Are children with autism conscious of the physical

This section can be relatively brief, since the answer to the above question is clearly yes. We know this because of the following pieces of evidence. First, children with autism search to find occluded objects (Sigman, Ungerer, Mundy, and Sherman, 1987 Frith and Baron-Cohen, 1987). That is, they behave in ways which are intended to cause them to see something. Secondly, they are capable of mental rotation (Shah, 1988). This suggests that they have representations in their mind of how physical...

Are children with autism conscious of the mental

This section is necessarily longer than the previous one, since a long line of evidence collected over the last two decades suggests that children with autism are relatively unaware of the mental Wimmer and Perner (1983) devised an elegant paradigm to test when normally developing children become conscious of the mental specifically, when they are aware of another person's beliefs. The child was presented with a short story, with the simplest of plots. The story involves one character not being...

Mark C Price

As a classroom demonstration, visual masking always gets a gasp. A visual stimulus such as a word is first presented for a few milliseconds on its own. Despite its brevity, the word is easy to identify. However when the word is presented for exactly the same period of time, but is followed after a blank delay by a random jumble of letters (Figure 2.1), most observers consciously perceive only the second stimulus. The preceding word seems to have completely disappeared. If a longer delay between...

Arousal and conscious experience

1.1 One arousal or many Our first task is to decide what we mean by 'arousal'. Perhaps the easiest way to think of arousal is as neurological and physiological excitation. When we are anxious, as opposed to relaxed, we are more excited. When we are enthused, as opposed to bored, we are more excited. Emotions such as apprehension, fear, panic, terror, euphoria, bliss, and ecstasy all contain, to varying degrees, a component of excitation or arousal. What appears to distinguish these emotions...

Conclusions

Introspectively, visual mental images seem to portray spatial extent, have a limited spatial extent, and have a limited resolution. Behavioral results suggest that the internal representations of visual mental images do in fact incorporate these properties. Moreover, brain scanning results indicate that regions of the brain that have these characteristics are usually activated during imagery, and if these areas are damaged imagery is impaired. In addition, the relative amount of blood flow in...

Neurophysiology of arousal

In this section, we will first discuss two multiple-component models of arousal, each of which has received a good deal of empirical support. Second, we will discuss the action of three 'arousing' neurotransmitter systems, each arising in sub-cortical centers and potentially capable of modulating cortical activity. Our discussion will then focus upon one additional neurotransmitter system, the noradrenergic system, and we will review the evidence that suggests that this system in particular...

Psychological studies of anxiety and attention

Most psychological studies of anxiety and attention have employed between-subjects designs comparing chronically-anxious and non-anxious individuals. The majority of these studies have focused on individuals suffering from a clinically-diagnosed anxiety disorder, although others have sampled anxiety across a more normal range by comparing individuals who are above and below the median in terms of the personality dimension of 'trait anxiety'. These are reasonable research strategies in that both...

Acknowledgment

I would like to thank Jason Mattingley and Peter Grossenbacher for their helpful comments on the first drafts of this chapter which were prepared while the author was working at the University of Cambridge in 1996. Ansorge, U., Klotz, W., amp Neumann, O. 1998. Manual and verbal responses to completely masked unreportable stimuli Exploring some conditions for the metacontrast dissociation. Perception 27 1177-1189. Baars, B.J. 1997. Global workspace theory, a rigourous scientific theory of...

Theories of masking

As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, there are many types of masking and these reflect different processing interactions. The most informative masking techniques for studying conscious awareness will be those which disrupt the causal chain of information processing events leading to consciousness at as late a stage as possible. The later the locus of masking, the greater the number of processes that will be left intact under masking, and the greater the number of processes that can...