Professional Makeup For Beginners

Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. Read more here...

Makeup For Beginners Summary


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Journal of Aoac International

The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes original research articles and reports on the development, validation, and interpretation of analytical methods for agricultural commodities, foods, drugs, cosmetics, and the environment. A limited number of invited reviews and feature articles on selected subjects are also published, as well

Reproduction And Genetics

Fish breeders have worked with varying degrees of success to improve growth and disease resistance in several species. As genetic engineering techniques are adapted to aquatic animals, dramatic and rapid changes in the genetic makeup of aquaculture species may be possible. However, since it is virtually impossible to prevent the escape of animals into the natural environment from aquaculture facilities, potential negative impacts of such organisms on wild populations cannot be ignored. Maintaining genetic diversity like that of the wild population in cultured stocks

Inhibitors Of The Ras Pathway

What, then, is the preferred point of intervention in the RTK Ras Raf MEK ERK MAP kinase CDK Rb pathway A number of factors influence this selection, including issues of technical feasibility, extent of validation and proof principle, and the potential for therapeutic selectivity. One argument claims we should seek to interfere as closely as possible to the point of molecular deregulation, e.g., at the overexpressed RTK, the mutated Ras, or the deregulated CDK. This may provide maximum pharmacological selectivity, since the therapy would be tailored to the particular genetic makeup of the individual tumor.

Preclinical Testing For An Essentially New Excipient

Materials that have had prior human use exposure in food and cosmetics, or from the chemical industry, can be categorized as essentially new excipients. Such previous exposure is likely to be of help for oral and topical use excipient development. Excipients that have had established medicinal product use but are being used by a different dose route and or chemically modified to enhance their properties are also likely to belong to this category.

Methods For Measuring Dna Variation

Techniques used by forensic DNA laboratories for human identity testing purposes are based on the same fundamental principles and methods used for medical diagnostics and gene mapping. A person's genetic makeup can be directly determined from very small amounts of DNA present in blood stains, saliva, bone, hair, semen, or other biological material. Because all the cells in the human body descend by successive divisions from a single fertilized egg, the DNA material is (barring mutations) identical between any cells collected from that individual and therefore provides the same forensic information.

Activities To Protect The Food Supply In the UK

By-products from slaughtering cattle approved for use as human food are considered clean and approved for use in horticultural applications, pet food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, or they can be buried in landfills. All other byproducts are considered dirty and are stained to prevent accidental use, incinerated at 1000 C for sufficient time to result in a protein-free ash, and then disposed of in landfills. No rendered ruminant products can be used for agricultural purposes.

In the European Union

On March 27,1996, the EU imposed a ban on exports from the UK of beef, live bovine animals, semen, embryos, and bovine products (including MBM) that might enter the human or animal food chains or be used in pharmaceuticals or cosmetics. In December of 1996, the UK published the Export Certified Herds Scheme (ECHS) to enable documentation that an animal was from a BSE-free herd. In March of 1998, EU farm ministers approved the ECHS, permitting legal exports of beef from Northern Ireland from June 1, 1998. The European Commission then proposed to lift the export ban for the rest of the UK, as applied to animals born after August 1, 1996 (the date the MBM ban became fully effective).

Genomics And Proteomics

The amount of DNA sequence data available and the methods used to exploit it have grown exponentially in recent years. The aim of this work is to understand how the various components of an organism interact to function properly, not just to catalogue a list of genes and how they function. Genomics describes the study of the genetic makeup of an organism, whereas proteomics is the study of the protein composition of the cell. There are more proteins in an organism than there are genes because transcriptional control, posttranslational modification, and so on can lead to multiple products form the one gene hence the need to study the interrelationship between genomics and proteomics, which is termed functional genomics.

Plant Cell Cultivation

Stirred tank fermentors have also been used for the growth of plant cells for the production of valuable products in single or multiple stages of cultivation. Plant cell culture is carried out by propagation of a callus, which is a mass of undifferentiated cells. To develop a new plant with shoot and root, cells from the callus must be cultured in different media. Desirable metabolites can be extracted from a callus without progression to a shoot and root. Plant cell culture may serve as a good medium for synthesis of metabolites useful in foods, biopesticides, and cosmetics. Plant cell culture has been proposed as an alternative technique for the supply of phytochemical to the normal plantation system (160). The benefits of such a system include a final product of required quality and consistency independent of the variations in plantation due to season, weather, disease, and pest destruction. Cultivation of plant cell suspensions in bioreactors has led to higher productivity of the...

Supercritical Fluid Extraction SFE

Extraction and separation processes are basic industrial operations applied in many areas with considerable economic relevance. Supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, are of increasing interest for new separation processes in the fields of foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Advantages of DNA Comparisons

There are several advantages to comparing DNA data instead of external physical characteristics (collectively called the phenotype). Environmental factors can shape the phenotype to make two individuals with the same genetic makeup look different. For instance, nutrition has a profound effect on height, and if we used average height to classify humans, we might mistakenly conclude that medieval humans represented a different subspecies because they were significantly shorter than modern humans. DNA comparisons, on the other hand, would show no significant difference between these groups.

Food Chemistry And Biochemistry

The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT http is one of the largest scientific societies representing professionals in food science and technology. A food scientist is defined by the IFT as a person who studies the physical, microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. In an accreditation program, the IFT has defined minimum standards for undergraduate food science degrees. These standards highlight the importance of chemistry in a food scientist's education, with a greater minimum requirement for chemistry than any other single discipline. Four introductory chemistry courses are required two in general chemistry, one in organic chemistry, and one in biochemistry. Building on this base are a lecture and laboratory course in food chemistry and a food analysis lecture and laboratory course that utilizes chemical and microbiological techniques. Over the last few decades, however, food chemistry has evolved into a field of such scope that these courses are barely adequate to...

Lipidflavour interactions

Lipids play a key role in the storage and release of aroma molecules which has been recognised for a long time (Forss 1969, Maier 1970, Haahr el al. 2000, Drewnowski 1992, de Roos 1997). It is reasonable to think that flavour entrapment in lipids had been observed soon after the discovery of soap, more than ten thousand years ago by the simple mixing of the soap paste with flower petals -the starting point of a succesful industry, still active today. The parallel evolution of food flavouring, and possibly an even older process, using aromatic oil for cooking is also difficult to date. For both cases of aroma entrapment, both storage and release were achieved. Soap perfectly achieves the combination of both. In soap, aromatic molecules are stored, like mechanical energy in a spring, entrapped for a very long time and almost immediately released upon the addition of water. While for aromatic oils the release occurs more slowly during cooking and serving. In fact, the two main points to...

InVitro Toxicological Studies

The development of in-vitro toxicity test methods has been influenced by a number of factors 36 . Animal welfare issues are one of the important social concerns that have impacted on the recent shift towards alternatives in toxicity testing. Another social issue is the increasing public interest on the safety of chemicals and new products. Each year, thousands of new cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and consumer products are introduced into the marketplace. Considering there are approximately 80 000 chemicals in commerce 37 , as well as an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, the in-vivo testing of this number of chemicals would require a large number of expensive, time-consuming - and in some cases nonhumane - tests on animal species 38 . The need to determine the potential toxic effects of this large number of chemicals has provoked the search for rapid, sensitive, and specific test methods.

Risk Factors and Opportunities

Children face a variety of opportunities and risks for mental health and development because of their genetic makeup and because of the social environments they inhabit. Like in other areas of medicine, genetic and environmental factors act in concert in increasing or decreasing the risk for mental disorders. For instance, it has been determined that the risk for antisocial behavior was increased among maltreated boys who also had a genotype resulting in low levels of monoamine oxidase A (MAO), which is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters (Caspi et al.). The importance of these findings rests on the fact that it was only the coexistence of maltreatment and low MAO expression genotype that conferred an increased risk, whereas either condition in isolation did not. Thus, environment can affect mental health through its impact on the genetically determined makeup of the child. In addition, specific environmental toxins can negatively impact the brain during...

Microbial Taxonomy 1041 Basis of Identification

Precise characterization of DNA and RNA sequences is now being used extensively to determine relationships among organisms. Such analysis of an organism's genetic makeup reveals its genotype. Genotype obviously affects phenotype, but not all genetic capabilities are necessarily expressed in an organism at a particular time. As might be expected, knowledge of genotypes has greatly increased and modified our understanding of the relationships among microorganisms. In fact, the separate domain of Archaea was not recognized until these newer tools were applied previously, they were simply considered types of (and may still often be referred to out of habit as) bacteria.

Testing and regulation of sunscreens

Cosmetics and in other countries (Australia, Canada and New Zealand) as drugs. Testing for toxic effects is mandatory in each country. Control in Europe is by a directive of the European Commission (2000). This mandates that labelling should include a full list of ingredients in decreasing order of concentration, and that this should be displayed on the containers of all cosmetics that include sunscreen formulations.4-7 Sunscreens are now readily available in most countries during all seasons. In Australia the availability of sunscreens has been maximised through sales tax exemptions and they are now available in workplaces, schools their use by children is actively promoted.8-10

Positions Filled By Food Scientists Technologists

Amination of raw products to final sales. Positions of responsibility are also available in government (the Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, and among others, the Public Health Service). The same applies to state and local governments such as state departments of agriculture and state and local health departments. In the academic world, teachers and researchers find many opportunities. Entrepreneurs such as food consultants often establish a remunerative niche for themselves. The roles food scientists and technologists play will be more fully set forth in the article Food science and technology the profession. So too will developments as far as food processes are concerned. The next topic here will deal with changes taking place in the makeup of members of the profession.

Changes in the Hereditary Instructions Allow Evolution

Gradual accumulation of mutations over long periods of time results in new biological species, each with a unique DNA sequence. At the top is shown a short segment of a gene in a hypothetical progenitor organism. With the passage of time, changes in nucleotide sequence (mutations, indicated here by colored boxes), occurring one nucleotide at a time, result in progeny with different DNA sequences. These mutant progeny also undergo occasional mutations, yielding their own progeny that differ by two or more nucleotides from the progenitor sequence. When two lineages have diverged so much in their genetic makeup that they can no longer interbreed, a new species has been created. gradual accumulation of mutations over long periods of time results in new biological species, each with a unique DNA sequence. At the top is shown a short segment of a gene in a hypothetical progenitor organism. With the passage of time, changes in nucleotide sequence (mutations, indicated here by colored boxes),...

How Identical are Clones with Each Other

Lines have mitochondria of different genetic makeup, so it is the cytoplasm of the oocyte that determines the makeup of the mitochondrial genome, rather than the chromosomes in the nucleus. Thus, when cloning by nuclear transfer, the mitochondrial genetics will differ from clone to clone unless the oocytes are all derived from the same maternal line of females. Another source of differences among clones is mutations in the DNA in nuclear chromosomes or mitochondria. DNA is composed of only four kinds of building blocks, known as adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, or A, T, G, and C, respectively. The genetic makeup (DNA) of the nucleus of each mammalian diploid cell has around 12 billion of these building blocks, theoretically hooked together in precisely the same way when DNA is replicated, so that each daughter cell produced has the same genetic makeup, or order of the four building blocks as the parent cell that divided. As one might imagine, there is an occasional error when...

Genomics Of Dairy Cultures

Currently, there are three complete genomes from dairy cultures that have been sequenced and published. These are for Lactococcus lactic IL1403 (177), Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 (178) and Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 (179). A fourth genome from L. plantarum WCFS1 (180) may also be of interest as it is sometimes speculated to be a potential probiotic culture. The L. lactis IL1403 genome was the first one published and it provided an exciting glimpse into the makeup of a lactococcal chromosome and the evolution of this organism. Remnants of a once aerobic existence are evident, and a set of genes analogous to the natural competence genes in Bacillus. While analysis of the L. lactis IL1403 genome does give intriguing information, it does not shed light on many of the commercially significant phenotypes, as these are largely encoded on plasmids, and IL1403 is a plasmid cured laboratory strain. Therefore, as part of the LABGC effort a commercial strain of L. lactis subsp cremoris...

Genomewide effectschromosome rearrangements

She also recognized the very important set of responses to challenges that were not hard-wired into the genomic makeup of organisms. In this regard she observed that 'An experiment conducted in the mid-1940's prepared me to expect unusual responses of a genome to challenges that the genome is unprepared to meet in an orderly, programmed manner.' McClintock suggested that one such response could result from the genomic shock associated with crosses between divergent evolutionary lineages (e.g. Y.-M. Wang et al. 2005). Specifically with regard to the present topic she stated, 'Major restructuring of chromosome components may arise in a hybrid plant and continue to arise in its progeny, sometimes over successive plant generations. The restructuring may range from apparently simple to obviously complex' (McClintock 1984).

Growing Interest In Food Irradiation

Ionizing energy, in its various forms, possesses several characteristics that make it extremely useful as a form of processing energy (2). These include its versatility in effecting a variety of technical end points in a wide variety of materials, its ability to penetrate through the bulk of the product being treated, its ability to effect treatment without significantly increasing the temperature of the material being treated, its controllability, its flexibility, its convenience, its low cost, its environmental friendliness and its lack of residues in the treated product. Figure 1 illustrates the general concept of radiation processing. As shown in Figure 1, radiation processing of any material gives rise to change(s) in the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the treated substance. One or more of these changes in material properties constitute the purpose of the treatment. It is worth noting that radiation processing is no stranger to...

Food and Drug Administration Perspective on Regulation of Pharmaceutical Excipients

The Elixir of Sulfanilamide disaster, in which 107 people died as a result of the use of a toxic inactive ingredient, dramatized the need to establish drug safety before marketing and provided the impetus to pass the pending Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. Certification of colors became mandatory, with all coal-tar colors used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics required to be from a certified batch. The law also created, out of less than 20 colors, three categories of certified colors food, drugs, and cosmetic (FD&C) colors acceptable for food, drug, and cosmetic use, drugs and cosmetics (D&C) colors allowed in drugs and cosmetics only, and external D&C colors intended for external use only (2). The 1938 Act required that the presence of an uncertified coal tar be shown to prove that a food, drug, or cosmetic was adulterated, whereas under the 1906 Act, a color was considered to be in Chronic toxicity studies showed that most color additives were toxic when fed at high...

Water Availability The Concept

Broadly speaking, three main states of water can be identified in a hygroscopic material (a) constitutive water water that is chemically linked to the substrate material and forms part of its structural makeup, (b) adsorbed water, which is closely linked with the substrate surface by physical interactions, and (c) absorbed water, which is loosely associated with the substrate surface (Pixton 1967). In practice, probably there is no clear demarcation between these different states the relative proportions of each type will depend on the overall moisture content of the material. The absorbed water fraction will become more weakly bound as further layers of water molecules accumulate on the surfaces (i.e., as the substrate becomes wetter). It is the loosely held water that provides the free or available water, since it is the fraction that is most readily available for microbial growth, although its overall availability will be influenced by the presence of solutes. The...

Steps Toward International Consensus

An issue that is obvious in any consideration of how best to approach estimating human requirements is the need to achieve consensus on the best science-based approaches to determine them. Internationally, the diversity of requirement estimates might mislead one to assume there was significant variability in nutrient needs based on geographic location or genetic makeup. As more information regarding the role that genetic factors play in disease becomes available, the variability seen in actual requirements will diminish. There will continue to be a need to recognize and use information about nutrient bioavailability, which may well be different for diets based on different foods and staples and thus require different reference values for such varied situations, but human physiology is remarkably similar.

Interrelationship of DFD and PSE in Pigs

Not only do certain handling situations tend to trigger PSE, but the genetic makeup of a pig may predispose the animal to PSE, and some European breeds are especially susceptible (83,84). In some particularly stress-susceptible animals, there is sudden death, especially during mating. Animals may be tested using exposure to the gaseous anesthetic halothane. Susceptible animals respond by a rise in temperature, which, if not checked, can lead to death (malignant hyperthermia) (see Ref. 104).

Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics

The complete sequencing of the human genome in 2000, along with new technologies, such as DNA microarrays, for analyzing human genes on a genome-wide scale, provides scientists with the tools to study the molecular basis of diseases on a level and scale that previously had not been possible. Pharmacogenomics is a biomedical science that aims to use this knowledge to tailor drug therapies based on patients' individual genetic makeup. Doctors hope to use pharmacogenomics to develop safer and more effective medical treatments. For some diseases, this promise has already been realized.

Physical Activity

Restrict eating to recognized meal and snack periods with perhaps two snacks only for children and three snacks for adolescents Where possible, eat meals prepared at home and served on a plate rather than ready-to-eat, microwaved individual meals Where possible, prepare meals at home so that the cook at least is aware of the nutritional makeup of the meal Read the nutritional information given on the packet and observe not only the content 100 g but also the weight (and thus nutrient content) of the food bought and fed to each member of the family Portion sizes can be reduced using smaller plates may make this less obvious avoid second helpings Use 'low-calorie' margarines, spreads, mayonnaise, yoghurts, soups, baked beans, etc. Use semi-skimmed milk, sugar-free fruit

Ethical And Social Aspects Of Genetic Profiling

Genetic profiling for pharmacogenetic purposes is less likely to raise objections than genetic testing for primary disease risk assessment. Nevertheless, ethical issues concerning patient confidentiality, possible misuse of geno-typing data, and possible harm to patient's social and insurability status need to be resolved before the implementation of pharmacogenetics in healthcare. Holding sensitive information on someone's genetic makeup raises questions of privacy and security and ethical dilemmas in disease prognosis and treatment choices. After all, polymorphisms relevant to drug response may overlap with disease susceptibility, and divulging such information could jeopardize an individual. On the other hand, legal issues may force the inclusion of pharmaco-genetic information into clinical practice. Once the genetic component of a severe adverse drug effect is documented, doctors may be obliged to order the genetic test to avoid malpractice litigation.

Reproductive Toxicology and InVitro Tests

Despite a broad range of alternative methods, substantial numbers of animals are still required for the in-vivo testing of toxicity of drugs, chemicals, and cosmetics 37, 38 . In particular, efforts for the development of alternative tests for reproductive toxicity hazard 5 are unfolding, including the use of mESC and hESC 39-41 . For toxicity testing in general - but reproductive toxicity in particular - current regulatory data requirements vary considerably, being most stringent for pharmaceuticals, food additives and pesticides biocides. For a number of reproductive key phases, which for these regulatory purposes to date are covered in standardized animal tests, no validated alternatives exist. These in-vivo tests have a disadvantage in that molecular information on functional deficits in terms of biomarkers appears difficult 39, 42 . As outlined above, alternative in-vitro tests have the potential to provide this urgently needed, more specific molecular and functional information...

Oilseeds And Vegetable Oils

Most oils of vegetable origin are derived from plant seeds, hence the term oilseed. However, some vegetable oils, such as olive and palm oil, come from the plant's mesocarp, the fleshy pulp covering the seed. This article will discuss only the more economically significant vegetable oils. The terminology is reviewed and then the processing of oilseeds to make various products is discussed. Information about specific oils is also presented. Tables 1-3 show the makeup of the oilseeds, the fatty acid composition of the oils, and the amino acid composition of the proteins. Figure 1 shows the worldwide production for the last 10 yr of the most economically important vegetable oils. Although the relationship between various human diseases and fats and oils in the human diet is of great concern, space limitations prevent a discussion of this topic and a variety of sources are available (14).

Haralambos Stamatis Vasiliki Sereti and Fragiskos N Kolisis 1 Introduction

Fatty acid monoesters and diesters of sugars are widely used as emulsifiers in a great variety of food and cosmetics formulations (1). Traditionally, these surfactants are produced by transesterification at high temperatures in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Among drawbacks of the conventional chemical process, significant coloration of the final product and the formation of undesirable side products are especially worth mentioning. Consequently, the enzyme-catalyzed regioselective acylation of sugars in nonpolar organic solvents and supercritical fluids (SCFs) at ambient temperatures has received much attention in recent years (2-5).

Autonomy and Nondirectiveness

A major facet of the counseling process, and one important goal of a successful counseling process, is a course of action (or inaction) that is determined according to the best available evidence. Genetic counselors generally agree that this decision should be made by the counselee, and that it should be made freely and without coercion (Fraser, 1974 Ad Hoc Committee on Genetic Counseling). Counselors want to avoid, to the extent possible, being accused of playing god and to resist any temptation to practice eugenics, the process of manipulating genes in order to improve genetic makeup. The manipulation is accomplished by directing the counselees about what reproductive decisions they should or should not make. This is inappropriate because respect for autonomy should be a predominant ethical value guiding the counseling process and its outcome. This is the clear consensus of genetic counselors from all over the world (U.S. President's Commission Wertz and Fletcher).

Protecting the Public Health

The FDA is responsible for not only drugs and biologics, but their regulatory authority also extends to food, medical devices, veterinary drugs, cosmetics, nutrition products, and radiation devices. Thus, they are responsible for protecting the health of the nation's citizens across a broad spectrum, including such areas as labeling of the nutritional content on food, approving only drugs found to be safe and effective for human or veterinary use, the allergenic potential of cosmetics, and the certification of mammography equipment. FDA further interprets new laws from Congress and promulgates regulations and guidelines for the industry to follow.

The Validation of Cell and Tissue Based Assays

Nine alternative methods for chemicals cosmetics have been endorsed by ECVAM, including tests for skin corrosivity, skin sensitization, phototoxicity and embryotoxicity, as well as the percutaneous absorption of chemicals. In addition, seven methods reached scientific acceptance for the safety evaluation ofbiologicals such as vaccines. Currently, nine alternative methods for myelotoxicity, pyrogen testing and chronic toxicity in dogs are undergoing peer-review by the ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee.

Cell and Tissue Culture Systems used in Pharmacology and Toxicology

Culturing cells is the most widely used in-vitro method in pharmacology and toxicology, with cells being used either as permanent cell lines or as freshly obtained primary cultures . Co-cultures of two or more cell types express organ-specific functions even better, for example, human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in bioengineered human skin models. Today, human skin models are commercially available and have been used successfully to investigate the pharmacology and toxicology ofnew drugs and cosmetics. This example illustrates that human tissues and tissue models are the most promising tools in drug development. However, it must be borne in mind that each cell and tissue culture model has its inherent limitations, which are usually identified in validation studies.

Conculation Encapulation

Besides, some non-food applications can result from the study of flavour-carbohydrate interactions. For example, cyclodextrins, which are now made available at low cost, are used in many applications in the flavour industry as well as in drug formulation and in cosmetics. Notably, they can be used as an efficient odour eliminator material for home care air fresheners.

Importance of Life Cycle

Evaluation of existing evidence related to effects of micronutrient supplements on nutrition and health, aimed at formulating recommendations for supplementation, must take into account the influence of a person's stage of life and general health status on the absorption, usefulness, and need for any particular micronutrient. Physiological needs for specific micronutrients and, consequently, for micronutrient supplements differ at various stages in the life cycle. For example, infants require additional iron after 6 months of age, women who may become pregnant benefit from additional folate, and elderly people who lose their ability to absorb naturally occurring vitamin B12 in food require an alternative source of the vitamin. When studies are designed to investigate the relationship between micronutrient supplements and specific health outcomes, the outcomes that are chosen to be measured usually depend on the specific life cycle stage of the study participants. For any life cycle...

Raising A Child Conceived With Donor Material

In the case of donor sperm, eggs, or embryos, you'll also need to decide if you want to explain this to your child. If you do decide to be open about the conception, consider how much information to share with the child. Some people choose to portray the donor in the same way as a biological parent who placed the child for adoption. Others explain that the donor was more of a helper who assisted in conception but has no further role. At some point, will the child be able to find out about the donor Should they meet and form a relationship Many agencies keep this information on file, and so it may become available to the child once he or she reaches age 18. Ideally, this type of information should be spelled out in your donor agreement prior to conception. At the very least, the child should know about the donor's medical history because it is part of the child's genetic makeup and medical family history.

Regulatory Acceptance ofthe Successfully Validated 3T3 NRU InVitro Phototoxicity Test

As no standard guidelines for testing photoirritation potential, either in vivo or in vitro, had been accepted for regulatory purposes at the international level by the OECD, in 1991 the European Commission (EC) and the European Cosmetics, Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA) established a joint program to develop and validate in-vitro photoirritation tests. In the first phase of the study, which was funded by DG XI of the EC and co-ordinated by ZEBET, in-vitro phototoxicity tests established in laboratories of the cosmetics industry, and a new assay - the 3T3 NRU PT test, which is a photocytotoxicity test using the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T3 with neutral red uptake (NRU) as the endpoint for cytotoxicity - were evaluated. In the second phase of the study, which was funded by ECVAM and co-ordinated by ZEBET, the 3T3 NRU PT test was validated with 30 carefully selected test chemicals in 11 laboratories in a blind trial. A representative set of test chemicals covering all...

How Do We Explore This Unique Chance

To meet the exceptionally high specifications for bioreactors and biosensors in this area, while Chapter 4 provides some examples of how to extend the use of cell culture technologies emulating human organ functions to other areas of application. Today, a number of in-vitro test systems based on three-dimensional (3-D) skin equivalents are available. Most notably, the cosmetics industry - which at least in Europe is facing a regulatory ban on animal tests within the next few years - is relying increasingly on testing strategies involving 3-D human tissue culture. Generally speaking, due to the great complexity of such cultures and the substantial hurdles in terms of human cell supply, standardization issues, miniaturization and automation, the pharmaceutical industry does not currently capitalize on such technologies. However, a number of pharmaceutical companies have implemented drug discovery programs on stem cell and 3D tissue culture tools into their R&D activities. In summarizing...

Public Health Approaches in Genetics

Common chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Risk for almost all human diseases results from the interactions between inherited gene variants and environmental factors, including chemical, physical, and infectious agents, as well as behavioral or nutritional factors. Thus it appears reasonable to direct disease-prevention and health-promotion efforts toward individuals at high risk because of their genetic makeup.

Test Apparatus And Conditions

The cooling-tower operating characteristics are summarized in Table 3. The 140,000-gpm system had two 1600-gpm sidestream filters. Filter backwash accounted for most of the blowdown. The makeup water for the cooling-water system came from several sources and was clarified with alum outside the plant. The water treatment used is as follows

Fresh Leaf Composition

The most striking chemical characteristic of tea flush is its very high content of flavanols. Although amounts vary, depending on all of the factors that influence plant metabolism, such as light, rainfall, temperature, nutrient availability, leaf age, and genetic makeup, a small number of flavanols alone may constitute more than 20 of the dry matter. The most important group of the tea flavanols are the catechins. These include the free catechins as well as monogallate and digallate esters and a single caffeic acid ester (12). Free catechins and the monogallate esters predominate, and their reaction products are the best known (Fig. 1).

Genetic Testing and Alzheimers Disease

Bacterial Lawn Pic Ames Test Plate

The Ames test is widely used by the pharmaceutical industry to test drugs prior to using them in clinical trials. When a drug is mutagenic in the Ames test, it is usually rejected for further development and will probably not be tested in animals or used therapeutically in humans. The cosmetic industry also uses the Ames test to assess the mutagenic potential of makeup and other hygienic products. The Food and Drug Administration requires companies to perform the Ames test before marketing most drugs or cosmetics. see also Cancer Carcinogens Mutagen Mutagenesis Mutation Nucleotide.

Erythema multiforme and toxic epidermal necrolysis

The drugs associated with cutaneous reactions are listed in Table 6.4. The mechanisms involved in such reactions are potentially complex and may include specific immunological mechanisms. The consequent clinical signs can be variable and lead to the observation that cutaneous drug reactions are great pretenders, looking like many other skin diseases. The specific diagnosis is often difficult to achieve because the range of substances that may initiate a cutaneous reaction goes beyond the conventional consideration of a drug. They may include substances used in the preparation of drugs, food and cosmetics. Even if the drug therapy administered before the development of the cutaneous reaction is suspected, the owner will usually be unwilling to challenge the animal with the suspected drug once it has been stopped and the animal has recovered. This in part is due to the severity of the drug reaction, which may involve most of the skin. The management of such cases usually demands careful...

Shelf Life Butea Monosperma

Patents for commercial preparations of corn phosphatides and for products containing lecithin (cosmetics, ointments, foaming agents, and rust inhibitors) were issued during the 1930s through the 1950s.62-64 The growth in demand for corn sweeteners may make other products of the corn-refining industry, such as lecithin, more available and competitive. Similar compositions were noted for the major phospholipids of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid. Glycolipids represent a higher proportion of polar lipids in corn than in soybean lecithin and the percentages of minor components, like stearylglycoside esters, are more than twice that of soybean. Both the glycolipids and phospholipids of corn have lower percentages of linolenic acid and are more saturated than those of soybean. Linoleic acid varies from 42 to 70 depending on the variety of corn. This genotypic effect on fatty acid composition of phospholipids introduces the possibility that lecithin with...

Nature and Extent of Animal Experimentation

In the process of stepping up the dose until half the experimental animals die, all of them are likely to become ill, experiencing symptoms such as nausea, thirst, diarrhea, stomach cramps, and fever. The LD50 test was carried out routinely on most household products, including food colorings, household cleaners, shampoos, and cosmetics. After campaigns against the test by the animal rights movement, most U.S. government agencies began to discourage the use of the classical LD50 test, and the Center for Laboratory Animal Welfare estimates that its use has fallen by as much as 90 percent (Center for Laboratory Animal Welfare). In 2000 the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development announced that it was planning to delete the LD50 test from its testing guidelines in favor of three alternative methods. Nevertheless, the LD50 test still is used in some circumstances, and even if only 10 percent as many animals are subjected to it, that still amounts to hundreds of...

Attributionattitude Boomerang Effect See Attribution Theory

Atic analysis of the processes described by Heider and describes the situational factors that influence the appearance of external and internal attributions. This theory states, among other things, that individuals observe actions and effects produced by actions where such action-effect connections become the basis for inferences about others' behaviors and intentions. When knowledge and ability intentions are attributed, an internal disposition is assumed to be the cause of the other person's behavior. In another case, the just-world hypothesis (first described by the Canadian American-based psychologist Melvin J. Lerner) in attribution theory argues for the notion that people need to believe that the world is fair and that justice is served consistently, where bad people are punished and good people are rewarded. The illusion of control theory, described by the American psychologist Ellen J. Langer (1947- ), refers to the belief that one has control over events that are actually...

Water And Wastewater Disinfection Treatment

Wastewater Disinfection

The fourth and final disinfection mechanism is that of altering and disrupting a cell's genetic makeup so that the cell is prevented from reproducing even though it may still have the energy to do so. This disinfection effect is largely associated with the use of ultraviolet irradiation, and its consequent high-energy cross-linking of adjacent nitrogen base groups poised side by side at various points within stranded DNA (see the thymine dimer reaction in Figure 16.54). The resulting impact of polymerizing DNA and formation of thymine dimers follow much the same path, such that cells are effectively sterilized by this UV exposure.

Status Of Behavioral Pharmacology

Modify genetic makeup is more advanced for mice than for other species, it is likely that mice will increasingly become subjects for behavioral pharmacologists. Thus emergent extensions of behavioral pharmacology are also occurring. Funding agencies support behavioral pharmacology for its contributions to mental health research and the problems of drug abuse. Unsentimental drug companies support behavioral pharmacology for its contributions to understanding psychoses and neuroses and to discovery of remedies for their treatment. The future prospects for behavioral pharmacology are bright indeed.

Culture Media And Upstream Components

The ideal culture medium will use inexpensive components to supply their complex nutrient requirements. Miller and Churchill (13) provide an excellent summary of inexpensive media components and their makeup. These ingredients are crop, animal, marine or yeast based components. The culture medium alone can represent 30 to 70 of the fermentation production costs. Slight changes in medium micronutrients can have a major impact on the fermentation (14,15). Thus, the food industry demands a consistent product from suppliers of these complex components. Failure to provide a consistent product will eliminate the commercial use. What decides the culture medium makeup Essentially, it is the nutritional requirements of the microorganism of choice and its ability to biosynthesize essential elements such as amino acids, vitamins, lipids, and carbohydrates. For example, bacteria and yeast are high in protein (40-50 ), whereas molds are not (10-25 ). Yeast

Oral ingestion studies

The bioactivity of a toxicant ingested varies with the frequency, presence of food, and the makeup of the food, such as amount of purified sugar, fiber, high protein, or high fat. The different pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract affect the ionization of weak organic acids and bases. Following absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, the bioactive chemical is translocated to either the lymphatic system or the portal circulation. The portal circulation directs the chemicals to the liver, and many of the chemicals are excreted by the liver as bile. Because the bile empties back into the intestine, a cycle involving translocation of the chemical from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver and via the bile back to the intestine occurs. This cycle is known as enterohepatic circulation. Ingestion of chemicals from the gastrointestinal tract and enterohepatic cycle exposes the liver to those concentrations of the agent that would not be obtained by other exposure routes, such as...

Social Avoidance And Anxiety

Beliefs about being defective and the importance of appearance to the self will drive varying degrees of social anxiety and avoidance. Thus, depending on the nature of their beliefs, patients will tend to avoid a range of public or social situations or intimate relationships because of the fear of negative evaluation of the imagined defects. Many patients endure social situations only if they use camouflage (for example, excessive makeup) and various safety behaviors. These are often idiosyncratic and depend on the perceived defect and cultural norms. Behaviors such as avoidance of eye contact or using long hair or excessive makeup for camouflage are obvious but others are subtler

General Theory Of Behavior In

His search for a general theory of behavior, the American social behavioral scientist Richard D. Alexander (1975) offers the desideratum that such a future theory must correspond with current knowledge concerning evolutionary theory, and he suggests that a useful, predictive, and general theory of behavior is unlikely to be constructed by building upward toward greater complexity starting from the engram, the reflex, or some other simple theoretical unit of activity. Alexander describes several principal critical elements that may be included, eventually, in a general theory of behavior group-living (when individuals congregate, they increase the intensity and directness of competition for existing resources, including mates) sexual competition (sex-ratio selection is such that approximately equal numbers of adult males and females are produced in all human and primate societies, regardless of the proportion of either sex that goes mateless) incest avoidance (avoidance of close...

Water Sources And Quality

Another large cost associated with incoming water is associated with its movement. Many aquaculture facilities that utilize surface waters and those that obtain their water from wells other than artesian wells are required to pump the water into their facilities. Pumping costs can be a major expense, particularly when the facility requires continuous inflow or high volumes of makeup water to replace evaporative losses from ponds.

Conclusions and future trends

Traits of intensity, noisiness clarity, complexity, rhythm tempo and variety. In the chemical senses, stimuli can have intensity, variety or complexity properties in common. Such amodal qualities may have strong influences on subsequent responsiveness. For example, early exposure to low intensity odour stimulations, which is typically the case in the amnion or milk, may be followed by a general trend of preferential responses to low intensity odorants. Otherwise, early experience of chemosensory variety has been shown to condition later acceptance of chemosensory novelty in animal infants (Kuo 1967). In rats, an effect of flavour variety experience on novelty acceptance could be ascertained in immature animals, but not in adult animals (Capretta el al. 1975), suggesting the existence of a sensitive period for the impact of chemosensory variety. Human cultures have fashioned distinct circumstances of early exposure to chemosensory variety breastfeeding in which infants are exposed to...

Genetic Characteristics of Founder Populations

Because the founder population is small, genetic drift can play an important role in determining the genetic makeup of subsequent generations, and allele frequencies may fluctuate. For example, consider an extreme situation where a new population is founded by just two individuals, a male and a female, perhaps because they are stranded on an island. Assume that the

Pglycoprotein Gene Polymorphisms And Their Implications In Drug Therapy And Disease

Digoxin and higher plasma drug levels. These results, however, were later contradicted by those of other groups. A recent metaanalysis suggested that the C3435T SNP has no effect on the expression of MDR1 mRNA or the pharmacokinetics of digoxin.211 Conflicting data have been reported on the effects of other alleles using various drug substrates, and the controversy seems likely to continue. The differential effects of Pgp polymorphisms on Pgp expression and drug disposition will probably not be resolved until progress is made in standardizing parameters such as sample size and makeup, environmental factors, and the assays used for Pgp protein and mRNA quantification. MDR1 haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, are also more likely to affect the pharmacokinetics of MDR1 substrates. Two common Pgp polymorphisms (G2677T A and C3435T) may play a role in the differential response to the cholesterol-lowering statin drugs.212 When haplotypes were also considered, a subgroup of female...

Composition Of The

Fatty acid composition can easily be modified by changing the fatty acid makeup in the feed. In most commercial eggs where the hens are fed a corn and soybean meal diet the fatty acids are about one-third saturated and two-thirds mono- and polyunsaturated. Yolk color is controlled by the level of pigments, mostly xanthophyll, in the feed of the hens.

Other Biological Hazards

Drug Administration (FDA) in efforts to prevent spread of the problem and to better protect public health. These measures included banning use of downer (unable to stand and walk) cattle from human food, holding carcasses of cattle tested for BSE until results are confirmed, prohibiting stunning of cattle with air-injection guns, banning from the food supply specified risk materials (brain, skull, eyes, spinal cord, small intestines, etc.) of cattle over 30 months of age and the small intestine of cattle of all ages, increasing process controls for material obtained with advanced meat recovery systems, banning use of mechanically separated meat in food products, and banning from FDA-regulated foods, dietary supplements, and cosmetics use of the previous materials.

Commercial Applications

In view of the large body of research on the appearance, stability, analysis, and plant breeding of anthocyanins, that occur naturally in fruit and vegetable products, it is not surprising that anthocyanin colorants would be used to enhance the aesthetic appeal of existing plant products or formulated substitutes. Actually, one of the first applications of enocyanin, a generic term for colorants from grapes, was to improve the color of wine. In the United States, fruit drinks are the biggest market. Colorants containing anthocyanins have been suggested for beverages, jellies, jams, ice cream, yogurt, gelatin desserts, canned fruits, fruit sauces, candy and confections, bakery fillings, toppings, drink-mix crystals, pastries, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.

The Cerebral Hemispheres

Superimposed on the laminar plan is a columnar mode of organization, featuring about 500 million small, vertical slabs or columns (50-500 mm wide), each containing some 100-300 neurons profusely interconnected in the vertical axis. The cellular makeup of a column is similar throughout the cortex, but the input and output vary according to function and

Nutrient Gene Interactions

Optimal nutrition is needed to supply the necessary substrates for bone however, other parameters also influence the impact of a given nutrient on bone health. A substantial amount of bone mineral acquisition (up to 80 ) is genetically determined. An individual's ability to utilize a given nutrient intake is influenced by his or her genetic makeup.

Mercuryinduced immune systemrelated disease in humans

Allergic contact dermatitis is a well-established complication of mercury exposure. It may result from handling of metallic mercury and or topical administration of mercury-containing agents. Allergic contact dermatitis has also been described in persons exposed to mercury-containing antiseptic solutions, cosmetics or eye drops, or following inhalation of mercury vapour. Allergic contact dermatitis to mercury appears to be one of several causes of the so-called baboon syndrome. Low amounts of mercuric chloride were shown to induce certain morphological changes in skin, such as glycogen deposition, appearance of lysosome-like bodies and electron-dense material in cells of the epidermis. In humans, mercuric chloride is a strong sensitizer but also a skin irritant, reducing its use in dermatological testing procedures. Oral lichen planus has been suggested to mirror existence of mercury-specific lymphocytes, as

The visible nature of skin disease

Dermatology differs notably from other branches of medicine in the way it shades off into borderlands of cosmetics and cosmetic surgery, and in the often blurred boundaries between treatment, prevention and aggravation of skin problems. Even something as innocuous as washing can be a form of prevention (for example washing a chemical off one's hand), treatment (for example ridding the skin of an accumulation of excess scale) or aggravation (causing irritant contact dermatitis through frequent hand-washing with soap). The dual function of the skin as both a large and important organ and a superficial covering of the body that is important in social display can lead to trivialisation. Some skin conditions, like acne and vitiligo, are often considered purely cosmetic problems, particularly by some general practitioners.

Comparison Of Viral Load Assays

Log variation in the detection of some strains. 10 The choice of method for quantification is dictated by throughput of samples and the genetic makeup of the patient cohort. There is an urgent requirement for international standards which should include non-clade B strains to enable quality control of viral load measurements.

Unknown Effects on Human Health

In the U.S., the regulatory process is confused because three different government agencies have jurisdiction over GM foods. To put it very simply, the EPA evaluates GM plants for environmental safety, the USDA evaluates whether the plant is safe to grow, and the FDA evaluates whether the plant is safe to eat. The EPA is responsible for regulating substances such as pesticides or toxins that may cause harm to the environment. GM crops such as Bt pesticide-laced corn or herbicide-tolerant crops but not foods modified for their nutritional value fall under the purview of the EPA. The USDA is responsible for GM crops that do not fall under the umbrella of the EPA, such as drought-tolerant or disease-tolerant crops crops grown for animal feeds or whole fruits, vegetables, and grains for human consumption. The FDA historically has been concerned with pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food products and additives, and not whole foods. Under current guidelines, a GM ear of corn sold at a...

Chromosomes Genes And Dna Markers

There are approximately three billion base pairs in a single copy of the human genome. Obtaining a complete catalog of our genes was the focus of the Human Genome Project, which announced a final reference sequence for the human genome in April 2003 (D.N.A. Box 2.1). The information from the Human Genome Project will benefit medical science as well as forensic human identity testing and help us better understand our genetic makeup.

Solid Waste Treatment

Highest level of potential degradability, due to both their organic makeup and their high water content. Cellulose-rich residues, whether discarded as lawn clippings or paper products, would also be amenable to biochemical degradation, although perhaps at a somewhat slower rate. Extending beyond these two segments, though, municipal solid waste includes many other materials whose composition will not be amenable, and possibly even antagonistic or inhibitory, to biochemical degradation. For example, MSW generated within affluent countries includes a sizable proportion of plastic, for which the vast majority will have no susceptibility to biochemical breakdown. Similarly, affluent countries generate municipal solid wastes with a proportionately higher percentage of metals (e.g., cans, batteries, used appliances) whose presence may actually lead to the release via leaching of soluble heavy (e.g., cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and transition (e.g., arsenic, selenium) metal ions that...

Exposure Hierarchy and Response Prevention

Exposure is initially therapist-assisted during sessions with more hierarchy items being completed as homework as the client progresses through treatment. Standard assignments include exposure to mirrors, extended social interactions with strangers or co-workers, and exercises designed to accentuate the perceived flaw such as wearing little or no makeup and avoiding hats or other camouflaging clothing. For clients with minimal or no flaws, McKay et al. (1997) used imaginal exposure to have clients exaggerate their perceived defect into a severe deformity and picture the negative reaction of family and friends.

Why Study Quantitative Theories

Sometimes we may formulate a model in a very abstract, nonbiological way, for example, to study how variation in rates of transition between stages influences age-onset patterns. In this case, stages remain abstract notions that we manipulate in a mathematical model in order to understand the logical consequences of various assumptions. In other cases, we may try to match the definition of stages and rates to the biological details of a particular cancer. A stage may, for example, be an adenoma of a particular size, histology, and genetic makeup. A transition between stages may occur at the rate of a somatic mutation to a particular gene.

Chemical Distributors Offering Excipients

Many large chemical distributors service a range of industries. They may market their products for use in cosmetics, food, or other industrial applications. Because many excipients are multifunctional, it is not unreasonable to assume that the same ingredient, albeit a different grade, marketed to the food or cosmetic industry may also be marketed to a pharmaceutical drug maker. At this point, it is important to consider the level of service that will be offered by such a distributor, as well as the integrity of the grades offered. In other words, if a large distributor is offering

Woodsia polystichoides

Culture and comments Easily introduced to the sunny, fern-forbidding sites of rock gardens, holly fern woodsia cheerfully cascades and meanders among the rocks and keeps company with alpine fellow travelers. My garden plants are in neutral to slightly acid grit, with slick drainage and exposure more critical than soil makeup.


Aromatherapy is a branch of the alternate medicine approach that uses herbal remedies to improve an individual's health and appearance and to alter one's mood. The alleged benefits from aromatherapy range from stress relief to enhancement of immunity and the unlocking of emotions from past experience. The concept has ancient roots but is primarily used today by the cosmetics, fragrance, and alternative-medicine industries.


As an illustration, token economies have been used extensively in psychiatric hospitals. In one of the most carefully evaluated programs, patients received tokens (colored plastic strips) for such behaviors as attending activities on the ward, group meetings, and therapy sessions grooming, making one's bed, showering, and engaging in appropriate mealtime behaviors and socially interacting. Tokens could be exchanged for a variety of backup events such as purchasing cosmetics, candy, cigarettes, and clothing renting chairs or bedside stands for one's room ordering items from a mail-order catalog using a piano, record player, or radio spending time in a lounge watching television having a private room, and sleeping late. As patients improved in the ward, they advanced to higher levels within the program, in which more reinforcers were available and higher criteria were set for performance. Patients could buy themselves off the system by doing well, and each carried a credit card that...

Genetic Variability

Large amounts of genetic variability exist in the human population. This is evidenced by the fact that with the exception of identical twins, we all appear different from each other. Hair color, eye color, height, and shape all represent alleles in our genetic makeup. To gain a better appreciation for how the

Societal Aging

A society is said to age when its number of older members increases relative to its number of younger members. The societies of the United States and of many other industrialized nations have been aging since at least 1800. In 1800 the demographic makeup of developed countries was similar to


Cloning is making a biological copy of another organism with the identical genetic makeup of the founding individual. It is an asexual method of reproduction. Natural examples of cloning include organisms such as bacteria and yeast. Bacteria that result from asexual reproduction are genetically identical. Specifically, animal cloning refers to the creation of a new genetic replica of an original living or dead animal. The only clones produced naturally in mammals are identical twins. These are formed when cells produced by the early divisions of the fertilized egg separate and independently develop into two new individuals. They are therefore genetically identical to each other but not identical to their parents.


Annatto (CI Natural Orange 4, CI No. 75120, EEC No. E 160b) is found in the outer layers of the seeds of the shrub Bixa orellana, a tropical plant grown in South America, India, East Africa, the Philippines, and the Carribbean. Peru and Brazil are the dominant sources of supply. Annatto is one of the oldest colorants and has been used in antiquity for coloring foods, cosmetics, and textiles. It has been used for more than a hundred years in the United States and Europe primarily as a colorant for dairy products. The colorant is prepared by leaching, with gentle mechanical friction, of the seeds with various solvents, including vegetable oil, fats, and alkali aqueous and alcoholic solutions. Depending on the application, the crude extract may be refined by precipitation with acids and or recrys-tallization. Spray-dried powders are also available in both water-soluble and oil-soluble forms. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved procedures for extraction are specified in the 21...

Safety Behaviors

The aim of safety behaviors in BDD is usually to alter or camouflage their appearance. Patients are especially secretive about symptoms such as mirror gazing, which is at the core of BDD (Veale & Riley, 2001). The main motivation for mirror gazing appears to be the hope each time that they would look different the desire to know exactly how they look a desire to camouflage themselves and a belief that they would feel worse if they resist gazing. BDD patients are more likely to focus their attention on an internal impression or feeling (rather than their reflection in the mirror) and on specific parts of their appearance. They may perform mental cosmetic surgery to change their body image and to practice different faces to pull in the mirror. A detailed assessment is required of exactly what the patient does in front of a mirror and his motivation, as this will be used in therapy and the construction of behavioral experiments to test out beliefs. Other reflective surfaces such as the...


The seizure threshold is part of the genetic makeup that is passed on from parent to child. There may be several people with epilepsy in some families in others, there may be only one. The chance of a child's developing epilepsy depends on the seizure threshold of both parents (if they have epilepsy).


Antivivisectionists tend to be abolitionists (those who demand the total end of animal experimentation, whether accomplished immediately or gradually), but they may also have more limited and practical goals, such as the ending of certain kinds of experiments deemed morally unacceptable (e.g., cosmetics testing on rabbits' eyes by the Draize test, burn experiments on animals, or pain* experiments performed without anesthesia or analgesia). In contrast, animal welfarists, though they oppose cruelty, generally accept the use of animals in research but campaign for their more humane treatment and for reduction, refinement, and replacement (the Three Rs see ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS) in regard to overall animal usage.

Process Changes

Could give rise to significant environmental benefit. Biological synthesis, either by whole organisms or by isolated enzymes, tends to operate at lower temperatures and, as a result of high enzymatic specificity, gives a much purer yield with fewer byproducts, thus saving the additional cost of further purification. There are many examples of this kind of industrial usage of biotechnology. In the cosmetics sector, there is a high demand for isopropyl myristate which is used in moisturising creams. The conventional method for its manufacture has a large energy requirement, since the process runs at high temperature and pressure to give a product which needs further refinement before it is suitable for use. An alternative approach, using enzyme-based esterification offers a way to reduce the overall environmental impact by deriving a cleaner, odour-free product, and at higher yields, with lower energy requirements and less waste for disposal.

Fiber Dietary

Dietary fiber is a general term for plant polysaccharides and lignin that are not broken down by the digestive enzymes of human beings. Dietary fiber is found in plant cell walls, mucilages, gums, and algal polysaccharides. Synthetic polysaccharides used in the food industry are also considered dietary fiber. Resistant starch, starch that is not digested in the small intestine, is chemically and physically similar to other nondigestable polysaccharides and also may be included in the definition of fiber. Many compounds with a wide range of physical and chemical properties are referred to as dietary fiber. In a single plant, the fiber composition of the stem or leaves is very different from the fiber in the fruit or seeds. Dietary fiber is not a uniform substance and every plant has a unique dietary fiber makeup. Because dietary fiber includes many compounds with very different physicochemical properties, it is difficult to characterize. Division of fibers by their solubility in water...


Found in plants are a heterogeneous group of compounds that contain a variety of different sugars arranged in a primary chain or backbone, with numerous side chains. The specific names of the hemicelluloses are based on their sugar content, such as xyloglucans (xylose and glucose), glucomannans (glucose and mannose), and arabinoxylans (arabinose and xylose). Solubility in water is dependent on the sugar components and the physical structure of the individual hemicellulose, but most compounds in this group are soluble in dilute alkali. Pectin from plants refers to a complex mixture of substances that is composed of a galacturonic acid core esterfied with methyl groups on the uronic acid residues. Rhamnose is also found in the backbone of pectins. Pectin is water soluble and used to produce highly viscous gels, whereas protopectins are insoluble. The only nonpolysaccharide included in the definition of dietary fiber is lignin. The lignins consist of chains of phenyl propane residues...

Hides And Skins

Gelatin is made from fresh hides or edible bones by a three-step process noncollagenous material removal, hydrolysis, and drying. Gelatin's uses include jellied desserts stabilizing frozen desserts and ice cream as a protective colloid for ice cream, cream pies, and yogurt capsule coverings binding agents for medicated tablets sterile surgery sponges protective ointments as an emulsifier for emulsions and foams and in cosmetics and silk screen printing.

Stem cells

All mature circulating blood cells originate from the same stem cells in the bone marrow. The pool of pluripotential ('master' or 'most senior') stem cells makeup less than 0.05 of the bone marrow mass and divides only about every 5 days. Yet with genetic pre-programming and appropriate stimulation with growth factors, these undifferentiated cells undergo differentiation through a series of cell divisions to form more committed stem cells. Committed stem cells are also called colony-forming units (CFUs) or colony-forming cells (CFCs). These CFUs differentiate further through a series of cell divisions to bring forth nine different fully functional and mature blood cells that is, red cells, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes and NK cells. The lifespan of mature blood cells is variable, but brief that is, 6h for granulocytes, 10 days for platelets, 4 months for red blood cells and months to years for lymphocytes. It is calculated that...

The red blood cell

Red blood cells makeup 99 of the circulating cell mass. The normal venous haematocrit in men is 45 and in women 41 . The sole function of the red blood cell is to transport O2. During the 1-2 s pass through capillary vessels, red blood cells (7-8 m) have to deform and squeeze through 5 m spaces in single file. This tight fit enhances gas exchange with the surrounding tissue cells. In circulation red blood cells form stacks or rouleaux, held together by large plasma proteins such as fibrinogen. At maturity red cells are cleared from the circulation by tissue macrophages, particularly those lining the sinuses of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. In the macrophage the cell membrane is rapidly degraded, the globin chains split into their constituent amino acids and the haem molecule split into its porphyrin ring and iron. The porphyrin ring is catabolized to bilirubin which is released into the circulation for recycling by the liver, and the iron molecule is transferred to transferrin...

Dowding Lady Muriel

Lady Muriel Dowding (1908-1981), a leading British humanitarian, vegetarian, and antivivisectionist, was the founder in 1959 and later chairperson of Beauty without Cruelty, the organization that led the way in the commercial production of synthetic alternatives to fur and cruelty-free cosmetics. She was a longtime president of the National Anti-Vivisection Society. In 1969, she cofounded the International Association against Painful Experiments on Animals (IAAPEA) and remained a patron until her death. She was the wife of Air-Chief Marshall the Lord Dowding, former commanderin-chief of the British Fighter Command, who died in 1970. Together, they shared a lifelong interest in spiritualism that informed their ethical concern for animals. Selected Bibliography. Berry, Rynn, Interview with Lady Dowding, in The New Vegetarians (New York Pythagorean Publishers, 1993), 137-152 Brophy, Brigid, The Darwinist's Dilemma, in David A. Paterson and Richard D. Ryder (Eds.), Animals' Rights A...


Health professionals in genetics differ in their beliefs about the value of privacy and confidentiality. Considerable disagreement has been documented, for example, in an international study in nineteen countries of the attitudes of geneticists toward privacy and disclosure. These health professionals were asked to respond to vignettes concerning disclosure of false paternity of a patient's genetic makeup to a spouse to relatives at genetic risk of ambiguous test results and to institutional third parties, such as employers and insurers (Wertz and Fletcher). Some consensus as well as numerous differences were discovered among the geneticists' opinions about what disclosures are appropriate. Dorothy Wertz and John Fletcher also found that geneticists' reasoning was more likely to be based on the complex needs and relationships of the various parties rather than the rights of individuals. A care-based ethics approach poses a theoretical and practical alternative to a rights-based...


Genomics is a recent scientific discipline that strives to define and characterize the complete genetic makeup of an organism. Its primary approaches are to determine the entire sequence and structure of an organism's DNA genome the total (its genome) and then to determine how that DNA is arranged into genes.

Ben A Williams

The most explicit use of conditioned reinforcement in clinical settings involves token economies in which many different aspects of behavior are monitored and reinforced when appropriate with some type of token that later can be traded for desired commodities. The experimental research on which some applications are based dates to experiments in the 1930s in which chimpanzees were trained to work for poker chips that could be traded for food only after the work session was completed. In the 1960s Teodoro Ayllon and Nathan Azrin, two of the early pioneers in adapting the principles of behavioral psychology to applied settings, administered a token economy in a state psychiatric hospital. Patients received tokens for behaviors such as attending activities on the ward, group meetings, and therapy sessions, and for grooming, making one's bed, showering, engaging in appropriate meal-time behavior, and socially interacting. Tokens could be exchanged for a variety of reinforcers such as...

Facial Pain

The facial pain syndromes are a group ofdisorders that usually occur in paroxysms and are characterized by pain of severe intensity. The most common types are trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Trigemin-al neuralgia, also known as tic douloureux, is usually seen in the elderly. The nature of the pain and its intensity may cause the patient to wince or twitch. The patient can identify trigger points, and avoidance of these trigger points is a diagnostic feature. The patient avoids these points by circumventing them during shaving, washing the face, or applying makeup. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is similar to trigeminal neuralgia in its presentation. However, the site of pain is located in the ear, tonsils, or pharynx and is triggered by swallowing, yawning, or eating.

The sample material

The enzymatic methods used in food analysis are also used for analysis in the non-food area as well as in biochemistry and clinical chemistry for the analysis of body fluids, of animal and plant tissues, of fermentation broths and cell culture media. Whilst interference rarely occurs in food analysis, it may occur when chemicals, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are analysed. Fortunately, such disturbances are easy to recognise and can often be eliminated by applying suitable sample preparation techniques.

Coloring Agents

For certification as a pharmaceutical coloring agent, the FDA operates a scheme whereby each batch of color that is produced is certified as analytically correct by the FDA prior to issuing a certification number and document, which will permit the sale of the batch in question. Colors requiring certification are described as FD&C (Food, drug, and cosmetic) and D&C (Drug and cosmetics). The requirements for each color are listed in the following section of the CFR Title 21 part 81 General Specifications and General Restrictions for Provisional Color Additives for Use in Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics'' (see also http dms cfr81 toc.html).

Nutritional Value

Carcass composition among species and within species as a result of different fat-to-muscle ratios in the edible portion. As fat percentage increases, nutrient concentration of the muscle portion decreases. Also, to a certain extent, the fat profile composition and other nutrient content levels may be modified or affected by the animal's diet and or genetic makeup.

Exposure to mercury

Relative contributions of these mercury sources were evaluated to be in the same order of magnitude but depend, of course, on food preferences, living region and dental status. Certain categories are more heavily exposed to mercury, such as dental healthcare personnel and some industrial workers. High mercury concentrations were, for example, found in pituitary glands from dental staff. A correlation has been shown to exist between number of amalgam fillings and the plasma level of mercury. Amalgam fillings release mercury as vapor, which is then inhaled and absorbed, oxidized (ionized) and bound to cellular proteins. In fish, mercury is in the form of methyl mercury, formed by methylalion by bacteria in polluted lakes. Methyl mercury can be biotransformed to inorganic mercury, and it was shown in Wistar rats that the spleen was of major importance for this action, presumably involving macrophages. People are also exposed to mercury through its use as a bactericidal agent and in...

Breed History

These different approaches to development also lead to different situations regarding the genetic makeup of breeds. Breed societies encourage and facilitate genetic improvement. Genetic improvement goals tend to differ among different breeds, which leads to differences among breeds in average genetic merit. Additionally, breed societies, necessarily, hold to pedigree barriers in order to maintain breed purity. These barriers create limited population size. This, inevitably, leads to inbreeding, which also differs among breeds and contributes to levels of heterosis when breeds are crossed.

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