Crickets Breeding Made Simple
The last Spacelab flight, the Neurolab mission, was a dedicated neurology research payload. Research subjects included baby rats, pregnant mice, snails, crickets and prehistoric looking oyster toadfish (Figure 2-05). Neurolab reinforced the value of using diverse organisms to address different biological questions. For example, crickets were included by virtue of their external gravity-sensing apparatus, the development of which can be easily studied (see Figure 5-01).
Historically, there were distinctions between ''behavioral enrichment'' and ''environmental enrichment.'' These were based on suggestions that there were two radically different approaches to improving the lot of captive animals. The behavioral enrichment approach focused on engineering environments that provided opportunities that were likely to elicit species-typical behaviors. For example, occasionally producing the sounds of crickets in an otter exhibit and providing means by which the otters could hunt and capture crickets resulted in considerable display of species-typical behaviors. Supporters of environmental enrichment suggested that providing a rich-enough environment precluded the need for engineering artificial ''hunts'' or other apparatus that rewarded animals for particular responses. For example, if a captive forest with sufficient food was provided for chimpanzees,* this might be sufficient to encourage significant amounts of species-typical behaviors. Today, the term...
A research program on the issues of fertility during long-term exposure to microgravity is clearly related to multi-generation studies. Prerequisites for multi-generation experiments in orbit are successful fertilization and delivery of young animals under microgravity. As described above, viable progenies were obtained from natural in-flight fertilization in fish, crickets, fruit flies, and nematodes, as well as from artificial in-flight fertilization in amphibians. A fertilization experiment with rats on board the Cosmos-1129 biosatellite failed, although initial phases of reproduction were demonstrated after this particular flight. Also, experiments with rats, mice, and hamsters revealed that fertilization in hypergravity were successful, provided the g-load was less than 3 g (Ronca 2003b).
Tarsiers (Tarsius spp.) eat insects (beetles, ants, locusts, cicadas, cockroaches, mantids, moths) and sometimes small vertebrates in the wild. Although the quantitative nutrient requirements of tarsiers have not been specifically defined, estimated adequate nutrient concentrations in dietary DM have been proposed. 6 When kept in captivity, tarsiers are often provided crickets as a major food item. Because crickets and other commercially available insects tend to be deficient in certain nutrients (particularly calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin D), 7 specifically formulated diets are offered to these insects for about 48 hours before feeding them to tarsiers so that the insects plus their gut contents will be nutritionally complete. 8-10 8. Allen, M.E. Oftedal, O.T. Dietary manipulation of the 14. calcium content of feed crickets. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 1989, 20, 26 33.
Crickets use a fertilization strategy similar to that of salamanders. After insemination by a male, the female cricket keeps the sperm in its spermatotheca. Fertilization occurs during the process of egg laying, which is activated by offering a suitable substrate to the female. By means of this technique, we were able to obtain successful in-flight fertilization in the house crickets Acheta domesticus during the Italian Soyuz Taxi flight Enei'de to the ISS in 2005. After the flight, embryos were recovered, suggesting that eggs could develop for eight days in microgravity.
Stage-related susceptibility to hypergravity is the development of the size of specific inhibitory GABAergic neurons (the common inhibitors CI1, CI2 and CI3) within the thoracic ganglia of house crickets Acheta domesticus after a 16-day exposure to 3-g centrifugation (Horn et al. 2001).
Crickets have even simpler gravity sensors, which are connected to a simple and well-studied nervous system. They develop rapidly, making them ideal for studies during spaceflight. Crickets roll their head when tilted, and this reflex is activated by the gravity-sensing system. By measuring this head movement, scientist can determine the efficiency and accuracy of the synaptic connections that have developed in the cricket's gravity sensors in microgravity (see Chapter 5, Section 4.1). Also, investigators can determine if
Crickets possess a neuron that changes its activity in relation to the creature's posture (Sakaguchi and Murphey 1983). This neuron is called the Posture Sensitive Interneuron (PSI). In each developmental stage up to adulthood, there is only one PSI on each side of the nervous system. The cell body (or soma) of this neuron lies on the contralateral side with respect to its dendritic arborization, and its long axon ascends from the terminal ganglion towards the brain passing the thoracic ganglia ipsilateral to the location of the dendritic tree. The PSI receives its input from the cercal gravity receptors (see Figure 5-01).
Morphological regeneration is a reactivation of development in postembryonic life to restore missing tissue. Its most spectacular aspects are the demonstration of multipotent properties of specific tissue and that the correct positional information is re-specified, so that normal body structures such as complete extremities or retinas are formed. Only a few aquatic vertebrates such as salamanders and newts possess the potency for regeneration. Among invertebrates, species of much lower order, such as insects (crickets, cockroaches), flatworms (planaria), and coelenterates (Hydra), are able to regenerate lost or lesioned organs. Despite this large number of species with regeneration potencies, microgravity investigations were limited to studies on the regeneration of lens, forelimb, and tail in Pleurodeles waitI during the Bion-10 and -11 flights (Grinfeld et al. 1994 Grigoryan et al. 2002), and of abdominal appendages or cerci in crickets (Horn et al. 2001) (see Figure 5-01). The main...
The Complete Cricket Breeding Manual Official Download Page
There is no free download for The Complete Cricket Breeding Manual. You have to pay for it, just as you have to pay for a car, or for a pair of shoes, or to have your house painted.