Transsexuality and Transgender in Japan

In 1969, a Japanese gynecologist was tried and found guilty of performing SRS for three MTF transsexuals. Since then, medical treatment, and even discussion of transsexuality, has been practically a taboo in Japan. For this reason some transsexuals have obtained their SRS abroad, while others have received hormonal therapy and or SRS underground at home. However, this situation is now changing. In 1998, Dr Harashina performed the first SRS in Japan that was legally admitted. Today, Japan has...

Correlates of Premarital Sex Norms

Cultures that require or value chastity among the unmarried appear to be responding to practical problems associated with premarital sexual activity. People in many societies with restrictive premarital sex norms will tell you that they disapprove of premarital sex because they wish to avoid premarital pregnancies. Of 28 cultures permitting premarital sex, 38 condone sex before marriage as long as the girl does not become pregnant (Frayzer, 1985). Pregnancy presents a special set of problems...

Gender over the Life Cycle

The Bakairi recognize infancy, childhood, coming of age, young adulthood, and oldness. The coming-of-age period is punctuated with a puberty ritual for both men and women. Young adulthood is publicly marked with a marriage ceremony in which the men of the village escort a young man to the home of bride and hang his hammock underneath hers. Most work is done by adult men and women however, children and elderly people make important contributions to the household economy. There is no preference...

Other Cross Sex Relationships

The system of arranged marriage has a complex set of rules specifying who may, may not, or should marry whom. These rules color cross-gender relations significantly. Those who are considered legally eligible or even preferred spouses often maintain a sexual teasing relationship with one another even if there is a difference in age of several decades between them. Brothers and sisters have an easygoing relationship and may be quite close. In the rare case of a dispute between brothers-in-law, a...

Frequency of Extramarital Sexual Behavior

Norms of extramarital sexual behavior are not predictably associated with how many married husbands or wives actually engage in extramarital sex. Thus, whereas a slight majority of societies condone extramarital sex for males, extramarital sex is universal or at least common in 78 of 107 cultures and uncommon or absent in only 22 . The discrepancy between extramarital sex norms and actual behavior is even more striking in the case of women. While societies overwhelmingly condemn affairs for...

Husband Wife Relationship

Whether or not a marriage begins with affection, having children is considered the catalyst for love to grow between husband and wife. If a Beng couple find themselves incompatible, only after they have had at least one child together, and ideally two or three children, is divorce readily agreed to by their families. A childless couple who are not getting along are generally advised to wait until they have had children perhaps their relationship will improve because of their shared parenthood...

Gender Roles in Economics

Ifugao farmers are almost equally male and female. Male farmers traditionally construct and maintain rice fields, plow rice fields (except in the Kiangan area), carry loads of harvested rice from fields to homes, raise and catch fish, hunt, trap, engage in carpentry work and forestry, care for domestic animals, and collect and chop wood. Some men carve wood to make crafts, and smith iron. Historically, men also engaged in pot-making, warfare, headhunting, revenge murder, and capturing and...

Relative Status of Men and Women

Men have a higher status than women in the economic and political spheres. In the family, men are seen as the head of household, and in rural areas or more traditional urban families men are the primary decision-makers. In urban educated middle-class families men and women participate equally in decision-making. Although women are also able to voice their marriage choices and initiate divorce, men have more control over their sexuality and marriage choices. However, in educational matters men...

Cultural Construction of Gender

Bamileke recognize two gender categories, male and female. Gender is conceptualized in a strictly binary fashion there are no third genders in Bamileke society, and no culturally recognized diversity of sexual orientation associated with multiple genders. In Bamileke thought, male and female share their basic humanity, being made through the mystery of Nsi (divine creation) and through the mixing of male and female waters and or bloods through sexual intercourse. Both have spirit (or breath),...

Medical Psychological Aspects of Transgender

There is no known medical reason for GID. Suggested possibilities include possible in utero hormonal effects that create a vulnerability or propensity that is then exacerbated by subsequent environmental factors. Some argue that there are morphological changes in the corpus callosum, but evidence is ambivalent (some studies say yes, others say no, some find it inconclusive). Some argue that other areas of the brain are altered. In particular, one study by Zhou, Hofman, Gooren, and...

Differences and Similarities between Female and Male Managers

Earlier management research took it for granted that managers were men (e.g., Dalton, 1959 Mintzberg, 1973, 1989), and ignored gender issues altogether. The so-called great-man theory is one of the earliest management theories. It argues that persons (men) who have influenced Western civilization have characteristics that are needed in a good leader. Another of the early theories is trait theory. It assumes that effective leaders have distinct personal qualities that differentiate them from...

Sex Differences in Life History

Human life histories are unusual among primates, our closest relatives. If we followed the typical primate pattern (in which many phenomena vary with size), women would nurse their children until about age 7 years, and then their daughters would have their first children at about age 8 or 9 years (review in Low, 2000). Human distortions of typical primate patterns appear to be linked to our extreme sociality. Any glance at census data suggests that there are also significant sex differences in...

Polygyny

It is important to distinguish between polygyny as an ideal state of marriage and polygyny as a practice, and to distinguish subtypes of polygyny. While all highly industrialized societies legitimize monogamy only (Goode, 1967), traditional cultures have preferred polygyny over other types of marriage by a wide margin (Murdock, 1949). Despite this widespread ideal, the typical marriage in many, if not most, polygynous societies is monogamous. Indeed, Murdock (1949, p. 28) put the dividing line...

Sexuality

Both men and women generally view sex among Tarahumaras as natural and healthy, but private, as is the physical expression of affection. Thus the flaunting of one's sexuality in dress, speech, or behavior, especially in women, is considered immodest and usually inappropriate except in overt joking. Sexual activity with non-Tarahumara is generally considered to be dangerous and polluting, with high risks of contracting venereal diseases, HIV, or other illnesses. Sexual urges are considered to be...

Gender and Religion

I have already discussed the ideology of a balance of oppositions, two of these being male and female. In this respect there is no distinction in value placed on the genders they are equal and equally necessary to the whole. However, in one respect females have greater spiritual value than males. This will be discussed below under witchcraft. In the pantheon of deities, female deities are as central and powerful as male deities. In Hopi eyes, all sodalities and their ceremonies are important...

Cross Cultural Research on Stereotypes

Although there are several small-scale studies of sex stereotypes in other countries (e.g., Lii & Wong, 1982 Sunar, 1982), to date a large number of studies have been conducted by an international group of researchers cooperating in a 32-country project (Williams & Best, 1990a, 1990b). These studies have been integrated by Williams and Best and will be discussed in detail here with highlights on methodological issues and findings. Williams and Best's Sex Stereotype Study. In their study,...

Glossary

Immigrants who immigrated to the host country in the midst of their personal development, between the ages of five and twelve also called the in-between generation. acculturation. The process of extensive borrowing of aspects of culture in the context of superordinate-subordinate relations between societies usually occurs as the result of external pressure. adaptive trait. A trait that enhances survival and reproductive success in a particular environment. Usually applied to...

Courtship and Marriage

Btsisi' youth have ample opportunity to get to know each other. At school, around the village, at the store, on the road, and at festivals youths mingle. Weddings, which are all-night activities, provide young couples great leeway to go off together and get to know each other. Today, youths own motorcycles, giving them the freedom of mobility to visit other villages. Btsisi' women say that both they and men are attracted to light-skinned people. Fair skin is a sign of beauty. When preparing for...

Overview of the Culture

The Shipibo are thought to have occupied the upper Peruvian Amazon area for about 1,000 years. They have principally and traditionally inhabited small settlements on the banks of oxbow lakes (cochas) and small tributaries of the Ucayali. The Shipibo have long had a highly developed ceramic tradition, and their contemporary pottery is internationally known for its beauty and craftsmanship. Pottery is used for cooking, eating, and ceremonial purposes, and sometimes for decoration. The Shipibo...

Middle Age and Old Age

In terms of career development, older age begins in Hungary for both women and men by the time they have reached their mid-30s. At this time, most people find it extremely difficult to change career paths because of discriminatory hiring practices. At the same time, in her delineation of the Hungarian woman's life course, Toth (1994a) considers the period of child-rearing, late twenties through forties, as middle age. For most Hungarian women, this is also the most difficult time of their...

Nurturant Supportive Affectionate Loving and Warm Parenting

Studying Maternal and Paternal Warmth and Nurturance. An extensive body of research shows that warm, nurturing, and affectionate relationships between parents and offspring are often predictive of positive psychological, behavioral, and social development of both children and adults (Rohner, 1975, 1986, 2000 Rohner & Britner, 2002). Even though most research has focused on maternal warmth and nurturance, there is a growing body of work that shows the importance of paternal warmth and...

Sex Segregation of Labor

Labor is strongly sex segregated everywhere, with males and females specializing in tasks congruent with their inherent interests, aptitudes, and training, and with practicalities such as distance from the settlement and compatibility with related tasks (Friedl, 1975 Murdock & Provost, 1973). The universality of sexual division of labor suggests that this arrangement has generally been advantageous. In all preliterate cultures the labor of husband and wife is complementary women perform most...

Their Nature and Extent

Acts of sexual aggression have been documented for centuries. The statistics used here are recent and considered among the more valid by top researchers in this field of study. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse. In 1997, the U.S. Bureau of Justice's Uniform Crime Reports estimated the annual rate of reported rapes to be 70 per 100,000 women (Russell & Bolen, 2000, p. 51). Federal crime victimization surveys found the annual prevalence of completed or attempted rapes to be three to four times...

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

Hmong needlework is becoming more of a specialty in the United States as fewer females grow up knowing how to produce the ornately paneled clothes that they are expected to wear at weddings and public celebrations. Interest in male crafts and ceremonial roles is also declining. Alarmed by these trends, Hmong MAAs and cultural centers are recruiting recognized experts to instruct youths, both males and females, in a broad range of heritage practices. Although cultural maintenance is the stated...

Husband Wife Work Activities

Because many of an adult's waking hours are devoted to subsistence activities, the nature of husband-wife interaction in a society is significantly related to the way in which work activities are allocated by sex. A husband and wife can work side by side or they can conduct their subsistence activities independently. In the former case, a couple will find themselves spending some or much of the day together, while in the latter case, they may not see one another for much of the time. Among the...

Overall Patterning of Sexual Attitudes and Practices

Folk wisdom leads us to expect a certain consistency regarding how an individual culture will manage human sexuality. This intuition is only moderately borne out by the evidence. Certain aspects of sexual belief and behavior do tend to be predictably related within and across societies. But some sexual attitudes and practices also tend to be independent of others. Cultures across the world do appear to be consistent with regard to some aspects of premarital and extramarital sexual behavior....

References

Anthropology and the second 50 years. Current Anthropology, 43 2 , 338-340. Alford, R. D. 1996 . Naming. In D. Levinson amp M. Ember Eds. , Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology Vol. 3, pp. 833-836 . New York Holt. Ayres, B. 1967 . Pregnancy magic A study of food taboos and sex avoidances. In C. S. Ford Ed. , Cross-cultural approaches pp. 111-125 . New Haven, CT HRAF Press. Ball, H., amp Panter-Brick, C. 2001 . Child survival and the modulation of parental investment. In P....

Puberty Rites

Just as body and behavior must be compatible, the genetic and cultural programs must cooperate for the successful survival and reproduction of the organism. This notion is illustrated by puberty rites, which may be regarded as a cultural growth spurt analogous to the changes of puberty both provide intensive preparation for adulthood G. E. Weisfeld, 1997 . Functional analysis of the various features of puberty rites may reveal some general characteristics of adolescence. Although only 56 of...

Transgender and Transsexuality in the United Kingdom

Transpeople now have a higher profile in the United Kingdom than ever before. There are popular transvestite entertainers Eddie Izzard , prominent drag entertainers Lily Savage , celebrated soap opera transsexuals Hayley of Coronation Street , extensive media coverage of most aspects of trans, and a plethora of informal networks and support groups, formal organizations, and commercial ventures to cater for the needs of transsexuals, cross-dressers and transgendered people. Sex reassignment...

Differences between Matrilineal and Patrilineal Systems

One of the classical paradoxes about matrilineality is that it is not the mirror image of a patrilineal system. It differs in one important feature that has important structural consequences. Schneider 1961, p. 7 pointed out that the lines of authority and descent diverge in matrilineal societies, but converge in patrilineal societies. This is because males are usually the political leaders in all societies. So in a patrilineal society, descent and political authority if there is a rule of...

Samburu Woman Giving Birth

The Samburu are sexually permissive toward young people. It is expected that girls and Imurran will be sexually active, and a mother will sometimes formally sanction a relationship between her daughter and an Imurran, who will give the girl a large gift of beads Spencer, 1965 Straight, 2002 . Lmurran and their beaded girlfriends are from the same exogomous clan, and thus cannot later marry. Lmurran and girls avoid pregnancy through the withdrawal method, as it is considered an abomination for...

Sex Taboos

Even in societies where frequent sexual activity between spouses is regarded as desirable, sexual relations are prohibited under some circumstances. Sex taboos are present in 60 of the 70 cultures for which evidence is available with specific categories of people, or at certain ages, stages, or crises in life Broude, 1975 . In some societies, sexual activity is prohibited during certain times of the day. The Cuna of Panama approve of sexual relations only at night in accordance with the laws of...

Correlates of Attitudes Toward

Beliefs about whether sex is harmless or dangerous are predictably associated with other sexual beliefs and practices. In cultures where people believe that sex is dangerous, extramarital affairs for women are condemned and the incidence of both premarital and extramarital sex is low. Interestingly, attitudes about sex are not predictably related to beliefs about the desirability of frequent sexual activity within a marriage, so that people in a particular culture may think that sex can be...

Male and Female Oriented Descent Groups

It is one thing to live together in the same community with relatives it is quite another to have unilineal descent groups. Unilineal literally, one line descent groups exist where people consider themselves to be descended from a common ancestor through one gender only. If we speak of patrilineal descent, membership in the patrilineal descent group is passed through males only membership is acquired from the father members of both sexes belong through their fathers. If we speak of matrilineal...

Male Homosexual Systems

In gender-stratified systems men who take on a pathic passive or receptive role in sexual relationships are culturally distinguished from typical men, but the men who take on active inser-tor roles are not. Unlike gays, pathics do not typically have sex with other pathics. This system is widespread on all the world's continents. In many societies pathics are known for their special ceremonial roles. Among the Siberian Chuckchee a youth begins his transformation when...

Massai Girls Masturbate

To the Maasai, sexuality is a physical act erepa, to cling between men and women, or between girls and adolescent boys. Homosexuality and masturbation are virtually non-existent. In fact, the former is an act beyond their comprehension. Whenever the topic is discussed, it raises vehement reactions. Masturbation is practiced by young uncircumcized boys they are also said to relieve their sexual urges by copulating with donkeys. However, these acts are considered to be activities of children and...

Cultural Overview

The Lahu are a Tibeto-Burman-speaking people Chang, 1986, p. 1 Matisoff, 1988, p. 11 who are divided into several subgroups with mutually intelligible dialects and slightly different subcultures, including the Lahu Na, the Lahu Shi, the Lahu Nyi, and the Lahu Shehleh Walker, 1974 . The Lahu people live in the mountainous region that constitutes a southerly extension of the Tibetan highlands along the border areas of the People's Republic of China P.R.C. , Myanmar Burma , Laos, Thailand, and...

Cross Cultural Sex Role Studies

Cross-cultural research has examined variation in sex role ideology between cultural groups. Using Hofstede's terminology, one would assume that traditional ideologies would be found in masculine cultures and modern ideologies in feminine cultures. Williams and Best's Sex Role Ideology Study. In their 14-country study of masculinity and femininity described above, Williams and Best 1990b had study participants respond to the 30-item Kalin Sex Role Ideology measure SRI Kalin amp Tilby, 1978...

Female Homosexual Systems

In her study of lesbian relationships in Lesotho, Kendal 1998 pointed out how easy it is to ignore female homosexuality. Basotho women simply say that sex is impossible without a penis. Women have sex with their husbands, but simultaneously maintain affective ties with women including grinding genital contacts that they describe as loving. This has made it difficult for cross-cultural researchers to ascertain just how sexual women's relationships are. For example, women taking on the typically...

Frequency of Sex in Marriage

People living in different cultures report widely different incidences of sexual activity between spouses. In part, the differences are related to cultural attitudes regarding how often individuals ought to engage in sexual intercourse. In 17 of 70 cultures around the world, frequent sexual intercourse between spouses is viewed as highly desirable Broude, 1976 . Among the Lepcha, who typify this attitude, married couples claim to engage in sexual activity five, six, or more times a day when...

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

The mother of a child is the one who gave birth to it, though a child calls his or her mother's sister mother as well as most of the latter person's sisters or classificatory sisters. Several of these many other mothers are actual part time caretakers, and one of them takes over the full care of a closely related orphan. The same pattern potentially exists for fathers, but since these men's brothers, and their other classificatory fathers, live in other households, their care is seldom sought....

The Settings of Socialization

Just as the activities in which children engage contribute to gender socialization, where children work and play also has important implications. The settings in which children spend their time shape those behaviors they can observe, try out, rehearse, and master. The impact on socialization is directly related to the strength of the setting. Some contexts of development are considered strong and other situations weak Snyder amp Ickes, 1985 . In strong contexts, the range of behaviors that an...

Puberty and Adolescence

At about age 16, females reach menarche and undergo a puberty ritual, which coincides with the ripening of the main species of berry. Girls are normally tlakwenakweko when this occurs, though they may be much younger 11 or 12 , if there are few girls of appropriate age nearby and a larger group is needed. During this ritual, called Mai-to-ko, girls wear few clothes and are smeared with animal fat and adorned with many beads from head to toe. They may chase boys and try to hit them with a...

Transformations

The Chuckchee represent an instance in which some sort of gender transformation is said to occur. Generally, we can think in terms of three axes of post-childhood gender transformation. One is of a temporary sort a person takes on different gender characteristics for a short period of time, and then returns to the initial gender stance. The most common example of this phenomenon is the practice referred to by the term couvade. Most commonly found among peoples in the Amazon basin Gregor, 1985 ,...

Newlywed Customs

The transition to the married state is marked in many cultures by special treatment of newlyweds. A new bride and groom may be treated specially for just a few hours e.g., through the wedding night or for days, weeks, or longer. Further, newlywed customs tend to come as a package, so that if newlyweds are treated as special in one way, they are treated as special more generally. For instance, if the wedding night is considered special, then the couple are also likely to be sent on a honeymoon,...

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Although Btsisi' culture is undergoing dramatic changes with land loss, resource depletion, and wage labor, the relationship between women and men remains constant. Women and men remain true partners sharing in their work and sharing in their play. This is atypical, but Btsisi' culture has buffered the most common negative impacts of colonialism and development on women's relationship with men. However, there is slight linguistic evidence suggesting that changes are beginning to occur in the...

Contributors

Iiris Aaltio, Department of Business Administration, Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland Iren Annus, University of Szeged, Hungary George N. Appell, Department of Anthropology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, U.S.A. Laura W. R. Appell, Sabah Oral Literature Project, Phillips, ME 04996, U.S.A. Marysol Asencio, Puerto Rican and Latino Studies Institute, University of Connecticut-Storrs, Storrs, CT 062692058, U.S.A. Christine Avenarius, Department of...

Ritual Defloration

Originally published in 1918, Freud's 1918 1953 essay The Taboo of Virginity is remarkable for its use of ethnographic examples limited to what was available in a World War I Austria , and provides some indication of the great variety of cultural elaborations of defloration. More recently, Wikan 1982 provides a first-hand account of the traditional Near Eastern Oman wedding ceremony, in which physical evidence for the defloration of the bride, in the form of a bloody cloth, must be publicly...

Extramarital Sex Norms of Extramarital

In every society around the world, the overwhelmingly majority of men and women marry, and married couples are expected to engage in sexual relations. Sexual activity outside marriage is also condemned in many societies. However, in a number of cultures, extramarital affairs are at least tolerated, and a majority of societies accept and even expect husbands to engage in them. Fifty-six percent of a worldwide sample of 112 societies do not officially condemn extramarital sex for males, while...

What We Do Not Know Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Currently, much is unknown about the long-term effects of contragender hormonal treatment. In light of recent studies on increased breast cancer risk in non-transgendered females due to hormone replacement therapy, it is critical that longitudinal studies are undertaken in the transgender community. Questions of increased risk of breast cancer in MTF transsexuals remain open, as do questions of breast cancer in the FTM transsexual community. Questions of the effect of estrogen on bone mass in...

Transgender and Transsexualism in Norway

In the western hemisphere there is a need to date all descriptions concerning diversities in genderland. Much change is taking place new insights, new words, concepts, and contexts are constantly being inspired as others are being expired. Norway has two organizations for transpeople. The oldest is FPE-NE which was founded in 1968 to meet the needs of heterosexual transvestites. Today members of the FPE-NE form a continuum from classical parttime cross-dressing, through self-defined bigendered,...

Female Inhibition in Mixed Sex Competition

One frequently neglected topic is mixed-sex competition and its possible role in mate choice. Females tend to be less competitive and self-confident than males cross-culturally e.g., Stetsenko, Little, Godeeva, Grassof, amp Oettingen, 2000 , but they also sometimes attenuate their competitiveness when facing a male opponent. This phenomenon is seen mainly in adolescence and adulthood, and is observed cross-culturally. For example, C. C. Weisfeld, Weisfeld, and Callahan 1982 documented it in the...

Unilocality and Unilineality

Aside from the psychological stress created for the unimportant gender in a unilocal-unilineal system, which we discussed earlier, what does research suggest about other possible consequences of unilocality and unilineal-ity One domain that has been investigated is status. Whyte 1978, pp. 132-133 has tested the hypothesis that women will have higher status in matrilocal and matrilineal societies. He measured status in a number of domains ranging from property control to value of labor to...

Contents

Biological Bases of Sex Differences 27 Socialization of Boys and Girls in Natural Contexts 34 Carolyn Pope Edwards, Lisa Knoche, and Asiye Kumru Adolescence 42 Gender Roles, Status, and Institutions Economic Activities and Gender Roles 91 Kaisa Kauppinen and Iiris Aaltio War and Gender 107 Carol R. Ember and Melvin Ember The Relative Status of Men and 137 Transitions in the Life-Course of Women 163 Sexuality and Male-Female Interaction Husband-Wife Interaction and Aloofness 192 Fernando Luiz...

Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender

Men and Women in the World's Cultures Volume I Topics and Cultures A-K Volume II Cultures L-Z Human Relations Area Files Yale University New Haven, Connecticut Human Relations Area Files Yale University New Haven, Connecticut Published in conjunction with the Human Relations Area Files at Yale University New York Boston Dordrecht London Moscow Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of sex and gender men and women in the world's cultures edited by Carol R. Ember and...