Coconut Oil Secret - Best Healing Superfood
Specialty colored and flavored shortenings are designed to replace butter or margarine in grilling, pan frying, and other applications (soups, sauces, gravies, basting, and bun wash). These may be liquid or solid, resist darkening, reduce waste (no water), and eliminate scorching (no milk solids). Other ingredients may be added. These include salt (flavor enhancement), flavorings (garlic), and even small amounts of butter itself (33-36). Coconut oil may be added for abusive, high-temperature applications (37).
Oxidative damage by ROS to DNA and lipids contributes significantly to the etiology of cancer and atherosclerosis. A decrease in production of pro-inflammatory mediators would, therefore, be beneficial by decreasing the release of ROS. Diminishing the production of cytokines is also believed to improve the symptoms of RA. It has been suggested that olive oil may have anti-inflammatory properties as it can reduce the production of these proinflam-matory mediators. Although few studies have been carried out on the benefits of olive oil on symptoms of inflammation, it is possible that olive oil produces a similar effect to fish oil. Fish oils and butter have both been shown to reverse the proinflammatory effects of one cytokine, TNF. Further research, where C18 1 was added to a diet containing coconut oil, resulted in responses to TNF that were similar to those seen in animals fed butter. It was assumed that, as the anti-inflammatory effects of butter appeared to be due to its oleic acid...
Alfalfa is one of the most popular forage crops grown throughout the world and has good AA balance. It is a good source of most vitamins and many minerals, except P. Coconut is widely distributed in the tropics, and copra, its dry kernel, is used for coconut oil production. The remaining residue or copra meal is low in CP content and is a poor source of AA. Corn gluten feed is the residue remaining after removal of the larger part of the starch, gluten, and germ, and it contains the bran. Corn gluten meal is the residue remaining after removal of the larger part of the starch, germ, and bran. They are satisfactory protein sources for ruminants, but not for nonruminant species because of their AA balance.
SSF has been successfully employed for the production of food aroma compounds using fungal and yeast cultures, such as Neurospora sp., Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Aspergillus sp., and Trichoderma viridae (142), using pregelatinized rice, miso, cellulose fibres, and agar. Rhizopus oryzae cultivation of tropical agro-industrial residues results in the production of volatile compounds such as acetaldehyde and 3-methyl butanol (143). Neurospora sp. and T. viride produce a fruity odour and coconut aroma in SSF with pregelatinized rice and agar medium, respectively (142). Methyl ketones are produced on a commercial scale from coconut oil using A. niger, and the yields are as high as about 40 (1,141,143).
1917 Coconut oil used as a substitute for animal fat, contains about 15,000 IU lb of this vitamin. Most margarines and spreads in the United States today are fortified to 16,000 IU lb to permit labeling claims of 10 daily reference value intake per serving. 1934 Hydrogenated vegetable oils replaced coconut oil.
The effects of MCT on food intake and satiety are conflicting. Bray and colleagues (1980) fed rats diets containing 60 of energy from either LCT (corn oil), or MCT, or a mixture of both for 80 days and found that rats on the MCT diet had the lowest food intake and body weight. On the other hand, when rats received intragastric infusions of liquid diets containing 16 of energy as fat from either tributyrin (short-chain triglyceride SCT), tricaprylin (MCT) or triolein (LCT), no effect of chain length on food intake was observed (Maggio and Koopmans, 1982). The discrepancies in these results might be attributed to the contribution of fat to total energy content of the diet. A high-fat diet, as the one in Bray's study is expected to increase ketone body formation through saturation of the b-oxidation pathway. Indeed, the authors proposed that b-hydroxybutyrate accounted for the lower energy intake in MCT-fed rats. However, increased production of ketones is not the only mechanism by which...
Canapi et al., Coconut Oil, in Y. H. Hui, ed., Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Vol. 2, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996, pp. 125-158. Y. B. M. Che et al., Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Coconut Oil, J. American Oil Chemists' Society 73, 683-686 (1996). J. Hounhouigan et al., Revival of Coconut Oil Production Through the Hot Oil Immersion Drying Technique, Plantations Recherche Development 5, 111-118 (1998). K. D. Tano and Y. Ohta, Aqueous Extraction of Coconut Oil by an Enzyme-Assisted Process, J. Sci. of Food and Ag. 74,497-502 (1997).
It is known that human milk is well absorbed in part because of its proportion of long chain saturated fatty acids located at the sn-2 position. Lien et al. 114 found that mixtures of coconut oil and palm olein were better absorbed by rats if the proportion of long chain saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position was increased by random chemical interesterification.
Saturated fatty acids The saturated fatty acids are derived from both animal fats and plant oils. Rich sources of dietary saturated fatty acids include butter fat, meat fat, and tropical oils (palm oil, coconut oil, and palm kernel oil). Saturated fatty acids are straight-chain organic acids with an even number of carbon atoms (Table 2). All saturated fatty acids that have from eight to 16 carbon atoms raise the serum LDL cholesterol concentration when they are consumed in the diet. In the USA and much of Europe, saturated fatty acids make up 12-15 of total nutrient energy intake.
Dietary fats and oils derive from both animal and plant sources, primarily in the form of triacylgly-cerol. The fatty acid profile of dietary fats commonly consumed by humans varies considerably (Figure 8). In general, fats of animal origin tend to be relatively high in saturated fatty acids, contain cholesterol, and are solid at room temperature. A strong positive association has been demonstrated in epidemiological, intervention, and animal data between cardiovascular disease risk and intakes of saturated fatty acids. The exception is stearic acid (18 0), a saturated fatty acid of which a large proportion is metabolized to oleic acid (18 1), a mono-unsaturated fatty acid. Fats and oils of plant origin tend to be relatively high in unsaturated fatty acids (both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) and are liquid at room temperature. Notable exceptions include plant oils termed tropical oils (palm, palm kernel, and coconut oils) and hydrogenated fat. Tropical oils are high in...
Sion due to the inherent hydrophilicity of such materials and to the notable amounts of incorporated hydrophilic plasticizers needed to impart adequate film flexibility. In contrast, hydrophobic lipids are effective moisture barriers. Composite films (prepared from emulsions or by lamination) made of lipids and polysaccharides or proteins combine the satisfactory structural and oxygen barrier properties of polysaccharide or protein films with the good moisture barrier characteristics of lipids. For example, bi-component films prepared from cellulose ethers and lipids (eg, waxes, acetylated monoglycerides, and fatty acids) effectively restricted moisture migration in simulated food products containing major components differing substantially in water activity (60). Coatings comprised of MC or HPMC and fatty acids also may be used to control diffusion of antimicrobial agents (eg, potassium sorbate) into foods (61). Recently, highly refined cellulose dispersions made from fibrous...
Samples with a low, medium, and high AI from a Holstein herd are described in Table 1. With the AI ranging from 1.06 to 3.31, we observed a wide variation in fatty acid composition of individual milks. When the largest and smallest AIs of milk samples are compared with other foods, the milk with the smallest AI fits in the range of AIs for margarine. On the other hand, the greatest AI for milk does not approach that of coconut oil (AI 15.9), which is at the atherogenic extreme of common foods and food components.
The anionic structure shown in Figure 1 is sodium do-decyl sulfate (SDS), a sulfate ester of the C12 alcohol do-decanol. Commercially lauryl alcohol is produced by reduction of coconut oil. The alcohol portion of sodium lauryl sulfate is a mixture of chain lengths the approximate composition is 8 C8, 7 C10, 48 C12, 20 C14,10 C16, and small amounts of longer chains. The most common use of
Acidolysis involves the reaction of a fatty acid and a triacylglycerol. Reactions can produce an equilibrium mixture of reactants and products or can be driven to completion by physically removing one of the reaction products. For example, coconut oil and stearic acid can be reacted to partially replace the short chain fatty acids of coconut oil with higher melting stearic acid 28 .
Several agro-industrial residues and inert supports have been used to produce lipases in SSF (63-69). These include peanut press cake, coconut oil cake, wheat bran, rice bran, babassu oil cake, olive oil cake, sugarcane bagasse, and amberlite, using various yeast and fungal cultures such as Candida sp., C. rugosa, Neurospora sitophila, A. oryzae, Rhizopus oligosporus, R. delemer, P. candidum, and Mucor sp. Enzyme production in SSF has been reported to be superior in comparison to SmF (yield in SmF was 14 U ml and in SSF using a polymeric resin, amberlite, as a solid inert substrate, with dextrin as the carbon source, was 96 U g) (73). Similar observations were reported by Rivera-Munoz et al. (76), who found that the enzyme was more stable. Supplementation of oil cake medium with external carbon or suitable inorganic or organic nitrogen sources resulted in improved enzyme yields (64).
When SSF was carried out using saline tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with agro-industrial substrates such as coconut oil cake, groundnut oil cake, wheat bran, and sesamum oil cake, 2.2 and 2.17 U enzyme gram dry substrate (gds) were produced from wheat bran and sesamum oil cake, respectively. Under optimized physico-chemical conditions, enzyme yields increased to 7.5 and 11.61 U gds for these, respectively, which is 3.5-5 times higher than the initial (without optimization) production (34).
The Complete Coconut Oil Handbook
The coconut tree is one of the most versatile plants in existence. Whilst we are all familiar with the coconut as a food source not many of us know the myriad of other benefits the coconut holds.