The Anger Episode Model

Models Anger

Kassinove and Tafrate 2002 developed a five-stage anger episode model to guide treatment Figure 1 . They recommend that the model be used as a reference point for joint practitioner-patient understanding of anger as well as an idiographic assessment strategy. Elements of the model have been validated by Kassinove, Sukhodolsky, Tsytsarev, and Solovyova 1997 and Tafrate, Kassinove, and Dundin 2002 . Triggers. Each episode begins with a triggering event. These triggers are usually unwanted...

History And Overview Of Cognitive Distortions

Cognitive distortions were originally defined by Beck (1967) as the result of processing information in ways that predictably resulted in identifiable errors in thinking. In his work with depressed patients, Beck defined six systematic errors in thinking arbitrary inference selective abstraction overgeneralization magnification and minimization personalization and absolutistic, dichotomous thinking. Years later, Burns (1980) renamed and extended Beck's cognitive distortions to ten types...

Review Of Available Measures Of Cognitive Distortions

A review of available measures of cognitive distortions reveals five clinical instruments designed to measure the general construct of cognitive distortion within the cognitive therapy literature the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale DAS, Weissman, 1979 Weissman amp Beck, 1978 , Cognitive Error Questionnaire CEQ, Lefebvre, 1981 , Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire ATQ, Hollan amp Kendall, 1980 , Cognitive Distortion Scale CDS, Briere, 2000 , and Inventory of Cognitive Distortions ICD, Yurica amp...

A CBT Protocol for Treating Perfectionism

This section describes an example of how CBT might be used to treat perfectionism. Although CBT has not been evaluated specifically for that purpose, these strategies are used extensively in empirically based psychological treatments for psychological disorders that are associated with perfectionism, including depression and various anxiety disorders. Typically, the initial treatment session would begin with presenting the rationale for the therapy. This would include some discussion of the...

Anger Management Interventions

In order to prevent an aggressive reaction to a triggering stimulus, it is necessary for youths to manage their anger arousal and process the interpersonal exchange such that a more prosocial response is exhibited. The anger management treatment protocols focus on the three hypothesized components of the anger experience physiological responses, cognitive processes, and behavioral responses Novaco, 1979 . If anger reactions are comprised of heightened physiological arousal, cognitive...

Symbolism Imagery In

In recent years, an increasing number of cognitive-behavioral oriented clinicians have elaborated on the clinical application of imagery as a means of modifying maladaptive cognitions schemas and restructuring disturbing events and associated meanings. Within the CBT family, behaviorists were the first to report the clinical use of imagery in their work with phobias. As part of their systematic desensitization treatment, covert desensitization was employed as a means of deconditioning and...

Cognitive Distortions And Treatment Interventions

Several cognitive and behavioral techniques can be used by the therapist to help to question both the distortions and the schema that underlie them. These techniques can be taught to patients to help them respond in more functional ways. The goals in using behavioral techniques within the context of CBT are manifold. The first goal is to utilize direct behavioral strategies and techniques to test dysfunctional thoughts and behaviors. A second use of behavioral techniques is to practice new...

Cognitive Model Of Low Selfesteem

The development and maintenance of low self-esteem can be understood in terms of a cognitive model (Fennell, 1997) closely based on A. T. Beck's original cognitive model of emotional disorder (Beck, 1976). The model, together with an example, is illustrated in Figure 1. It suggests that the essence of low self-esteem resides in negative core beliefs about the self (the Bottom Line), which derive from an interaction between inborn Lack of praise or validation, lack of interest, odd one out in...

Cognitive Challenging

Cognitive challenging is another useful treatment for anxiety disorders. Cognitive challenging is based on the assumption that thoughts play a powerful role in producing and maintaining anxiety, as in the spider bite example discussed earlier. The theory behind cognitive challenging suggests that people develop automatic thoughts that are often inaccurate. These thoughts are called automatic because people are usually unaware of them. A common automatic thought may be If I have a panic attack...