed by Breitschuh and Windhab (1996).

Food Applications

Been classified into two categories semifinished products and finished products (7). For semifinished products, extrusion cooking has been shown to offer economic advantages over the traditional process such as drum drying for producing pregelatinized cereal flours, potato starch, and cereal starches. By controlling the processing conditions to achieve the desired balance of gelatinization and molecular degradation, starches, and chemically modified starches with a wide range of cold water solubility values can be produced (8). Extensive patent literature has been covered on extruded breakfast cereals (9), snack foods (10) and textured foods (11-13). Other applications include dry and soft-moist pet foods, precooked and modified starches, flat bread, breadings, croutons, full-fat soy flour, precooked noodles, beverage bases, soup and gravy bases, and confections such as licorice, fruit gums, and chocolate (4,14).

Nutritional Findings

Purging behaviors begin as a compensatory mechanism to offset episodes of binge eating. Consequently, it is a widely held belief that they are effective methods of weight control. However, the damage done to the body by these methods far exceeds any benefits in terms of weight. Any weight loss experienced is usually related to disruption of fluid balance rather than a loss of fat tissue. Furthermore, if self-induced vomiting is adopted, binges are likely to become more frequent and severe. If vomiting is prevented, the bulimic will consume significantly less food, thus maintaining the cycle previously described. Research has shown that vomiting fails to rid the body of all the food ingested. It has been estimated that only half the contents of the stomach are removed through vomiting, although this is variable and difficult to determine. Similarly, laxatives work on the system after food has been digested. One classic experiment looked at the amount of food energy lost through...

Food safety risks

Over the past 20 years, the composition of world agriculture trade (food and nonfood, such as livestock feed) has changed. The share attributed to bulk goods (e.g. wheat, corn, and coffee) has been declining while the share of processed consumer goods (particularly chocolate products, pastry, and prepared foods) has been increasing (Fig. 3.1). Although shares of intermediate processed goods (e.g. soybean oil) and fresh horticultural goods have remained fairly steady, their total quantities traded have kept pace with the increasing volume of total agricultural trade (Gehlhar and Coyle, 2001).2


Determining influence on the structures formed especially when the lipidic system allows the formation of metastable structures (very frequently). Then, several types of lateral packings of chain leading to more or less compact structures from liquid crystalline state to solid crystalline state can be formed. The formation of such or such lateral packing again depends on the same parameter as those listed above for temperature. Depending on the crystallisation conditions, most of the lipid molecules display several polymorphic forms, some, like the major triglycerides of cocoa butter (the fat of chocolate), exhibit six identified varieties and even more. Both types of lipids, polar and lyotropic as well as weakly polar mainly displaying oily character, and in both conditions, anhydrous or hydrated, do undergo polymorphic transitions on cooling or on heating, making the understanding of the lipidic structure very complex at low temperature. While lipid oxydation is perceived as oil...

Blechnum brasiliense

Description The rhizome is erect, eventually lifting to form a stipe-stubbled trunk of 12 in. (30 cm) in circumference. Fronds form a dramatic upright shuttlecock of open foliage. The succulent, short, 2-in. (5-cm) stipes are dark with matching chocolate-colored linear scales. The obovate blade is widest above the midpoint and tapers strongly at the base.

Dryopteris varia

Description The upright rhizome produces a tuft of stiff fronds equally proportioned between stipe and blade. The lower stipe is clothed in dark chocolate scales, which become lighter as they approach the rachis. The triangular to pentagonal leathery blade, with up to 20 pairs of deltoid pinnae, transitions from tripinnate to bipinnate upwards from the base towards an abruptly narrowed apex. New growth as illustrated in Iwatsuki (1992) is coppery red. The lower pinnules adjacent to the rachis are slightly elongate, like stubby little tails. The sori are submarginal and covered with kidney-shaped indusia.

Electron Microscopy

High-moisture samples, as most foods are, and high-fat systems can be examined with cryo-SEM. This technique involves freezing the specimen and examining it in the SEM at a temperature at which neither water is lost nor fat is melted (36). Allan-Woajtas (37) has discussed methods to freeze samples in preparation for SEM. Cryo-SEM is very useful in the study of food materials that are easily damaged by conventional SEM, such as baked products and emulsions. A significant advantage of the technique is the ability to study dynamic phenomena by freezing samples at time intervals, during emulsion destabilization, for instance, or dough formation and baking (38). Sargent (36) has reviewed some of the numerous applications of cryo-SEM in food systems. Dairy products such as cheese, ice cream, and full- and low-fat spreads have been examined in great detail. Low-temperature SEM has helped reveal the mechanism of emulsion and foam destabilization in products such as salad dressings, meringues,...


Acetylcholine is metabolized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A by choline acetyltransferase. Choline is available in food such as egg yolks, or by breakdown of phosphatidylcholine, more commonly known as lecithin, which is used as an emulsifier in foods such as chocolate. Choline is the rate-limiting step in the production of acetylcholine, such that insufficiency of choline in the diet can lead to deficits in acetylcholine, whereas dietary supplements can increase the production of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is broken down in the synaptic cleft by acetylcholinesterase thus, acet-ylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as physostigmine or tetrahydroaminoaridine, have the effect of increasing the availability of acetylcholine in the synapse. There are two types of cholinergic receptors nicotinic (found in striated muscle and in the central nervous system) and muscarinic (found in smooth muscles and in the central nervous system).

Carcinoid Syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome occurs in less than 10 percent of patients with carcinoid and develops when venous drainage from the tumor gains access to the systemic circulation, as with hepatic metastases. The classic syndrome consists of flushing, diarrhea, bronchospasm, and right-sided cardiac valvular fibrosis. Symptoms are paroxysmal and may be provoked by alcohol, cheese, chocolate, or red wine. Diagnosis is made by 24-h measurement of urinary 5-HIAA or of whole blood 5-hydroxytryptamine. Surgical cure usually is not possible with extensive abdominal or hepatic metastases however, debulking of the tumor may alleviate symptoms and improve survival, when it can be performed safely. Hepatic metastases also have been treated with chemoembolization using doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin. Carcinoid crisis with severe bronchospasm and hemodynamic collapse may occur perioperatively in patients with undiagnosed carcinoid. Prompt recognition is crucial as administration of octreotide can...

The 25 rule

This rule is contained in European Food Labelling Legislation. It states that compound ingredients (i.e. those that themselves contain a number of ingredients, e.g. toffee, biscuits, chocolate chips) that comprise less than 25 of the finished weight of the product need only be declared as the compound ingredient and not as the constituent ingredients that make up the product.


Caffeine is a methylated xanthine that acts as a mild central nervous system stimulant. It is found in a number of foods and beverages (Table 6), the main sources being coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, and soft drinks, as well as in prescription and non-prescription medicines, such as diet pills, headache treatments, and cold and flu medicines. Tea and cocoa also contain significant quantities of theophylline and theobromine, which are caffeine derivatives that have not been as widely researched.

Tea Composition

Another important group of flavan-3-ol compounds are the procyanidin polymers. These compounds are catechin polymers linked by C4 to C6 and C4 to C8 bonds. The most predominant polymers are those ranging from dimers to decamers and are found in a variety of foods, including chocolate, cocoa, cereal grains, nuts, fruits, and vegetables.


Glucose is used in a wide variety of products, particularly in the confectionery industry in jellies, gums, marsh-mallows, pressed products, panned products, chocolate, and compound coatings as a bulking agent for high-intensity sweeteners as a coating for dried fruits such as raisins, dates, apricots, and pears as a binder in tabletted confections and as a carrier for liquid flavors and oils. It is used to improve product density in some cakes and cookies.

Invert Sugar

Inversion, a term used to denote the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose plus fructose, often occurs during processing. Deliberate postprocessing conversion is used, for example, in producing chocolate-covered cherries, where invertase in the fondant acts on sucrose after the product is enrobed with chocolate, turning the fondant into a liquid syrup that has a reduced tendency to undergo fermentation. (Invert sugar is also available in a creamy fondant form.) Inadvertent inversion caused by heating too long or at too high a temperature or in the presence of acid can negatively effect stickiness, graininess, color formation, and shelf life.

Corn Syrup Solids

Corn syrup solids, those products in the approximate range of DE 20 to DE 36, are produced by less breakdown of starch than occurs during the manufacture of corn syrups. They have less reducing power and hence a lesser tendency to brown, only slight sweetness, and low to moderate hy-groscopicity. They are used as binders and crystallization inhibitors to impart a chewy texture and improved mouth-feel and flavor and to provide easy digestibility and control of sweetness in such products as infant formulas, chocolate drinks, coffee whiteners, whipped toppings, imitation sour creams, frozen foods, prepared meats, and granola bars. In frozen novelties, corn syrup solids provide viscosity, an increased freezing point, controlled water crystallization, more body, slower meltdown, better stability, and a smoother texture.

Special Malts

Some malts are made with special properties, mainly differing in color and flavor. A caramel, or crystal, malt is made by heating a wet malt with steam under pressure. The resulting malt is used with regular malt to produce dark beers. A so-called chocolate malt is a variant of crystal malt. These malts provide color and special flavor to the beer. Malt may also be darkened by kilning at higher temperatures (200 F or higher) or for longer times. Such malt only imparts more color to the beer.

Sorbic Acid Sorbates

Sorbate is applied to foods by direct addition, dipping, spraying, dusting, or incorporation into packaging. Baked goods, icing, fruit, and cream fillings can be protected from yeast and molds through the use of 0.05 to 0.10 potassium sorbate applied either as a spray after baking or by direct addition (24). Sorbates may be used in or on beverages, jams, jellies, preserves, margarine, chocolate syrup, salads, dried fruits, dry sausages, salted and smoked fish, cheeses, and in various lactic acid fermentations (24).


Department of Agriculture (USDA) was given funds to study the problem. A series of Food Inspection Decisions (FID) resulted. One FID in 1904 declared a food to be adulterated if it be colored, powdered or polished with intent to deceive or to make the article appear to be of better quality than it really is. Another FID in 1905 required the labeling of such products as artificially colored imitation chocolate. Another FID in 1906 concerned a coal tar dye considered to be unsafe for use in food. In effect, it stopped the importation of macaroni colored with Martius Yellow. At this time, the (USDA) launched a monumental task to determine which colorants were safe for use in food and what restrictions should be placed on their use. This effort led to the regulations for the use of synthetic colorants in the United States today.

Components Of Food

When one thinks of giving chocolates on Valentine's Day to a loved one, we hope this acts as an aphrodisiac but does it To understand this better, the sensory components of food need to be delineated. These include texture, visual appearance, viscosity, tactile properties, and gustatory and olfactory components. sciously substituted for another, while retaining the same underlying meaning. Eating chocolate or strawberries and whipped cream may be viewed in a sinful way as a reward of badness for good behavior (as a dessert after having eaten the meal of brussels sprouts), or as a violation of an unwritten moral code that elevates these foods into a nonessential, potentially dangerous, risky (ie, exciting) food, and hence strongly desired. Thus, eating these foods is perceived on some level as a violation of social morals and revolt against hedonic repression, which may be manifested by sexual arousal. Another nonfood example of this repressed hedonic affective overflow is the Las...

Cocoa Powder

Cocoa powder (cocoa) is prepared by pulverizing the remaining material after part of the fat (cocoa butter) is removed from chocolate liquor. The U.S. chocolate standards define three types of cocoas based on their fat content. These are breakfast, or high fat cocoa, containing not less than 22 fat cocoa, or medium fat cocoa, containing less than 22 fat but more than 10 and low fat cocoa, containing less than 10 fat. Cocoa powder production today is an important part of the cocoa and chocolate industry because of increased consumption of chocolate-flavored products. Cocoa powder is the basic flavoring ingredient in most chocolate-flavored cookies, biscuits, syrups, cakes, and ice cream. It is also used extensively in the production of confectionery coatings for candy bars.


Raisins are a very old product and have been known since biblical times. Raisin production spread from the Middle East to many other parts of the world. The United States and Turkey produce two-thirds of the world production of about 1 million metric tons. Raisins are produced from varieties of grapes (Vitis vinifera) that have a high sugar content. The sultanas produced from the Thompson seedless variety of grapes are the most well-known. Grapes to be dried into raisins are picked by hand and spread on paper trays between the rows of grapevines. The grapes on the trays have to be turned to promote even drying. They are then transported to the packing shed for cleaning, grading, adjustment of moisture content, and packaging. Raisins are usually added to bakery products, breakfast cereals, confections, chocolate bars, and the like. Raisins can also be used to make brandy, such as the aniseed-flavored ouzo in Greece or raki in Turkey.

Learning to choose

Many autistic children find it difficult to choose between two things and often repeat the last thing being offered. To make it easier to learn how to choose, you can start by letting the child choose between something desirable and something irrelevant, e.g. chocolate and a cucumber. Once the child is confident with this selection process, you can let him or her choose between two equally exciting things,for example chocolate and ice-cream.