The Historical Role of the Nurse in Health Care

Since the Reformation in the 16th century and the suppression of monasteries, the quality of nursing and hospitals suffered in all the Protestant European countries but most severely in England. When Henry VIII established the Church of England in 1534, he seized more than 600 charitable institutions and suppressed all religious orders. This seizure of church properties had a direct negative effect on women and nursing. Women lost political and administrative control of nursing operations. Inexperienced civil administrators took over from religious professionals who were steeped in a culture of care that had evolved since the beginning of the Christian church. As a consequence, women lost their voice in both hospital administration and nursing management, leading the whole medical system to begin a downward spiral of mismanagement, crowding, filth, and contagion.3 It was these conditions that prompted Florence Nightingale's vocation.4

The Importance Of Interval Timing In Cognitive Development

Analog representations of stimulus magnitudes have also been explored using mode-control models of temporal integration as a guide for understanding nonsym-bolic counting and timing processes in animals, nonverbal infants, young children, and adults (see Brannon and Roitman, this volume Clement and Droit-Volet, 2001 Dehaene et al., 1999 Gallistel and Gelman, 1992 Meck and Church, 1983 Meck et al., 1985 Wynn, 1995, 1998). The mode-control model posits that magnitude estimations of time and number are mediated by the same pacemaker-accumulator system, but operated in different pulse accumulation modes (e.g., a run mode for time and an event mode for number). This unified model of temporal integration has become influential in the debate surrounding the foundations of numerical thinking and the evidence for nonverbal counting ability in a variety of animals, including monkeys and human infants (e.g., Brannon and Roitman, this volume Brannon and Terrace, 1998 Brannon et al., 2001...

Discrepancies In The Content Of Temporal Memory

Individual differences in the content of temporal memory can be evaluated by the horizontal placement of psychophysical functions that relate signal duration to the probability of a response (Church and Meck, 1988 Gibbon et al., 1984). Data obtained from the PI procedure have shown that discrepancies in the content of temporal memory produce stable horizontal displacements of timing functions such that they can be centered at times that are either less than or greater than the programmed time of reinforcement (Church, 1989 Meck, 2002a, b). Typically, the average remembered time of reinforcement for a group of mature rats would be very close to the programmed time of reinforcement, with a symmetrical distribution of individual peak times centered around that time. In contrast, as rats age they demonstrate a proportional rightward shift in their timing functions, indicating that their remembered durations reflect a constant percentage overestimate of the programmed time of reinforcement...

Allornone Lawprinciple

The American social psychologist Floyd Henry Allport (1890-1978) proposed that conforming behavior may be recognized by its distinctive distribution, which takes the shape of an inverted J curve. A few people overcon-form (are to the left of the curve's peak), the overwhelming majority are positioned exactly at the peak, which accounts for the spike of the J, and a minority deviate from the norm, which accounts for an elongated, but low-level, tail. Allport validated his conformity hypothesis mainly by observations in field situations involving activities such as reporting to work, using holy water in a Catholic church, and stopping at a stop sign. The friction-conformity model states that a pedestrian's rate of walking is affected by the number of obstacles met and by conformity to the pace set by other nearby pedestrians. Allport's data refer primarily to situations where adherence to standards is enforced (compliant behavior). Conformity is viewed...

Interval Timing Theories

Scalar timing theory is designed to account for the behavior of human beings and other animals in temporal perception and timed performance procedures (Allan, 1998 Gibbon, 1991). Many alternative timing theories have been designed to account for the same facts. These include the behavioral theory of timing (Killeen and Fetterman, 1988), the learning-to-time model (Machado, 1997), the multiple-oscillator model (Church and Broadbent, 1990), the spectral timing theory (Grossberg and Schmajuk, 1989), and the multiple-timescale model (Staddon and Higa, 1999). Although this chapter is restricted to a description of scalar timing theory, the approach that is described can be applied to any timing theory that is completely and precisely described (Church and Kirkpatrick, 2001). Conditioning theories were also designed to account for the behavior produced by procedures that involve the specification of the times of onset and termination of stimuli and reinforcers, and of responses. The goal of...

Contemporary Ethical And Legal Aspects A Ethical Perspectives

Abortion is widely regarded as one of the most intractable problems in bioethics. It is certainly true that few issues in bioethics have inspired as much discussion, debate, and open conflict as abortion, in part because the abortion controversy, unlike many others in ethics, has not been limited to scholars and practitioners, but has been engaged on numerous fronts in the United States. Churches and religious organizations, political office holders and candidates, the courts, and the general public have all taken a stand on abortion. In the decades since the U.S. Supreme Court, in its historic 1973 Roe v. Wade decision, effectively legalized abortion through the second trimester of pregnancy, the conflict political, legal, social, and ethical has not abated. An additional source of difficulty in reaching agreement about abortion is that the anti-abortion movement in the United States has been led primarily by the Roman Catholic church and fundamentalist Protestants, who base their...

Can the Abortion Conflict Be Resolved

The reasons women choose abortion are as varied as the reasons they often choose not to abort. In countries where abortion is legal, and countries where it is not, millions of women make individual moral choices to end pregnancies. Some seek abortion after contraceptive failure, others because it is the only contraceptive option available to them some choose to end their pregnancies for financial or emotional reasons, or for the well-being of their families still others make the tragic decision to terminate a desired pregnancy because of an unwelcome prenatal diagnosis, or because their child is the wrong sex, or because their own health is in jeopardy. Regardless of what courts and politicians, ethicists and church leaders decide about abortion, there will always be unwanted pregnancies, and there will always be women willing to risk their lives and health to have abortions. Those are the facts of the matter.

Predictions from a Formal Model

In an explicit solution, predictions of the model are derived from the assumptions of the models (usually, with the addition of some simplifying assumptions or approximations). Explicit solutions of scalar timing theory have been developed for some procedures. These include the temporal bisection procedure (Gibbon, 1981a, 1981b), temporal generalization (Church and Gibbon, 1982 Gibbon and Church, 1984), time-left (Gibbon and Church, 1981 Gibbon et al., 1984), and the peak-interval procedure (Gibbon et al., 1984). The main advantage of these explicit solutions over simulations is that they provide exact results, and the resulting equations may be used to calculate the consequences of any sets of parameters very

Contemporary Teaching

In his 1930 encyclical on marriage, Casti connubii, Pius XI affirmed the equal sacredness of mother and fetus, but condemned the destruction of the innocent child in the womb, who can in no way be considered an unjust assailant. (The sticking point here, of continuing interest to moralists, is whether it is necessary to have an unjust intention to qualify as an unjust aggressor, or whether unintentionally posing an unjust danger to another is sufficient. Soldiers in war, for instance, may have noble personal intentions, yet validly be viewed by their opponents as unjust attackers.) The Second Vatican Council (Gaudium et spes, no. 51) referred to abortion and infanticide as unspeakable crimes. The complex agenda of and challenges to current church teaching are well focused by the 1974 Vatican Declaration on Abortion.

Religious Traditions C Protestant Perspectives

Reviews of the history of Protestant teaching on abortion focus most often upon specific comments regarding abortion in the writings of leaders of the various church reform movements in European Christianity beginning in the sixteenth century. Several of the most effectual Reformation leaders, including Martin Luther (1483-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564), were powerful both in reconceiving church practice and in articulating reformulations of Christian theological and ethical teaching. Consequently, for many of their followers and spiritual heirs, their teaching has remained uniquely authoritative in discerning Protestant truth claims. The formal criteria for discerning Christian truth proposed by these reformers, however, is best characterized as privileging the role of Christian scripture (usually referred to by Protestants as the Old and New Testaments) in adjudicating doctrinal and moral disputes. This primacy of scripture as theological and moral norm also characterized the...

Emerging Awareness of Domestic Violence as a Social and Clinical Problem

Jewish, and Muslim scriptures and in Confucian understandings of the family, to name a few examples. Religious values have played an ambiguous role, sometimes perpetuating, sometimes condemning domestic abuse. For instance, trends in Christian history that attribute to women responsibility for the presence of evil in creation also sanctioned public torture and murder of women accused of being witches or heretics (Brown and Bohn Fortune). Yet ideals in all religions, such as the intrinsic worth of all people in Christianity or of special obligations of husbands toward wives and vice versa in Christianity and Judaism, have also condemned domestic abuse. The emergence of religious and secular movements to prevent child abuse and violence against women could not occur until women and children began to be seen as individuals in their own right. In her 1999 book, Wounds of the Spirit, Traci West offered a model of how churches can support African-American women in their resistance to...

Overall Religiosity Measures

In every single case, as expected, women are more likely than men to describe themselves as religious. The ratios range from 1.05 in Brazil to 1.69 in Estonia (cf. Gallup, 1980). In the British Values Survey (Gerard, 1985), factor analysis produced two factors, and the scores on each were combined to give a single index of religious commitment. One factor consisted of items about basic beliefs and reported religious experience, and the second was about ritual attendance and positive attitudes to the church. Fifteen percent of men, 20 of working women, and 26 of nonworking women had high scores a ratio of 1.53 if the two groups of women are combined. The ratio for the medium to high group was 1.61. The American Gallup ratio for being a religious person was 1.45. As reported by Gallup and Lindsay (1999), women in the United States have been found to be significantly higher than men on all measures of religiosity used in public opinion polls. This is the largest data pool anywhere in the...

Membership in Different Denominations

In all Christian denominations in the world, with the exception of Roman Catholicism, there are more women than men, but the proportion varies. In a survey of 310,000 Australian churchgoers (Kaldor et al., 1994) the following ratios were found Anglicans, 2.02 United Church, 1.86 Baptists, 1.38 Pentecostalists, 1.33. In British studies the Church of England again has a high sex ratio, and the Roman Catholic church a low one, but there are also very high ratios for new religious movements, often between 2 1 and 4 1 (e.g., Wilson, 1961).

Women Are More Deprived

This explanation looks at women's social status and power There is not a single society known where women-as-a-group have decision-making power over men or where they define the rules of sexual conduct or control marriage exchanges (Lerner, 1986, p. 30) It is easy to conclude that women are deprived and oppressed in many social situations. Reporting on the greater religiosity of women in the Soviet Union and then in post-communist Russia, Anderson quotes an unnamed Intourist guide, who explained that there were greater numbers of women in church 'because women suffer more' (Anderson, 1993, p. 209).

Elena Rebollo and Cayetano Gonzlez 1 Introduction

Classically, studies in Drosophila male meiosis have been performed by direct observation of unfixed and unstained cysts under phase-contrast optics (3,8,9,13). Detailed analyses of chromosome behavior have required staining with aceto-orcein or Hoechst dye (reviewed in ref. 14). In the mid-1990s, a reliable fixation protocol was developed that allows immunofluorescence staining (15), thus providing a better basis to study the organization of the major cell structures and organelles, as well as the localization of proteins of interest. Although very informative, these methods based on either short-lived or fixed cells do not allow for the observation of meiosis progression, which is essential to follow the dynamic events that take place during cell division. The first description of a method for generating primary cultures of primary Drosophila spermatocytes that could be visualized by time-lapse video microscopy was published by Church and Lin (16). Using this method in combination...

Some Alternative Medicines

In July 1990, a Boston jury convicted Christian Science parents of manslaughter because they relied on the services of practitioners rather than conventional medical care to treat their two-year-old son, who had died of bowel obstruction in 1986. The parents were sentenced to ten years' probation and ordered to take their other children for periodic medical checkups. This case aroused unusual interest because it took place in Boston, the headquarters of the Christian Science Church. Both cases reflect a pattern in U.S. courts, which have ruled that competent adults have a right to refuse treatment even life-saving treatment for themselves, but not for their children. The same response was made regarding Jehovah's Witness children whose parents refuse blood for them based on religious belief. Official Christian Science response to these decisions has been reserved and moderate. In an official publication (First Church of Christ, Scientist), church officials recognize that the state has...

Implications For Theories Of Timing

Taken together, these results indicate that multiple local maxima in sensitivity to time are observed in the discrimination of time across several orders of magnitude (Figure 3.7 Crystal, 1999, 2001a, 2001b). The existence of a local maximum near a circadian oscillator (Figure 3.7, rightmost peak) and in the short-interval range (Figure 3.7, left side) is consistent with timing based on multiple oscillators (Church and Broadbent, 1990 Crystal, 1999, 2001a Gallistel, 1990). The location of a local maximum may be used to identify an oscillator's period. The existence of nonlinearities in the sensitivity to time provides constraints for the development of theories of timing. Four theories will be reviewed scalar timing theory (Gibbon, 1977, 1991), multiple-oscillator theory of timing (Church and Broadbent, 1990), broadcast theory of timing (Rosenbaum, 1998), and stochastic counting cascades (Killeen, 2002 Killeen and Taylor, 2000).

Using organic acids to control microbial contamination

Organic acids are natural constituents of a variety of raw (vegetables, fruits, meat) and processed foods (fermented meat products, sauerkraut, several milk products see Bogaert and Naidu, 2001). While concentrations of organic acids in fruits decrease with ageing (Stratford, 1999), accumulation of lactic acid in muscle tissue occurs post mortem due to glycolysis, with a lactic acid concentration of ca. 0.9 , contributing both to flavour (Lawrie, 1998) and keeping quality. This results in a pH fall of 1-2 units from initially 7.2 (Church and Wood, 1992). Other acids of interest are acetic, tartric, fumaric, sorbic and adipic acids (Stratford, 1999).

Scientific Attention to the Social Environment in the Nineteenth Century

Virchow also offered ideas about how social revolution influences epidemic diseases. He labeled as artificial those epidemics that concentrated among the poor, determined by living and working conditions, and as natural those that were more evenly distributed among social classes (Ackerknecht 1953). Social justice, education, self-government, separation of church and state - these would decrease artificial epidemics like those he had seen in Upper Silesia.

Gender Related Social Groups

Men spend much time with other men, working or relaxing and socializing. Some cooperative work groups and self-help groups are single sex, especially women's groups for revolving credit, income generating, and other purposes. Such groups help some women with their family responsibilities of providing food and clothing for their children and are also an important source of moral support. Church-based groups are likely to be mixed. Funerals (and there are many in this time of AIDS) bring together men and women of all ages.

Leadership in Public Arenas

Christian missionaries, resulting in greater male salience in many spheres, women's increased workloads, and loss of indigenous mechanisms to protect women's interests. In contemporary Buluyia, leadership in public arenas is almost entirely by men most politicians, government administrators, and church and clan leaders are men. Women do have leadership roles as teachers, school heads, and community health workers, in church groups and religious orders, and in women's self-help and cooperative work groups. Women also have roles in their own clans (e.g., in funeral rituals) and participate in clan discussions about important matters such as marriage. While women, especially older women, are outspoken in their opinions, they are likely to let males make final decisions, thus maintaining a deferential attitude and saving face for men.

Courtship and Marriage

Today young people are likely to choose their own partners, with sexual attraction and love playing a strong role and premarital sex likely. They may elope or the young woman may just move into her husband's house. If the family accepts her presence, the couple are considered to be married, though bridewealth is likely to be negotiated at some point and the birth of children makes the relationship stronger. With the traditional ceremonies no longer being performed, the couple may choose to have a church wedding or a civil wedding before a magistrate.

An Information Processing Metaphor of Scalar Timing Theory

Scalar Timing Theory

Various assumptions have been made about the time series of pulses that are emitted by a pacemaker. These include the assumption of a fixed interpulse interval, a random (exponential) distribution of interpulse intervals, and a fixed interpulse interval during the timing of an interval, but a normal distribution of rates (Gibbon and Church, 1984). Because, at the durations used in most of the experimental research, other sources of scalar variability overwhelm the effects of pacemaker variability, any of these possibilities remains plausible (Gibbon, 1992).

Changing Attitudes throughout History

Human attitudes toward animals are tied to questions of human identity. What we think about animals depends upon how we define ourselves. This is as true today as it was in the early Christian centuries. When early Christian church fathers explored the issue of people's relationship with animals, they departed from the classical position and claimed that humans are very different from animals because humans have souls and animals do not. The characteristic that church fathers determined most defined humanity in contrast with animals was what they called ''reason.'' This meant intelligence and the ability for abstract, logical thought. They believed that reason was the property of the soul, and that reason more than anything else separated humans from animals.

Gender and Religion

Until the adoption of Christianity as state religion in 301 ce, Armenians worshipped various deities. The primary deity in the Armenian pantheon was the goddess Anahit, a morally pure and virtuous goddess who nurtured her worshippers, provided them with guidance, and comforted them in their times of need. After Armenia adopted Christianity, Armenian society became more patriarchal and the beliefs related to Anahit were transferred to Mary (Astvatazin) (Zeitlian, 1992, p. viii). Today, Armenian women play a marginal role in the Armenian Church, and although there are male and female saints, Armenians do not have any monastic orders for women nor are there any female priests.

Cultural Overview

The affluence of Bali, compared with the poverty of other (especially more easterly) islands in Indonesia, and the attractions of the tourist industry have led to internal labor migration as well as urbanization urban and periurban areas are increasingly heterogeneous, with mosques and churches now not unusual sights and a cosmopolitan life-style in the main tourist areas. The Balinese too have spread out across the archipelago, participating in processes of religious colonization, transmigration, and the bureaucratization of the nation-state.

Relative Status of Men and Women

Both men and women hold formal positions in the public arena, including political offices and secret and title societies, and positions in church hierarchies, but men have considerably more opportunity than women to exhibit public leadership. The paramount chief (mfen, mfo, orfon), his council of nine nobles (nkam be'e), royal retainers, and most other title-holding nobility are all men. The duties of the queen mother (ma mfen) and title-holding women included advisory roles in statecraft in the past, but are increasingly limited to ceremonial and honorary roles. Over time, men in these public positions have gained more authority, while women's opportunities for formal participation in the public arena have diminished. Highly educated Bamileke women, mostly migrants to the major cities, who are developing successful careers in the Cameroonian civil service and the liberal professions (medicine, law), are the exceptions to this trend. Women's position in church hierarchies is ambiguous...

Carroll Lewis Charles L Dodgson

Dodgson 1832-1898) was a don (meaning fellow) of Christ Church, Oxford, who achieved fame through his Alice books. Carroll was also a major figure in the antivivisection (see ANTIVIVISEC-TIONISM) controversy at Oxford. His campaign against experimentation on animals led to the publication of his savage satire on vivisection (1875). He was a forerunner of the view that animal experiments would lead inexorably to experimentation on human subjects (1875, 14-16). Carroll opposed cruelty* to animals on theological grounds, maintaining that vivisection was the result of secular education that neglected Christian virtues. He was also adamantly opposed to hunting* and shooting animals for sport (see Cohen, 397).

Fish And Shellfish Products The Seafood Chain

It is known that humans have used rather advanced techniques for obtaining and processing seafood throughout recorded history. A main source of protein for the ancient Egyptians was fish from the Nile, Mediterranean, and pond culture. Fish was consumed fresh and salted for preservation by the Greeks. Dried fish became a major source of animal protein in Europe when the Roman church banned meat consumption on Fridays and during Lent.

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

A pattern emerging in the 1980s and 1990s, and perhaps reflecting national Canadian trends, has been an increased number of out-of-wedlock children and a reluctance on the part of young Chipewyan couples either to formally marry or to form independent family households (Jarvenpa, 1999). While this is vexing for church officials and some older Chipewyan, children from such unions are often raised by one or the other set of grandparents. In some respects, this appears to perpetuate historically familiar forms of adoption in Chipewyan society (Sharp, 1979), but in the contemporary context it also contributes toward a socially isolative inward-looking stance. By not creating new family households, the network of silot'ine, or bilateral kindreds, collapses rather than spreading outward among a potential of opportunities and resources within and between communities across Chipewyan territory.

Transfer between Tasks and Modalities

An abstract concept of number should not be tied to a sensory modality. Do animals appreciate that two sounds and two visual objects share twoness Fernandes and Church (1982) found that rats trained to discriminate two vs. four sound bursts immediately transferred the discrimination to two vs. four light flashes. Even more impressively, rats trained to make one response after two light flashes or tones and a second response after four light flashes or tones made the four-response to a compound stimulus of two light flashes and two tones (Church and Meck, 1984). These results suggest that the rats summed over the two modalities. However, rats trained by Davis and Albert (1987) were unable to transfer an auditory numerical discrimination to the visual modality when a more complex task was used that required rats to identify the intermediate value 3 from the adjacent values, 2 and 4 (see also Pastore, 1961 Salman, 1943).

Gender Roles in Economics

Movable property can be inherited by both men and women, with personal items like cloth, household equipment, tools, and furniture transmitted from father to son and mother to daughter. Use rights to farmland and house plots are activated through membership in a patrilineal clan. Upon the death of a man, conflicts sometimes emerge between the claims of his wife and those of his patrilineal kin in theory, the widow has no right to the house or the communal property of the marriage unless she can demonstrate that items were bought with her own earnings. At one time, a widow was inherited herself, coming under the protection of a male relative of her deceased husband, usually a younger brother, unless she preferred to refund part of the bridewealth and return to her own kin group. If the house and other property are inherited by an adult son, he is responsible for the support of his mother and any other cowives in their old age. Liberian women married under statutory law or in one of the...

Lessons From The Psychophysics Of Time

A more informative variation of the FI schedule is the peak-interval (PI) procedure (e.g., Church et al., 1994 Roberts, 1981). In the PI procedure, animals learn that a response will deliver food after a certain interval has passed following the initiation of a signal. The major difference between the FI schedule and the PI procedure is that in the latter, approximately 50 of the time there is no food reward. Instead, the signal stays on for a set period regardless of how the animal responds. It is during these no-reward trials that responses are recorded. Inevitably, the animal increases its response rate until the approximate time of the reward and then decreases its response until the signal is turned off, as shown in Figure 4.2. Movement of the peak function rate left or right is interpreted as a change in the rate of perceived time by the animal. The temporal bisection procedure requires the subject to discriminate between two signals, long and short in duration (e.g., by...

Christian Theology and Bioethics

From its beginnings, Christianity has displayed an interest in questions of health and healing that has verged on preoccupation. The gospels tell the story of one who went about doing good often in the form of miraculous interventions in the form of healings (throughout the Gospels) and, in certain cases, resurrections (e.g., Lazarus). In the ensuing story of the church the care and healing of the sick has had a special place, and medical missions have often been at the heart of the church's missionary thrust. In light of what is often taken to be a Christian focus on the life to come and the transitory nature of life in this world, this enduring theme of Christian service to health here and now may seem curious. Though Christian traditions have differed markedly in their approach to miraculous healing understood as a spiritual gift denied absolutely by some, ignored by many, practiced as central to their faith within the Pentecostal and related traditions the practical focus on...

Brief Description Of Five Models Of Nonverbal Number Representation

The third proposal is the mode-control model, or accumulator model it shares with the arbitrary numeron hypothesis the idea that animals use a serial process that conforms to the counting definition proposed by Gelman and Gallistel (1978). However, the mode-control model (Meck and Church, 1983 Meck et al., 1985) posits that number is represented as continuous magnitudes that directly reflect the magnitude of the discrete quantities they serve to represent (see Figure 6.10c). Thus the mode-control model contends that the nervous system inverts the representational convention whereby numbers are used to represent linear magnitudes. It is proposed that instead of using number to represent magnitude, the nervous system uses magnitude to represent number (see Gallistel and Gelman, 2000 Meck, 1997). Furthermore, the mode-control model posits that a single mechanism serves to represent time and number. The mode-control model was originally developed as an adaptation of the...

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

If there is an area of life where men do exert control over women, it is that of movement outside the home and free time. While men can spend their leisure time talking with friends (other men) at coffee shops, or on hunting or fishing expeditions, women tend to need to legitimate their activities away from the home. The restriction of women's movement is a phenomenon widely reported in the literature on Greece. When she leaves the house a woman opens herself up to comments by the community on her behavior where is she going, how is she dressed, is she meeting a lover (e.g., du Boulay, 1974 Seremetakis, 1991). Thus trips downtown for shopping or to the church on various religious duties are often a chance for married women to find time to socialize with friends, although they are often expected to give an account of their movements when they return home. However, this perspective has been contested and has shifted over the past 15 years, as young women move into new spaces such as the...

Challenges To Mental Health Professionals

Most of the individual-based approaches cited were either entirely home-based, or included a combination of home-and community-based sessions. For interventions delivered via a group format, most were located in an accessible part of the community (e.g., libraries, churches, senior centers), and in places other than traditional mental health settings. These community- and home-based approaches to intervention may be challenging for mental health practitioners who are used to office and or hospital-based work. This strategy, however, is important to providing accessible and generaliz-able cognitive and behavioral interventions to family care-givers. Thus, mental health practitioners who are interested in working with this population may want to consider adapting to this trend.

Other Cross Sex Relationships

Perhaps the only fairly significant cross-sex relationship outside marriage and parenting for some Hungarians is that between a godparent and his or her godchild. This institution only exists for Catholics and members of the Hungarian Reformed Church, although it is much more a cultural practice than an indication of church membership. The two most significant events at which the institution is visible and important are the child's baptism or christening, when the godparent promises to act as a lifetime moral religious guardian, and the child's wedding, when the godparents often serve as the witnesses.

Data Collection as Social Exchange

The social exchanges between interviewers and their respondents resemble familiar everyday social interactions in some respects. Some people participate in surveys because they feel they need to. This motivation is rapidly disappearing given informed consent and overload from market surveys residents of the United States appear increasingly unwilling to participate in person-to-person interviews of any sort (Atrostic et al. 1999). Some participate in interviews because they hope to get something from it the pleasure of having someone really listen to their opinions, the sense that they are helping others learn or benefit from their knowledge or condition, a way to fill up an otherwise dull day in a hospital or a waiting room. No matter what their original motivation is, when they participate in a survey, respondents react to the words and sentiments of the interviewer. They may want to obscure or minimize characteristics or practices deemed sensitive, such as household income or...

The Experiment on Barney Clark

Jarvik and DeVries spent many hours speaking with the media about the operation, the device, and their patient's health status. In the days after the implant, the healthcare team made many optimistic pronouncements to the media about Clark's chances for survival. But Clark followed a very rocky course during the 112 days he lived with the Jarvik-7 device. He suffered a wide range of complications that required three additional surgical procedures. After a few weeks on the machine, his emotional and cognitive state deteriorated severely, and on more than one occasion, he asked that the artificial heart be turned off. This was not done. After his death, more than 1,300 people, including political figures, members of the governing council of the Latter-Day Saints (Mormon) Church, of which Clark was a member, many of his doctors, and media representatives from around the world attended his funeral in Seattle, Washington.

Christianity bioethics in

The Eastern Orthodox church considers itself identical with the Church established by Jesus Christ and believes itself to be guided by the Holy Spirit, continuing that ecclesial reality into the present age as an organic historical, theological, liturgical continuity and unity with the apostolic Church of the first century. Historically, it sees itself as identical with the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church that suffered the Great Schism in 1054 that led to the division of Christendom into Eastern and Western Christianity. The Orthodox church is organized hierarchically, with an ordained clergy and bishops. A number of national and ethnic Orthodox churches, under the leadership of patriarchs, are united by tradition, doctrine, and spirit rather than by authority, although the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is accorded a primacy of honor. The church's identity is rooted in the experience of the Holy Spirit in all aspects of its life and in a doctrinal perspective that...

Bioethical Concerns and Methods

Bioethics as a distinct discipline is only a few decades old, but some topics included in the discipline, such as abortion, have been addressed by the Christian tradition over the centuries. Many bioethical issues are new, however, and the Orthodox church's views concerning them have yet to be officially stated. The method contemporary Orthodox ethi-cists use to determine Eastern Orthodox perspectives on bioethical questions is the same as the general method used to make ethical decisions. The general doctrinal stance and ethos of the church form the larger context, delineating basic perspectives. The church requires further study, however, to assess the moral dimensions of newly created bioethical questions. The ethicist concerned with bioethical questions then consults the tradition, which embodies the mind of the church Scripture, patristic writings, decisions of the ecumenical councils and other synods, the received doctrinal teachings of the church, canon law, ascetical writings,...

The Protection of Life

The protection of life has been a value pursued throughout history by the church. During the early days of the rise and spread of Christianity, abortion was widely practiced in the Roman Empire. The Church, based on its respect for life, condemned this practice in its canon law as a form of murder. The Church considered abortion particularly heinous because of the defenseless and innocent condition of the victim (Kowalczyk). Of course, no moral stance is absolute. In Orthodox traditional teaching, however, abortion is nearly always judged to be wrong. There can be unusual circumstances, such as an ectopic pregnancy that threatens the life of the mother, that might be judged prudentially as calling for an abortion, but such situations are rare.

Modern Medical Technology and Ethics

The development of medical science and technology has raised many new issues, however. Studying these issues from within the mind of the church has produced a body of positions that are expressive of the church's commitment to the protection of life. Some of these follow. PROFESSIONAL-PATIENT RELATIONSHIPS. In the area of the relationships of providers and recipients of healthcare, the church affirms the existence of patients' rights and requires that the medical profession honor them. The full human dignity of every person under treatment should be among the controlling values of healthcare providers, manifested in their concern to maintain the patient's privacy, obtain informed consent for medical procedures, develop wholesome personal contacts between the patient and the medical team members, and treat the patient as a total human being rather than an object of medical procedures. THE AGED. The protection of life covers the whole life span. The Orthodox church has always had a...

Dopamine And Attention Sharing

In our work, we pursued a different approach involving a single-task procedure previously used to study timing and memory for time in animals (Catania, 1970 Meck et al., 1984 Roberts, 1981 Roberts and Church, 1978). We examined a variation of the PI procedure in which subjects (rats or pigeons) have to filter out the gaps that (sometimes) interrupt timing (Catania, 1970 Roberts, 1981). In the gap procedure, the subjects are exposed to three types of trials FI trials, PI trials, and gap trials. Gap trials are similar to PI trials, but the signal is interrupted for a brief duration called a gap. Typically, in gap trials the mean response rate increases in the pregap interval, declines during the gap, and then increases again after the gap and reaches a peak that is delayed relative to the peak time during PI trials. Evidence discussed below suggests that in this paradigm the delay in peak time is controlled by an attention-sharing process that can be differentiated from the pacemaker...

Husband Wife Relationship

Couples tend to share the same bed and eat at least one meal a day together. Couples sit in church and engage in some recreational activities together. While labor is generally divided into male and female genres, husbands and wives do sometimes attend to their separate tasks but in each other's presence. They also sometimes help each other out with their respective tasks for instance, it is not unusual to see husbands and wives cooking a meal together or going off to cut copra together. The degree to which husbands and wives engage in joint domestic decision-making depends on the individuals' personalities. Prior to contact, divorces were difficult for elites to accomplish (given that so much intertribal business was invested in their marriages), but for commoners cohabitation might cease without any outcry. While the dissolution of nonmarried relationships is still easily and frequently accomplished, the break-up of married couples is complicated by the state and the Church, and the...

Mechanisms Underlying Modality Effects In Time Perception

Pacemaker Switch Accumulator System

A large body of work in rats, and other animals, much of it interpreted within the framework of scalar timing theory, has addressed both the neural and neurochemical substrates of the pacemaker-accumulator component of the internal clock (for a detailed review of the pharmacological basis of the internal clock, see Meck, 1996). For example, Maricq and Church (1983) reported that the dopaminergic agonist methamphetamine increased the rate of the internal clock, whereas the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol decreased the rate of the internal clock when rats timed intervals in the seconds range. The importance of the dopaminergic system for timing has also been extended to human participants (Malapani et al., 1998 Malapani and Rakitin, this volume Raamsayer, 1997a, 1997b). Although there is strong experimental evidence that both the rate of the internal clock and the latency with which timing processes are initiated are affected by pharmacological manipulations, the question of whether...

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

If possible, fathers take their sons with them to work. Mothers more often than fathers discipline and even beat their children (Gutmann, 1996, p. 77 LeVine, 1993, p. 159). Affection is not necessary a motherly trait, but can even be viewed as characteristic of a father-child relation (Gutmann, 1996, p. 76). Supervising homework and the child's formal education can be done by either parent, yet religious education and church attendance are generally the mother's domain. Class may affect parenting. As Gutmann (1996, p. 85) notes, middle- and upper-class fathers are less likely to take part in childcare than working-class fathers. This is because most childcare in the upper and middle class is done by a muchacha (maid, cook, and nanny).

The Development of Catholic Thought

In time creationism, with its dualistic tendencies, became the majority view in the Western or Latin church, and it was often combined with the idea that the soul was not joined to the body until formation. The reintroduction of Aristotle into Western thought brought new subtleties to the discussion. Thomas Aquinas, whose integration of Aristotle into Christian theology in the thirteenth century was at first controversial but was subsequently seen as authoritative for Catholics, combined creationism with the view that the soul undergoes transition. At its beginning, the embryo does not have a human soul, merely the kind of soul common to all forms of life and responsible for growth and development. Only when fetal development advances to a stage that resembles human form is it possible for the human soul to be present. The human or intellectual soul is immaterial and must be created by God, who joins it to the developing fetus. At that moment of ensoulment, the fetus becomes human or...

Current Catholic Teaching

In 1987 the Catholic Church provided guidance on reproductive medicine and embryo research in Donum vitae (Respect for human life). Donum vitae poses and then answers a key question how could a human individual not be a human person The Magisterium has not expressly committed itself to an affirmation of a philosophical nature, but it constantly reaffirms the moral condemnation of any kind of procured abortion (Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 1987, part I, no. 1). In other words, immediate hominization is not affirmed doctrinally but its implications are fully asserted morally, not just for abortion some weeks into a pregnancy but in regard to the embryo at the earliest moment. Donum vitae insists Again asserting moral certainty while avoiding doctrinal conclusiveness, the Catholic Church in 1974 issued its Declaration on Procured Abortion, which states This declaration expressly leaves aside the question of the moment when the spiritual soul is infused. There is not a...

Shortinterval Timing

A wide variety of theories of short-interval timing have been proposed (Church and Broadbent, 1991 Gibbon, 1977 Jones, 1976 Killeen and Fetterman, 1988 Large and Jones, 1999 McAuley, 1996 McAuley and Kidd, 1998 Miall, 1989 Treisman, 1963). These theories generally fall into two classes approaches from a dynamical system perspective that involve coupled oscillators (Large and Jones, 1998 McAuley and Kidd, 1998) and approaches from an information-processing perspective (Church and Broadbent, 1991 Gibbon, 1977 Treisman, 1963). Most theories that incorporate explicit memory for time are information-processing models, which involve three independent components an internal clock used to estimate duration, a reference memory used to store information about duration, and a comparison mechanism used to make judgments about how much time has elapsed relative to a remembered (expected) standard duration (Church and Broadbent, 1991). Within this framework, scalar expectancy theory (SET) has been...

Responses to Epidemics before the Nineteenth Century

Popular reactions to epidemics included not only flight from infected areas and evasion of public health measures, but also attacks on already marginalized and stigmatized minorities. As bubonic plague spread in Europe in 1348-1349, for example, rumors that the Jews were poisoning water supplies led to widespread pogroms. Over nine hundred Jews were massacred in the German city of Erfurt alone (Vasold). Such actions reflected a general feeling, reinforced by the church, that plagues were visited upon humankind by a wrathful Deity angered by immorality, irreligion, and the toleration of infidels. A prominent part in these persecutions was played by the flagellants, lay religious orders whose self-flagellating processions were intended to divert divine retribution from the rest of the population. Jews were scapegoated because they were not part of the Christian community. Drawing upon a lengthy tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, which blamed the Jews for the killing of Christ, the...

Cortico Striatallike Auditory Processing Module

This system embodies the crux of simultaneous temporal processing as described by Meck and Church (1984). Several signals (syllables in our case), each one indicating the onset of a different temporal criteria, can be combined in such a way that they provide temporal information about the occurrence of a single biologically pre-potent stimulus. In this fashion, the songbird could come to behave as if it is independently timing each syllable without interference (see Pang and McAuley, this volume).

Sayres Law See Murphys Laws

Searchers to be an information processing system model that contains a number of components such as a pacemaker, a switch that may connect the pacemaker to an accumulator, a working (short-term) memory, and a reference (long-term) memory. According to this view, the rate of the pacemaker is not tied to the rate of reinforcement (as it is in the behavioral theory of timing), although it may vary randomly between intervals that are being timed. The connectionist theories of timing were developed to determine whether an associationist theory of timing could account for the data that were explained by scalar timing theory. In terms of their psychological modularity, the three timing theories may be considered to be quite similar that is, they all have information-processing stages of perception, memory, and decisions however, their representations of each of these stages are different. For instance, J. Crystal reports that a connectionist theory of time (based on data from rats' judgments...

Tolstoy Leo Nikolayevich

Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828-1910) was a Russian aristocrat, novelist, and writer. Like Mohandas Gandhi,* he was deeply committed to the principle of nonviolence, which he also extended to the animal world. He translated Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet into Russian with an accompanying essay ''The First Step'' (1892), in which he commends vegetarianism* as a step toward achieving the moral perfection required by Christ's teaching as illustrated by the Sermon on the Mount. Tolstoy corresponded with the Humanitarian League and eventually became a member. Although he was influenced by Orthodox spirituality, he was deeply critical of the established Orthodox Church, complaining that it legitimized violence and cruelty. His many novels illustrate the need for a spiritual life inclusive of respect for animals nowhere is this more powerfully stated than in the opening section of Resurrection (1904), where humans are pictured in their own physical and moral prison, unable to grasp that...

Changes in Sucrose Consumption

It is a much more straightforward business to enquire about sugar (refined sucrose) consumption than honey consumption in preindustrial times. All sugar supplies, in Europe, came from imports, so customs records constitute a readily accessible record of national consumption. In the 1520s, the Dissolution of the Monasteries reduced demand for bees-wax for church candles and brought about a small decrease in the production of honey. Almost simultaneous with this came an increase in the supply of refined sucrose, imported from the new European colonies. Sugar was still considerably more expensive than honey, but this combination of events gained it a more complete following among the wealthy. Cookery books were used exclusively by the well-to-do at this time and clearly illustrate that, for this section of society, sugar had, by the 1550s, usurped honey's place in the diet.

Cultural Construction of Gender

Recognized gender categories include men and women, who are generally assumed to have distinct psychological and personality traits and to possess different capabilities. A widespread notion is that, as a result of their inherently different natures, men and women complete one another and need each other in order to live a full life. This conviction is at least partially based on the tenets of the Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox Churches (historically the state religions), which emphasize men's and women's complementary roles.

Pros and Cons of the Accumulator Model of PD Timing Effects

While the most important outcome from these simulations is the light it sheds on the manner in which limitations of SET can be overcome to account for migration, this model has certain features that interest us with respect to modeling timing in the basal ganglia. An important aspect of basal ganglia anatomy is the dichotomy between the direct and indirect pathways from the striatum to the globus pallidus. Both of these pathways originate in the striatum (Bejjani et al., 1997 Benabid et al., 1991, 1998 Limousin et al., 1995a, 1995b, 1998 Mitchell et al., 1986, 1995 Molinuevo et al., 2000 Pollak et al., 2002 Yelnik et al., 2000), rely on dopaminergic function (Young and Penney, 1984), and terminate at the globus pallidus (Albin et al., 1989 Crossman, 1989 DeLong, 1990 Filion et al., 1991 Miller and DeLong, 1987 Robertson et al., 1990, 1991 Tronnier et al., 1997). The net influence of activity in these pathways is opposite in that the direct pathway upregulates pallidal activity, while...

Institutional Missions

The mission of an institution may also be articulated in the framework of its membership in a larger institution such as a church or religious network. Thus, some Catholic hospitals provide care to a large number of American patients (who are not necessarily Catholic), and their mission specifically derives from values espoused by the Catholic Church. Similarly, many other hospitals have emerged from religious systems because of the latter's commitment to helping the vulnerable and caring for the sick and suffering. Institutional missions may sometimes conflict with bedside ethical decisions, such as the decision to forgo life-sustaining therapy or to have an elective abortion. In these settings it is important for patients and providers alike to be clear about the underlying moral environment of the institution and the degree to which it may or may not be flexible on certain issues. Patients who feel strongly that they do not want care with those articulated standards should then...

Community Organizations

Other institutions in Gambell and Savoonga include the corporations (Sivuqaq Incorporated, Savoonga Incorporated), the tribal councils (the Native Village of Gambell, the Native Village of Savoonga), the schools, the churches, and the Boat Captains' Associations. With the exception of the Boat Captains' Associations, there is no specific gender division present. However, in general,

Gender and Religion Christian Conversion

Contemporary St Lawrence Islanders are members of two Protestant Christian denominations, the Presbyterian Church and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Christianity was introduced by American teacher-missionaries beginning in 1894, and by 1940 many in the two communities had embraced Christianity. Both men and women sought baptism and the dominant church, the Presbyterian, has regularly had both men and women as church leaders. In Savoonga, one woman has become an ordained minister and has done extensive missionary work in Russian Yupik communities in Chukotka.

Neuroimaging And The Time Measurement System

Bearing knowledge of the limiting characteristics of neuroimaging techniques in mind, let us think about the basic components of the scalar expectancy theory (or scalar timing) model (see Church, this volume Gibbon et al., 1984) and ask how we can identify the mechanisms and the neural loci of each. The various components are the time-dependent process (the pacemaker), the local memory stores (the accumulator and the reference memory), and the comparator, as well as sensory input and modulatory output systems. Temporal information processing would also include the attentional system and the cognitive output structures or the motor systems using information from the timer.

Consensual Issues And Major Advances

First of all, the book masterfully demonstrates how the scalar timing model, or scalar expectancy theory (SET) (Gibbon et al., 1984), fuels many distinct fields of interval timing research. Initially grounded on animal studies using conditioning schedules for timing (see Church, this volume) and counting (see Brannon and Roitman, this volume), SET has inspired ecological foraging theories and the analysis of other natural behaviors (see Bateson, this volume Hills, this volume MacDonald and Meck, this volume), has invaded the ontogenetic and aging fields (see Droit-Volet, this volume Lustig, this volume), and provides a foundation to the attentional models developed in the frame of human timing (see Fortin, this volume Pang and McAuley, this volume). As any vivid and comprehensive model, it also elicits alternative and contradictory views (see Crystal, this volume Hopson, this volume Malapani and Rakitin, this volume Matell et al., this volume Meck, this volume), reminding us of the...

Attainment of Adulthood

There are a number of different paths that allow young men and women to become recognized as adults. Confirmation in the Catholic Church is one step that many Zapotec men and women take in moving toward adulthood. Increasingly Zapotec girls are organizing quinceaneras, an age-based ritual for girls that is a kind of coming out for them as young women, eligible for marriage. While this ritual involves attending mass and dressing the young woman in a dress that resembles a bridal gown, the ritual also has secular elements that in some ways parallel non-Zapotec elements included in weddings that are common throughout Mexico a large cake, a feast, dancing, and presents. There is no parallel ritual for young men.

Differential Diagnosis Of Seizures

Congenital heart disease can produce paroxysmal events at all ages. Abrupt mental status changes may occur in patients with pulmonary hypertension, aortic stenosis, tetralogy of Fallot, single ventricle, cardiac rhabdomyomas, etc. Acquired cardiomyopathy may result in decreased cardiac output (Adams-Stokes disease) or cerebrovascular accident. The prolonged QT syndrome and neurocardiogenic syncope may cause nonepileptic seizures or syncopal episodes. They should be evaluated for when epilepsy is unsubstantiated or the more obvious problems of diaphoresis, light-headedness, and skin color temperature changes precede or accompany unconsciousness. In adolescents, syncope due to stretching and yawning or following hair combing (vasovagal) is more common. Many children experience syncope when standing in church.

Description of the Model

Psychologists Warren Meck and Russell Church to account for a variety of numerical abilities that they found in rats. Meck and Church noticed a number of similarities in rats' ability to determine number and their ability to measure temporal duration. To account for these similarities, they proposed that a single mechanism underlies both abilities and expanded an existing model for measurement of temporal intervals so as to incorporate a counting component. Their proposed accumulator mechanism works as follows a pacemaker puts out pulses of energy at a constant rate, which can be passed into an accumulator by the closing of a mode switch. In its timing mode, the switch closes at the beginning of the temporal interval being timed and remains closed for its duration, passing energy into the accumulator continuously at a constant rate. Thus, the amount of energy in the accumulator varies in direct proportion to the length of the timed duration. The fullness of the accumulator after...

The Origins and Meanings of Disease Pattern Categories

What characteristics do scientists identify as falling within these categories, and what do they leave out Some of the common variables that epidemiologists think of as belonging to the category person include age, sex, marital status, race, socioeconomic status, religion, and occupation. But each of these variables potentially represents multiple underlying processes. A variable such as age, for example, represents a biological process of growth and development as well as a social process of changing recognition of status and responsibility. A variable such as religion represents a set of conditions (presence of faith itself, behaviors dictated by church doctrine, access to social support, ability to attend services) as well as a routinely collected marker of social status. Without explicit theories linking underlying processes to measured causal variables, the categories are meaningless, and studies linking them to health outcomes are difficult to understand and compare. Disease...

Religious and Moral Issues

Many feminists emphasize reproductive rights, freedom, control of one's body and autonomy to support their stand that women have the right to make contraceptive decisions in all cases (Harrison). Although society at large in the United States no longer condemns all extramarital sexuality as immoral and irresponsible, the mainstream churches and religions still generally maintain the immorality of sexual relations outside marriage (Lebacqz). The use of condoms enters into the discussion of extramarital sexuality not only because of the desire to prevent procreation, but also because condoms can help to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually-transmitted diseases. If one believes that extramarital sexual relations are morally responsible, then the use of contraception to prevent unwanted procreation is morally acceptable. No perfect contraception exists, but most ethical reasoning sees no significant moral differences among the various means, provided they are not harmful to...

Behavioral Theory Of Timing

Optimal timing and the Weber function. Psycho-logicalReview, 94, 455-468. Killeen, P., & Fetterman, J. G. (1988). A behavioral theory of timing. Psychological Review, 95, 274-295. Church, R., Broadbent, H., & Gibbon, J. (1992). Biological and psychological descriptions of an internal clock. In I. Gormezano & E. Wasserman (Eds.), Learning and memory The behavioral and biological substrates. Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum. Fetterman, J. G., & Killeen, P. (1995). Categorical scaling of time Implications for clock-counter models. Journal of Experimental Psychology Animal BehaviorProcesses, 21, 43-63. Church, R. (1997). Timing and temporal events. In C. Bradshaw & E. Sza-badi (Eds.), Time and behavior Psychological and neurobehavioral analyses. Amsterdam, Netherlands North-Holland.

Protestant Perspectives

Protestants, in the late-twentieth century, were generally supportive of the right of women to choose an abortion, even though they adopted a cautious approach of limiting to the most serious reasons the circumstances under which this right could be exercised. For instance, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), in a 2000 publication, outlined a position similar to that of other traditional denominations This is not to suggest that the members of these denominations are in strong agreement with the official position, and in fact there is some reason to believe that support for these positions is eroding. In addition, the character of Protestantism has been changing in the United States, with the rapid growth of evangelical, independent, and charismatic churches that often criticize traditional denominations for being too accommodating to secular culture on matters such as abortion. As a result, even those who fully support the right of women to choose an abortion as a matter of public...

Determining the safety and efficacy of hypoallergenic infant formulas

The oldest technique for quantification of a-amino groups uses ninhydrin (Moore and Stein, 1948), which reacts with them to produce a heavy blue product that is detected at 570 hm. This method is very sensitive but present several disadvantages, such as the interference of ammonia and the oxygen sensitivity of the reagent. In addition, the analysis requires a lot of time, due to the heating and cooling phases required for chromophore formation (Turgeon et al., 1991). The utilisation of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) and orthophthaldialdehyde (OPA), other specific reagents for a-amino groups released by the hydrolysis of a peptide bond, for the analysis of protein hydrolysates was proposed by Adler-Nissen (1979) and Church et al. (1983), respectively. Samples are incubated with TNBS for 1 hour at 37 C, and subsequently the absorbance is measured at 420 nm. Some disadvantages of this technique are the duration of the analysis, reagent contamination by picric acid giving high...

The Psychological and Social Context of Domestic Abuse

The emotional, psychological, and physical consequences of abuse must be understood in their larger context of sexism, patriarchy, and paternalistic dominance (Lerner). Gerda Lerner defined sexism as the ideology of male supremacy, of male superiority, and of beliefs that support and sustain it (Lerner, p. 240). Sexism undergirds patriarchy, the institutionalization of male dominance over women and children in the family and the extension of male dominance over women in society in general (Lerner, p. 239). A sociological study of domestic abuse in Scotland documented the connection between domestic violence and patriarchal marriage. The researchers concluded that the law, the church, economic opportunities, appeals to science or to the natural order, and social customs all promote women's subordinate status in marriage. Women find their struggle to resist domination, including violence, within marriage labeled wrong, immoral, and a violation of the respect and loyalty a wife is...

Other Moral Considerations

Some have proposed severely restrictive criteria for embryo research. Norman Ford, after providing painstaking arguments to support the conclusion that the embryo cannot be a human individual until fourteen days after fertilization, acknowledges that he could be wrong. In his view, the Catholic Church is right to insist on the principle that human embryos should be treated as persons, even if they may not be (2001, p. 160). In other words, as long as there is any degree of uncertainty regarding the moral status of the embryo, it must be absolutely inviolate.

Modern Protestant Views on Abortion

Specific comment on abortion is rare in most Reformation traditions until the twentieth century. Perhaps in deference to the lack of biblical discussion, most reformers considered matters regarding the morality of abortion, like matters governing all sexual and reproductive behavior, to be ordered by human rational discernment. They were issues of natural morality rather than of revealed truth. Despite emphasis on recovering the meaning of Christian biblical tradition, Lutherans, Calvinists, and Anglicans (post-Roman Church of England adherents) maintained the view, longstanding in western Christianity, that much moral knowledge, including the order of human sexuality and reproduction, falls within the purview of natural human knowledge, that is, they are matters for rational deliberation and discernment. Contrary to the trend of modern Protestant fundamentalist biblicism in discussions of abortion, most Protestant traditions tended to embrace a type of reasoning that accepted human...

Research Not Followed By Embryo Transfer

Opponents of preimplantation embryo research have replies to these arguments and adduce other arguments of their own. In response to the first argument of proponents, the opponents assert that the end of desirable clinical consequences does not justify the means of performing research that seriously damages or destroys the embryo. To the consequential argument of proponents, conservatives may counterpose a consequential argument of their own, namely, that negative consequences will result from research on early embryos. For example researchers may become desensitized to the value of human life, or bizarre human-nonhuman hybrids may be produced in the laboratory (Catholic Church, Dawson, 1990b).

History Of Mental Retardation

The Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation (476 to the 16th century) began with the fall of Rome and the subsequent heightened status of Christianity. This resulted in a period of time in which the church, through foundling homes and orphanages, provided for those whom they believed were mentally deficient. These individuals came to be known as children of innocence and of God who were to be protected. Later in this period, Martin Luther proposed that feebleminded children'' were a result of sin and the Devil, and that they and their mothers should be burned at the stake. Luther's view was one that influenced society in a pervasive manner. Throughout all the foregoing years of the Middle Ages, there was little true understanding of mental retardation and limited acknowledgment that mental retardation was separate from other disorders. Instances of formal recognition of mental retardation as a general disorder were sparse.

Possession Religions as Worship and Tradition

Pentecostal and Charismatic churches have a long and variable history in this country. Here the faithful experience possession by the Holy Spirit, speak in tongues (glossolalia), and manifest other Gifts of the Spirit. They are associated with healing only to a limited extent. They have widespread appeal as well in Latin America and Africa, where they may be in competition with established Possession Trance religions.

Ludovicis Theory Of Laughter

According to Ludovici's theory, the essence of laughter is the baring of the teeth, and he repeatedly uses the phrase show teeth as a synonym for laugh in his theory. However, a criticism of Ludovici's theory and its attendant superior adaptation notion may be found in the observations by ethologists that animals, at least, show their fangs most often when they are brought into a corner by a power, object, or animal that they fear is superior to themselves. Ludovici - who had no graduate degrees or university professorships -was virtually alone among Western thinkers he wrote on the following diverse issues the sickness afflicting modern art arguments why men should not have given women the right to vote arguments why democracy culminates in anarchy discussion of evolutionary ethics that mankind needs for survival in a hostile universe marriage should take place only among members of the same race (like should marry like - in personality, physiognomy, and racial type) interpretations...

Gender over the Life Cycle Socialization of Boys and Girls

Long, and dress, with boys wearing shorts and shirts, and girls wearing dresses as well as shorts and shirts. Both infant boys and girls are provided with a baki ritual named bagor soon after birth, to introduce them to the spiritual beings. Christian Ifugao may also, or only, have their infant children baptized in a Catholic church or participate in a Protestant dedication ritual. Ifugao conduct a baki ritual when naming their children. One early rite of passage in which only boys participate is the first cutting of their hair, which includes a baki religious ritual and feast (Barton, 1911).

Assumptions about Defining and Measuring Variables

I have described two different levels of categorization of variables in the last few paragraphs. Person, place, and time represent very large groupings of variables, whereas concepts such as religion, altitude, or season are more specific. But another aspect of measurement is also significant, namely, the specific question or measure used to collect information about a given variable called the operationalization of that variable. Consider, for example, how to measure the impact of religion on health status. Let's imagine a hypothetical experiment to assess the effects of religiosity on health. We might want to compare the health of people who pray with those who do not or the health of people who are prayed for with those who are not. (For a wonderful example of a test of this theory, see an 1872 paper by the statistician Francis Galton titled A statistical inquiry into the efficacy of prayer.) The investigator in this case would want to measure the frequency and duration of prayer....

The History of Circumcision

As a Jew, Jesus was circumcised, and the early Christian church debated the need for circumcision as a criterion for joining the Christian fellowship it was decided that circumcision was not necessary for salvation. According to the apostle Paul, For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth nor uncircumcision but faith which worketh by love (Gal. 5 6). These religious traditions remain strong, although the health debate has led to a questioning of the religious practice by a few members of the Jewish community (Milos and Macris).

Marriage Arrangements Brideprice Grooms Service and Tradition Based Marriage Ceremonies

The pattern whereby men continue to work together within their families and with their fathers, brothers, and uncles as their primary allies, while women marry away from their original support base and must develop a new support base, is illustrated best through a description of the marriage process. (This discussion of courtship and marriage is based on Jolles 2002, pp. 121-149 and Jolles and Kaningok 1991 .) Marriage itself was once arranged by senior elders, and contemporary gender concepts and living patterns reflect older patterns common in the late 1800s and early 1900s. One aspect of marriage was lineal and clan alliance. Only since the late 1960s has it become accepted for young people to marry for love. Marriages in 2002 still included a buying ceremony in which the groom's ramket (clan group) collected gifts to be presented to the bride's ramket, particularly to the members of the bride's lineage. While no strict rules of exogamy apply in the village, the two largest clans,...

Dopamine And The Internal Clock

A representation of the mapping between the stopwatch metaphor (Church, 1978) and an information-processing model of interval timing (Gibbon et al., 1984) is given in Figure 12.1A. The information-processing model of interval timing continues the tradition of Treisman's (1963) internal clock in that pulses emitted by a pacemaker are temporarily stored in an accumulator, and that upon delivery of reinforcement, the number of pulses from the accumulator is stored in reference memory (Gibbon et al., 1984). The model implements the scalar expectancy theory (Gibbon, 1977) in that the response of the subjects is controlled by the ratio comparison between the current time (stored in the accumulator) and the criterion interval (stored in the reference memory). Figure 12.1B shows that according to the model, subjective time, stored in the accumulator, is linearly related to objective time, and that the error in time estimation increases with the to-be-timed interval. Therefore, two groups of...

Clinical Ethics Analysis of Case

When not in the abnormal moods, Crystal seemed to be a bright and happy child. She enjoyed playing the piano, singing, and dancing, and made friends easily. She was a straight-A 10th-grade student, described by her parents as artistic, outgoing, and active in her church youth group. During the prior 2 years she had twice secretly taken large doses of analgesic tablets from the family bathroom medicine cabinet and ingested them without telling anyone, and without apparent physical harm. These incidents occurred at a time when several relatives and a friend of the family were creating a climate of grief in her family by unexpectedly committing suicide, so that a posttraumatic stress phenomenon or grief and confusion might have been factors.

Preparing For Special Occasions

It is important for a holiday schedule to include the number of nights you will be staying there, that you will be waiting at the airport and that you will be going home again. If the child is sensitive to noise,the preparations should include such things as the fact that the organ will be playing in the church. If the child is being looked after by grandparents or by anyone else, it is important that they also provide visual support. After all, they would not prevent the child from wearing glasses either It is a good idea to make a mobile schedule for visits (see page 31).

Differentiating The Models

That animals are thought to count (event mode) and time (run or stop mode) simultaneously (e.g., Meck and Church, 1983 Roberts et al., 2000). The linear-with-scalar-variability subjective number line hypothesis and the logarithmic subjective number line hypothesis have been treated as functionally equivalent because of their similar empirical predictions (Dehaene, 1992). However, Gibbon and Church (1981) developed a clever experimental paradigm to address whether time is subjectively represented in linear or logarithmic coordinates (time-left). This paradigm makes use of the simple fact that if the subjective time scale is logarithmically scaled, behavior based on the difference between two values will be the same whenever the two values have the same ratio, no matter how far apart these values are objectively. In other words, subtraction in a logarithmic scale is equal to division in a linear scale. Brannon et al. (2001) adapted the time-left paradigm to investigate the subjective...

The Persistence of Time

The term interval timing is used to describe the temporal discrimination processes involved in the estimation and reproduction of relatively short durations in the sec-onds-to-minutes range that form the fabric of our everyday existence and unite our mental representations of action sequences and rhythmical structures (e.g., Fraisse, 1963 Gallistel, 1990 Gibbon and Allan, 1984 Krampe et al., 2002 Macar et al., 1992 McAuley and Jones, 2002 Pressing, 1999 Rousseau and Rousseau, 1996). A classic example of interval timing comes from the fixed-interval (FI) procedure in which a subject is reinforced for the first response it makes after a programmed interval has elapsed since the previous reinforcement (Skinner, 1936). Subjects (e.g., primates, rodents, birds, and fish) trained on this procedure typically show what is known as the fixed-interval scallop. This pattern of behavior involves pausing after the delivery of reinforcement and starting to respond after a fixed proportion of the...

California Holistic New Age Healing Center

English-Lueck (1990) conducted an ethnography of the holistic health New Age movement in Paraiso (pseudonym), a California community consisting largely of white upper-middle- and upper-class residents. Despite its relative ethnic homogeneity, Paraiso's residents adhered to a variety of lifestyles. These included millionaires, university students, and members of unconventional congregations, such as the Unitarian Universalist Church, the Unity School of Christianity, and the Church of Religious Science. Paraiso has numerous self-help groups, 36 schools that offer workshops and lectures on alternative medicine, and three schools that offer training in various alternative therapies, including massage, acupuncture, and hypnosis. The local community college, the university extension program, the YMCA, herbal stores, a Taoist sanctuary, and a Yogic Institute ashram also offer workshops on alternative therapies.

Religious Traditions B Roman Catholic Perspectives

The fact that Catholic views of the precise status of the fetus as human life have changed over time and that the church's position has a philosophical rather than a religious basis are key to late-twentieth-century church teaching on abortion. That teaching is that the fetus must be given the benefit of the doubt, and be treated as if it were a person from conception onward. This teaching is not stated as a sectarian religious proposition, but as a humanistic and philosophical truth to be recognized in civil laws guaranteeing appropriate protection to fetal life. Although exhortations to protect life in the womb have often been supported with religious allusions (for instance, to the will of the Creator or to the image of God in humanity), the duties to continue pregnancy and to sustain infants have been grounded primarily in the natural law, understood as a shared human morality innate to all persons and knowable by reason. In examining the foundations and development of the...

Deborah Slalom and E Thomas Dowd

Because gambling can be found in numerous forms in various places, it is important that gamblers adopt new behaviors designed to reduce their exposure to gambling locales. These places can range from casinos to church halls to drugstores, so there is some difficulty in accomplishing this goal. However, pathological gamblers can systematically avoid going to places that offer gambling, change their route while driving home to avoid gambling establishments, and in the case of drugstores, avoid the lottery ticket counters. If exposure is inevitable, the pathological gambler can leave as quickly as possible (Ladouceur et al., 2002).

Gender over the Life Cycle

Baptism, which takes place at the age of 12, marks the transition to young adulthood. For girls, it is a time to think about marriage, while for boys it signifies that they are no longer children but spiritual adults of the church. Unmarried boys from elite families who decide to stay in the community often participate in local missionary work for a few years (e.g., weeding, repairing roads, building homes, and clearing drainage ditches). Because the communities fear condemnation from the outside world, they do not, like the mainstream Mormon church, send their youth to live outside the community.

Historical Development

Contraceptive and abortifacient drugs, as well as infanticide, were certainly used widely in the ancient world, not only to conceal sexual crimes but also to limit family size and conserve property. Early Christian authors such as Tertullian, Jerome, and Augustine in the Western church, and Clement of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, and Basil in the Eastern church, repudiated these practices. They did not, however, challenge their patriarchal social context, with its requirement that female sexuality serve the good of the family and its assumption that women seeking to avoid pregnancy were usually guilty of sexual infidelity. Local councils tended to support this stand. In 303 c.e., on the Iberian Peninsula, the Council of Elvira excluded from the church for the rest of her life any woman who had obtained an abortion after adultery. In 314, the Eastern church, at the Council of Ancyra (Ankara), reduced the period of penance to ten years, although it retained the lifetime ban for...

Intercountry Adoption

The shortage of desirable adoptable babies in the United States has led many who wish to adopt to seek children in other countries. The first international adoptions generally involved Amerasian children, that is, those fathered by GIs in Japan during and after World War II, in Korea during and after the Korean War, and in Vietnam during the U.S. involvement there. These adoptions were first sponsored by church groups and then by licensed adoption agencies (Lifton, 1994).

Are Expressions Necessary For Emotional Experience

In a more recent study, Sandi Duclos (Duclos & Laird, 2001) explored the effectiveness of deliberate inhibition of expression on feeling. In contrast to the many studies of college students, the participants in Duclos's study were adults recruited from a mainstream church who were unacquainted with recent psychology and who were very dubious about the potential benefits of controlling their expressive behavior. Nonetheless, inhibiting expressive behavior was quite effective in reducing the intensity of both sadness and anger.

Indels Insertiondeletion Polymorphisms

Marth, G., Schuler, G., Yeh, R., Davenport, R., Agarwala, R., Church, D., Wheelan, S., Baker, J., Ward, M., Kholodov, M., Phan, L., Czabarka, E., Murvai, J., Cutler, D., Wooding, S., Rogers, A., Chakravarti, A., Harpending, H.C., Kwok, P.Y. and Sherry, S.T. (2003) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 100, 376-381.

The Transmission of Life

The Eastern Orthodox approach to marriage provides the context for discussing procreative and sexual issues. The church sees marriage as a sacramental dimension of human life, with ecclesial and interpersonal dimensions and purposes (Guroian). The Orthodox church sees both men and women as equal before God as human beings and as persons called to grow toward God-likeness. Both men and women are persons in their own right before God and may be endowed with many potentialities that ought to be developed as part of their human growth. Yet the special sacramental relationship of marriage, procreation, and child rearing gives to women, in the mind of the church, a special role. Accompanying it is the role of husband and father in constituting a marriage and creating a family. Most of the bioethical issues regarding the transmission of life arise out of this marital and familial perspective in Orthodox thought. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES. Artificial insemination assists spouses to procreate...

Activism For Animals

Victorian antivivisectionists tended to use the same methods of protest developed by other groups advocating social change. Foreshadowing contemporary ''celebrity activism,'' Cobbe enlisted the support of individuals prominent in law, government, and the church to lobby for the cause. Antivivisection and animal welfare organizations produced a huge volume of literature in the 19th century, including periodicals, advertisements, and tracts. Five antivivisection congresses drawing activists from all over Europe were held from 1898 to 1909, with the last culminating in a demonstration in London that included seven marching bands.

Critical Debates

Second, is the equality of women, and the substantive legal, social, and material support for women and families enjoined by the Declaration, really as high on the practical pro-life agenda of Roman Catholicism as is the enactment of punitive sanctions for abortion A deep skepticism about whether this is so gives the abortion rights cry of many feminists its immense symbolic value in the struggle for gender and sexual equality. While some Catholic feminists believe that sexual self-determination and effective birth control is a better way to ensure women's liberation than recourse to a form of killing, other Catholic feminists insist that the choice to terminate pregnancy must be available to women as long as a patriarchal church and society identify women's roles as reproductive and domestic in order to constrain women's moral agency and to exclude women from the range of social participation available to men. A major point of debate within Roman Catholicism is the level of legal...

Future Directions

Milsom JW, Lavery IC, Church JM, Stolfi VM, Fazio VW. Use of laparoscopic techniques in colorectal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 1994 37 215-218. 140. Fingerhut A. Laparoscopic colectomy. The French experience. In Jager R, Wexner SD(es). Laparoscopic colorectal surgery. New York Churchill Livingstone1995.

Ritual Attendance

If we make some basic ethnographic observations, and visit churches in Rome, Paris, New York City, or Moscow, we will immediately realize that women make up the majority of those in attendance. Anthropological observations in India indicate that women make up the majority of those attending Hindu temples (Firth, 1997). In those traditions where ritual attendance by women is discouraged, such as Islam and Judaism, the majority of those attending will be men (Loewenthal, MacLeod, & Cinnirella, 2002).