Childrens Behavior Nurturance Dependency Prosocial Acts and Aggression

In this final section, we discuss four categories of child behavior (nurturance, dependency, prosocial acts, and aggression) that appear at an early age and are important outcomes of the kinds of socialization processes we have described. Children's behavior seems to have certain similar characteristics across cultures because of their universal developmentally-based needs and desires. However, there are also important differences tied to cultural experiences. All four categories of behavior...

Cultural Overview

The Maasai (about 350,000 people) are Nilotic-speaking pastoralists, of the eastern Nilotic branch (cf. Vossen, 1982). Their language maa is also spoken by a few other ethnic groups in the region, such as the Samburu and Chamus in Kenya, and the Parakuyu and Arusha in Tanzania (Gulliver, 1963 Little, 1992 Spencer, 1965). The Nilotic-speaking pastoralists constitute a cultural minority within the Kenyan and Tanzanian nation states. Until recently the Maasai lived a seminomadic way of life,...

The Scientific Study of Homosexuality and Social Policy

One of the most common philosophical mistakes is to confuse what is with what ought to be. One variation of this confusion is known as the naturalistic fallacy the idea that if something is natural, then it is good (i.e., ought to be). As Sommer (1990) points out, the presence or absence of homosexual behavior among animals has been used since ancient times either to defend or to condemn the practice. The contradictory conclusions of different authors illustrate well the problems in trying to...

Cultural Construction of Gender

There are two recognized genders female and male. The ideal structure of Mehinako gender-relations can be described using the dictum separate but equal (Etienne & Leacock, 1980). The ideal balance of gender spheres is also expressed in the representation of the spirits as male-female pairs. Both ritual performance and the everyday behavior of men and women is based on the dual vision of gender that is played out in rites of gender-role reversal. Mehinako men and women state their equality...

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

Adults, whether men or women, have little leisure time. However, each does have greater and lesser periods of intensity in the work schedule. The most demanding work can provide an opportunity for recreation. When women prepare flour, for example, many women work together for long hours. When gardens are cut the whole village works together and creates a festive occasion with drinking and joking. Fish poisoning, in the low-water season, is an occasion for festive communal work. On a daily...

Mesopotamia Egypt and India

Sumerian temple records from the middle of the third millennium bc mention gala priests, who for centuries served the goddess Inanna Ishtar. These priests and their later equivalents in Babylonia and Assyria adopted female dress and manners and engaged in passive anal intercourse with other men. The written word for gala combined the symbols for penis and anus. Babylonian and Assyrian omens even instructed men to have sex with these priests to bring good luck. But not all types of homosexuality...

Sexual Selection and Mate Choice

Evolutionary theorists view sex differences as the outcome of sexual selection strategies (Buss, 1994 Whissell, 1996). According to these theorists, the ways in which women choose their mates, the ways in which men succeed in winning the opportunity to mate, and the different strategies that men and women have for ensuring the survival of their offspring and genes are responsible for the sex differences evident in both humans and other animals. This assumption makes the study of mate choice...

Gender and Religion

Italy is predominantly Roman Catholic and has historically strong ties with the Vatican, not least because of the presence of the Papal State within Italian territory. It is undeniable that Catholicism has exercised a strong influence on Italian culture and values. In particular, the Lateran Pacts conceded a great deal of control to the Church, especially in relation to education. The Christian Democrat party, which governed Italy for four decades after World War II, did much to consolidate the...

Gender Roles in Economics

One of the central features of the patriarchal Chinese society is the division of labor between men and women. In rural China, men primarily worked outside the home they provided agricultural labor and brought food to the family. Women primarily worked inside the home. In addition to child-bearing and child-rearing, they cooked, washed, and tended livestock. Peasant women sometimes helped in the fields during the rice transplanting and harvest seasons, but their work was done under the...

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

The major historical periods for Czech society are (1) traditional village life, up until World War II and the Communist revolution of 1948, (2) Communism (1948-89), with collectivization of farms, a planned economy and pronatalist government policies, and active undermining of older Catholic Christian or bourgeois attitudes and customs, and (3) the period of privatization, liberalization, and social differentiation since the fall of Communism in 1989. See Salzmann and Scheufler (1974) for a...

Scales Designed to Measure Sex Role Identification

Some scales have been designed specifically to measure sex or gender role identification as an aspect of personality. One of the earliest of these was the Mf scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), which was created shortly after World War II. The original Mf scale was used to assess homosexuality in men. It was developed by the method of extreme groups (empirical criterion keying Anastasi & Urbina, 1997, p. 351) for which the MMPI is famous, with male soldiers...

The Rise of Modernization Theory

Development theory itself had its roots in post-World War II redevelopment that began in Europe and was later extended to Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Less a theory than a school of thought, its underlying assumption was that undeveloped (i.e., mostly rural) agrarian nations would benefit from being incorporated into the expanding world market. The most marginal citizens in these countries would benefit, at least indirectly, through an improved economy that created demand for products and...

Physiological and Hormonal Sex Differences

Hormonal differences between the sexes in humans, as in other mammals, are so pervasive and systematic, and are the mediators for so many other differences, that they are sometimes incorrectly cited as the biological causes of sex differences. It is clear, however, that these mediators have evolved to differ between the sexes, just as in other species, and specifics vary. Sex hormones organize a variety of sexually dimorphic behaviors, from aggression to reproductive behavior (see reviews by...

Elite Urban Women in Saudi Arabia Soraya Altorki

In a careful study of the lives of three generations of women in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, Altorki (1986) demonstrates that modesty practices, although always legitimated in terms of Islamic doctrine, change over time (fieldwork periods included 1971-1973, 1974-1976, and numerous visits until 1984). Avoiding the Great Tradition versus Little Tradition dichotomy, Altorki shows how women's own understandings of the same Islamic teachings have changed over time. In the oldest generation (between the...

Gender over the Life Cycle

According to the Chinese Classic for Girls (Nu er Jing), the ideal qualities of women over the life-cycle is the three obediences and four virtues. The three obediences prescribe that a Chinese woman obeys the authority of her father when young, her husband when married, and her sons when widowed. The four virtues required her to behave in total compliance with the rules, speaking properly, knowing her place, and performing her domestic duties. A girl learned at a very young age that she would...

Courtship and Marriage

In pre-Christian Samoa there was no hard and fast distinction between intercourse and marriage. As late as the 1970s, a boy who had deflowered a girl might appear at her wedding to another man insisting that she was already his wife. Go-betweens (soa) handled courtships between persons of rank and then contracted their marriages in light of political considerations. The ordinary boy, like his ranking counterpart, sometimes employed a companion to speak for him in matters of the heart. For the...

Sexuality

In indigenous Luyia society, sexuality was regarded as healthy and natural. Fathers' sisters (senge) and grandmothers instructed youth in sexual matters, which could not be discussed with parents. Premarital sex play (but not intercourse) was allowed. A bride was expected to be a virgin and her family was rewarded for her virginity, though there seems to have been no lasting stigma for a pregnant bride. Christian missionaries demanded the covering of bodies with voluminous clothing and...

Puberty and Adolescence

The Glebo have no formal initiation rites into adulthood, although one has been reported for men entering the warrior age grade among the neighboring Sabo (McEvoy, 1971, p. 181). In contrast with the Mande-speaking peoples to their north, none of the Kwa-speaking groups practice genital cutting as a mark of initiation into adulthood. There is little formal emphasis on virginity for either males or females. A text contained in Innes's grammatical description of the Glebo language, contributed by...

Frequency of Premarital

Norms of premarital sex across cultures also reliably predict the number of unmarried boys and girls who actually engage in sexual activity. The patterns are similar for boys and girls, although there are fewer societies in which premarital sex is universal for girls and more in which almost no girls engage in premarital sex. All or most unmarried males have at least some premarital sexual experience in 60 of 107 societies. Premarital sex is practiced by many but not most males in 18 of the...

Leadership in Public Arenas

The traditional Chinese society was a male-dominated society where men usually occupied leadership positions in the political arena. The immigrants carried this tradition to the United States. Before World War II, men dominated almost all major Chinese American community organizations. Most of the organizations did not accept female members. Starting in the 1920s, an increasing number of Chinese American women became active in the public arena. They participated in community work, organized...

Relative Status of Men and Women

As noted above, men enjoy privileged status in the public arena. In the family, however, the relative status of men and women is shifting and ambiguous. Historically, women in Ukraine have wielded considerable decision-making power in families, especially in rural contexts. Another factor that has enhanced women's authority in the family was the loss of millions of men during World War II. Women today point out that they learned how to be women (and the heads of families) from their mothers,...

Socialization of Boys and Girls

Not long ago, families favored boys over girls. A young bride wanted to produce a boy which would increase her own status. A friend told me how her mother had turned her face away, wept, and refused to nurse her first-born daughter in shame that she had not produced a son for her husband, until her aunts and other female relatives urged her to do so. When asked how many bacheh (child, although sometimes taken to mean boy) he has, a father may count only the boys. In my experience, when men...

Other Cross Sex Relationships

Females rely on male relatives for support and jural protection. If the behavior of a spouse suggests interest in a person of the opposite sex, or if insufficient attention is given to one's spouse by not carrying on one's obligations to the domestic economy or caring for one's spouse, this results in disputes and accusations of sexual infidelity. Adultery does occur, but it is infrequent. This brings down the same ritual dangers as any illicit intercourse. It does not always result in divorce....

Differences in Specialized Instruments

In comparison with the MMPI, the NEO PI-R and Cattell's 16 PF, there are tests which do not attempt to provide a broad overview of personality, but rather address one particular aspect of it. Feingold (1994) performed a meta-analysis of previously examined studies that had employed inventories and specialized tests measuring Self-Esteem, Internal Locus of Control (belief in one's own agency), Anxiety, and Assertiveness. He reported that overall males scored higher in Self-Esteem, Assertiveness,...

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Motherhood and fatherhood are key social roles. A Balinese sic feels that his most important duty is to marry as soon as he comes of age and to raise a family to perpetuate his line (Covarrubias, 1937 1972, p. 122). Men have duties both upwards to their parents and ancestors and downwards to their children. Men who inherit the family land and house-yard in turn bear responsibility for supporting their parents in old age and for cremating their parents. They are also responsible for the upkeep...

Cross Cultural Studies of Masculinity Femininity

Turning to cross-cultural research, measurement is particularly important in studies of gender. A problem arises, for example, when a masculinity femininity scale developed in one country, often the United States, is translated into another language and administered to persons in other cultures. Spence and Helmreich's (1978) study illustrates this problem. They compared the self-descriptive responses of men in the United States and in Brazil to the PAQ which contains...

Explaining Sex Differences in Reproductive Behavior

Why do these particular sex differences in social behavior occur Why are females more nurturant, and males more aggressive and competitive Why are males more interested in multiple sex partners and more prone to sexual jealousy Why are men the sexual initiators and women the main choosers cross-culturally (Stephens, 1963) Why do adolescent girls avoid being nude around males even in a sexually permissive society (Spiro, 1979) Explanations are to be found by recognizing that this pattern of sex...

An Overview of Sex Differences in Personality

Differences between men and women are evident on scales designed to measure sex role identification. Differences for these scales occur in the obvious direction (males are more Masculine, females more Feminine) in part because of the way in which the scales were created. Sex differences are also present in scales measuring aspects of personality not directly related to sex roles. Men, in comparison with women, obtain scores which indicate that they are more Assertive, less Anxious, have higher...

Correlates of Extramarital Sexual Behavior

Extramarital sexual activity is predictably associated with other sexual attitudes and practices. Where extramarital sex for males is uncommon or absent, sexual relationships include foreplay and women tend to have a say in the choice of a marriage partner. These correlations suggest that where marital relationships are characterized by choice and intimacy, males do not look outside marriage for sexual gratification. However, extramarital sex for males is also absent in societies where female...

Middle Age and Old Age

Age ranking is an important feature of Ifugao culture. Therefore, with middle age comes increased respect and responsibility for both men and women. Men, more than women, are expected to contribute to community leadership, though women contribute to this as well. Middle-aged adults must care for their elderly parents. Many older women and men must work, or choose to work, as long as they are physically capable of doing so, regardless of their social class position. Many elderly women suffer...

Sex Differences in Personality that Are Relatively Stable across Cultures

Feingold (1994) examined cross-cultural norms for the PRF, a test related to the NEO PI-R described above. The norms came from Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Poland, and Russia. Overall, males scored significantly higher than females on the facet of Assertiveness and females scored higher than males on facets reflecting Impulsivity, Tender-Mindedness, and Order. Costa et al. (2001) examined cross-cultural modifiers of sex differences in the facets of the NEO, reporting that men across...

Personality Differences by Gender

Men are expected to be decisive, outspoken, clever, ambitious, and firm in their decisions and opinions. A weak man is one who bends to his wife's will and is unable to make his own decisions in life. Such men are ridiculed and not respected. Women, on the other hand, are supposed to be patient, kind, modest, sweet-tempered, and flexible. Although Armenian women are not assertive, they have developed strategies that allow them to pursue their objectives without appearing to be aggressive and...

Differences in Personality

Women's religiosity has often been explained as related to personality factors. Thus the overrepresentation of women in 19th-century U.S. revivalism was explained by Cross (1965) as due to their being less educated, more superstitious, and more zealous than men (p. 178). More recently, it has been suggested that women's behaviour is more often directed by sensitivity and intuition, while men are more likely to act according to rational and logical considerations (Hollinger & Smith, 2002, p....

Sociobiology

Despite strong evidence attesting to cultural variability, there is a large literature that presumes that human males are sexual aggressors and human females are by nature sexually passive or very selective in their mating choices. Sociobiology is the perspective that widespread social behaviors are the result of natural selection and are to some degree genetically controlled. Sociobiologists do not suggest specific genes for rape, but do argue that genetic factors contribute to sexual...

Husband Wife Relationships

Husbands and wives were expected to respect and support one another, socially and with complementary contributions to the household. Neither was permitted adultery, although men's extramarital sexual adventuring could be condoned and polygyny allowed men to keep more than one wife. Because polygyny ideally involved sisters married to one man, sisters- and brothers-in-law not only were permitted, but were expected, to joke lewdly with one another. Otherwise, propriety required avoidance of...

Sex Differences in Mate Choice Criteria

In addition to seeking kindness, availability, commitment, and moderate similarity in a mate, the sexes exhibit some differences in their respective mate choice criteria. Worldwide, men seek signs of youth and fertility in a bride traits that obviously would enhance their lifetime reproductive success (Buss, 1994). They also seek a sexually faithful wife, in order not to be deceived into caring for a rival's children, and a skilled and industrious one. Women likewise exhibit definite mate...

Gender Related Social Groups

The family is structured around and relies upon the presence and active participation of both parents. Divorce is taboo and discouraged in Armenia except in cases where there is an extremely abusive husband or when a wife is caught having an extramarital affair. Until recently, most married couples in urban areas lived with the parents of the groom. If there was more than one son in a family, the eldest lived with the parents while the younger sons rented or bought their own homes. Since 1991,...

Husband Wife Relationship

Husbands and wives sleep together on a skin on the ground close to a hearth with their young children. Once a child is about 12, he or she may begin sleeping with other similar-aged same-sex groups. Husbands and wives show no outward signs of affection, no hugging or kissing, but they say that they feel love for each other. When they sit together they often talk at length. Women never go anywhere out of camp alone, except to relieve themselves. They are either with other women, or with a...

Ancient Greece and Rome

It was with the Greeks that conjectures on the origins of different homosexual activities became common. The Cretan customs of segregating boys and encouraging homosexual relations between boys and men were attributed by Aristotle to a desire to hold down the birth rate. Plutarch suggested that Theban pederasty resulted from a conscious policy of channeling the natural ferocity of adolescent males to socially useful purposes (Murray, 2000). Xenophon contrasted the transitory couplings between...

Divorce

Senior male members of the husband's kwv tij are expected to intervene when a couple are having serious marital problems. The wife's birth family, the neej tsa, becomes involved, short of a divorce action, only when the husband's side either invites their help or ignores the problem entirely. If a marriage cannot be repaired, elders representing both sides must determine fault, decide the disposition of the marriage payment, and levy additional penalties if warranted. Every attempt is made to...

Neither Masculine nor Feminine

Here we can place the berdache as found in some cultures on the North American Plains. The term berdache has a history reflecting its Eurocentric origins and the ethno-centrism of most 17th, 18th, and 19th century European and European American observers of Native American cultures. The term two spirit is assuming greater currency among Native Americans. Two spirit comes closer to reflecting cultural realities than does berdache. In all the ethnographic instances cited by Williams (1992), a...

Combat Trauma and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

In societies that have experienced war, many survivors suffer lasting psychological effects, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The experience of battle is inherently traumatic. Isolation is central to this trauma. Civilian society's common lack of interest in hearing about war traumas, along with survivors' own denial, make healing difficult (Herman, 1992). PTSD has gone by various names in different wars, notably shell shock in World War I. Women war veterans are as prone as men...

Features of Marital Interaction Importance of the Marital Relationship

While all societies expect men and women to marry, cultures vary widely with regard to the importance that they place on the marital relationship. In some cultures it is assumed that one's spouse will be the most important person in one's life, while in others the marital bond is marginalized in favor of other human associations. Attitudes regarding the importance of the marriage bond influence the degree to which other people encourage spouses to develop a close relationship. The Khalka...

Physical Sex Differences Gross Physical Differences

Many human male-female physical differences are immediately obvious compared with women, men on average have more upper-body strength and muscular development, larger jaws, and heavier brow ridges. Women have breasts and hips. Less obvious in some cultures, men have penises and testes, and women have clitora, labia, and vaginas. Many of these differences have obvious selective relevance and reflect our evolutionary history. Women's wider hips (as well as hormonal shifts in childbirth)...

Rural Sudanese Women Janice Boddy

The practice of female circumcision is often popularly understood in Western contexts as simply intended to enforce female sexual restraint resulting from Islamic beliefs. Indeed, many scholars have analyzed the practice of female circumcision, arguing that the operation is intended to curb female sexual desire (Boddy, 1989, p. 53). In an important analysis of the issue based on fieldwork in rural Sudan (1976-1977, 1983-1984), Boddy argues that understanding female circumcision as an attempt at...

The Transition at Marriage Transformation

One of the most dramatic transitions at marriage is described by Elam (1973) for the Hima, who were traditional African pastoralists. The unmarried maiden, nude and physically active, helped the men with herding activities and was expected to be chaste. After marriage, she was no longer permitted to participate in herding. Now physically inactive, heavily clothed, and confined to the home, she was fattened by her husband. Her obesity was viewed as sexually attractive and made her appealing to...

Infanticide and Neglect

There are also more traditional causes for unbalanced sex ratios female-selective infanticide and fatal neglect, as Miller (1987) has reported for rural North India (for an evolutionary view of these customs see Ball & Panter-Brick, 2001 Hausfater & Hrdy, 1984 Hrdy, 1996 Lipson, 2001). An ethnographic example of pervasive female infanticide is provided by the Yanomamo of South America (Chagnon, 1977). A traditional society, noted for its hostile devaluation of women and its stress on...

Widowhood

The transition into widowhood, which is unrelated to any biological event in the life-course of women, receives considerable cultural elaboration in certain societies, where the widow is demeaned, compelled to change her appearance, and to engage in public acts that denote grief, such as wailing and inflicting pain on herself. She may be blamed and punished for her husband's death and accused of poisoning or sorcerizing him, unless she can prove her innocence, as Strathern (1972) reports for...

Marriage Arrangements Brideprice Grooms Service and Tradition Based Marriage Ceremonies

The pattern whereby men continue to work together within their families and with their fathers, brothers, and uncles as their primary allies, while women marry away from their original support base and must develop a new support base, is illustrated best through a description of the marriage process. (This discussion of courtship and marriage is based on Jolles 2002, pp. 121-149 and Jolles and Kaningok 1991 .) Marriage itself was once arranged by senior elders, and contemporary gender concepts...

The Effects of Kinship on Female Status in Marriage

Local marriage contracts, identified as buying a woman or stepping on the bride-to-be symbolize a woman's transfer from her parents' home and control to that of her husband and his family. The general pattern is one in which male solidarity is reinforced when women join their husband's family. At the beginning of a marriage a woman has yet to form the new alliances and friendships with her husband's female relatives and therefore she has very little support. However, several factors affect a...

Virginity

Virginity, especially in unmarried girls, is of at least some concern in most cultures around the world. Of a cross-cultural sample of 134 societies, only 25 place no value at all on virginity (Broude, 1975). Among the Marshallese of Oceania, every girl is sexually active before puberty and virginity is a foreign idea (Erdland, 1914). The Chuckchee of Siberia have no word for chastity (Bogoras, 1929). By contrast, in 35 of the sample of 134 societies, virginity is very important, at least for...

Attainment of Adulthood

For both men and women, adult personhood is attained mainly on the basis of marriage and the subsequent birth of children. Traditionally, Iatmul men were initiated into adult manhood and the male cult. The bloody painful ordeals of initiation allowed men to emulate the fortitude of women during childbirth, and to grow boys into adult males. Although men never attend birth, since they deem it polluting, male initiation is permeated by symbols of parturition and maternal nurture. This way, men...

Evolution of Homosexuality

Many scientists have puzzled over how homosexuality (especially exclusive homosexuality) evolved. How could a behavior that appears to reduce reproductive success survive the rigors of natural selection Many researchers have suggested some hidden adaptive value (1) exclusive homosexuals may help their relatives raise more offspring (kin selection, parental manipulation) (2) genes that are maladaptive in males might be especially adaptive in females, and vice versa (3) genes for exclusive...

Divorce as Transition

Divorce is almost, but not entirely, as universal as marriage. A frequent reason for divorce is a wife's infertility, whether real or alleged (since the possibility of male infertility is often not recognized), or failure to bear sons. Whether the procedure is simple or complicated, terminating a marriage is an option open only to men in many societies. A divorced wife may be compelled to return to her natal family, who may not welcome her because the property which the divorcing husband and...

Marriage and Other Aspects of Male Female Interaction

Around the world, married couples tend to be consistent with regard to their day-to-day interactions. That is, a husband and wife tend either to engage in a variety of activities together or to conduct their daily activities independently. This is why marriages are characterized as either on the whole intimate or on the whole aloof. Patterns of day-to-day marital interaction are also related to certain other features of male-female interaction. Marriages tend to be intimate in societies in...

Gender over the Life Cycle Socialization of Boys and Girls

Ifugao boys and girls are reared similarly through infancy and childhood. Markers of gender difference are typically hairstyles, cutting boys' hair short and leaving girls' hair long, and dress, with boys wearing shorts and shirts, and girls wearing dresses as well as shorts and shirts. Both infant boys and girls are provided with a baki ritual named bagor soon after birth, to introduce them to the spiritual beings. Christian Ifugao may also, or only, have their infant children baptized in a...

Correlates of Extramarital Sex Norms

Norms regarding extramarital sex for women may be so overwhelmingly restrictive because husbands wish to avoid having their wives become pregnant by some other man. Unless a man then divorces such a wife, he will be investing time, energy, and resources in a child who is not genetically his own, a situation that evolutionary theory predicts men will vigorously attempt to avoid. In fact, infidelity is a very common reason for divorce across cultures and men are far more likely than a women to...

Explaining Cross Cultural Variation

Every culture has some characteristics that are unique and others that are shared by all, but it is those characteristics that only some cultures share with some others that most interest anthropologists concerned with explaining cultural variation. So far anthropologists have tried to explain why societies vary in their frequency, acceptance, and type of homosexuality. Frequency and Acceptance of Homosexuality. Early cross-cultural studies of homosexuality dealt almost exclusively with the...

Cognitive and Behavioral Differences

Some physical brain sex differences (see above) are linked in turn to cognitive differences (Kimura, 1999). Many of these differences are easily linked to past selection on sex differences (Geary, 1998, pp. 280-295), although it is important to note that, with few exceptions (noted below), most work has been done in Western developed nations, and cross-cultural work may well add considerable variation. Behavioral differences are obvious between the sexes shortly after birth. Newborn boys cry...

Individual and Cultural Differences

Adolescents within each sex also differ. Although many intrasexual differences are due to experiential factors, some are due to differences in hormone levels. Individual differences in testosterone level are associated with the strength of libido in adolescents of both sexes (Udry, 1988). Moreover, experience can sometimes affect hormonal levels that alter behavior. Youths who live in violent neighborhoods tend to have higher testosterone levels than those living in peaceful ones, controlling...

Traits Sought by Both Sexes

Both sexes seek kindness in a mate, which makes sense given the strains of marriage and child rearing (Buss, 1994). They also seek a mate whom they are likely to be able to retain, that is, one of similar mate value. Likewise, they seek someone who appears to be committed to them emotionally. And of course, like other species (Andersson, 1994), people tend to prefer a sexually mature and physically attractive mate, who is likely to be healthy and fertile, and to carry high-quality genes (e.g.,...

Patterns of Marital Residence

There are three gender-neutral rules of residence. They are neolocal residence, where couples live apart from the kin of either spouse, bilocal (ambilocal ) residence, where couples can live with either set of parents, and duolocal residence, where both the husband and wife remain in their own homes. The last residence pattern mentioned, duolocal residence, is exceedingly rare and usually occurs where the marriage bond is very weak (see the article on the Mosuo in this encyclopedia). Because...

The Accumulationist Perspective

A second perspective, forming a critical response to modernization, may be called the accumulationist or capital-accumulation viewpoint. This line of argument draws on neo-Marxism, as well as dependency theory influential among Latin Americanists. Briefly put, accu-mulationists recognize the roles of power, capital accumulation, and private ownership that are emphasized in the modernization school of development (e.g., Baran, 1957). Dependency theorists further incorporate the ideas of Frank...

Universal Phenomena or Cultural Variables

Rape and sexual aggression occur everywhere in the world. However, they do not occur to the same extent in every society, nor are they everywhere judged the same. Social and cultural configurations account for much of the variation. Generalizations are difficult. Egalitarian Societies. In societies where resources are shared or accessible to able-bodied adults and where both sexes play important roles in the production of food and other necessities, sexual aggression is rare. Rape is reportedly...

Premarital Sex Norms of Premarital

Cultural rules regarding the sexual behavior of unmarried individuals range from extreme permissiveness to extreme intolerance. A slight majority of cultures tend to disapprove of premarital sex for girls. In a worldwide sample of 141 cultures, 45 at least tolerate premarital sexual activity on the part of unmarried females, while the remaining 55 disapprove of premarital sex for most, if not all, girls. Rules regarding premarital sex are somewhat more tolerant for boys. Thus, in a sample of 57...

Paternal and Maternal Parenting and Outcomes in Sons and Daughters

Earlier in this chapter, differences in fathers and mothers' interactions with their sons and daughters were reviewed, and it was shown that researchers have found that fathers and mothers exert a strong influence on such outcomes as youths' gender-role ideology. This section builds on those findings by briefly reviewing other consequences of maternal and paternal behavior for children's development, including self-esteem, psychological adjustment, and cognitive and academic competence. For...

The Soviet Union in World War II

In the Soviet Union during World War II desperate times 800,000 women reportedly made up at peak about 8 of Soviet forces. Most were medical workers but a few thousand were combatants anti-aircraft gunners, pilots, snipers, and infantrywomen. War propaganda exaggerated women's exploits to cheer on a devastated society and shame men into fighting harder. But overall, the evidence indicates that the women fought about as well as the men. Nonetheless, as soon as circumstances permitted, women were...

Transsexuality and Transgender in Japan

In 1969, a Japanese gynecologist was tried and found guilty of performing SRS for three MTF transsexuals. Since then, medical treatment, and even discussion of transsexuality, has been practically a taboo in Japan. For this reason some transsexuals have obtained their SRS abroad, while others have received hormonal therapy and or SRS underground at home. However, this situation is now changing. In 1998, Dr Harashina performed the first SRS in Japan that was legally admitted. Today, Japan has...

Correlates of Premarital Sex Norms

Cultures that require or value chastity among the unmarried appear to be responding to practical problems associated with premarital sexual activity. People in many societies with restrictive premarital sex norms will tell you that they disapprove of premarital sex because they wish to avoid premarital pregnancies. Of 28 cultures permitting premarital sex, 38 condone sex before marriage as long as the girl does not become pregnant (Frayzer, 1985). Pregnancy presents a special set of problems...

Frequency of Extramarital Sexual Behavior

Norms of extramarital sexual behavior are not predictably associated with how many married husbands or wives actually engage in extramarital sex. Thus, whereas a slight majority of societies condone extramarital sex for males, extramarital sex is universal or at least common in 78 of 107 cultures and uncommon or absent in only 22 . The discrepancy between extramarital sex norms and actual behavior is even more striking in the case of women. While societies overwhelmingly condemn affairs for...

Medical Psychological Aspects of Transgender

There is no known medical reason for GID. Suggested possibilities include possible in utero hormonal effects that create a vulnerability or propensity that is then exacerbated by subsequent environmental factors. Some argue that there are morphological changes in the corpus callosum, but evidence is ambivalent (some studies say yes, others say no, some find it inconclusive). Some argue that other areas of the brain are altered. In particular, one study by Zhou, Hofman, Gooren, and...

Differences and Similarities between Female and Male Managers

Earlier management research took it for granted that managers were men (e.g., Dalton, 1959 Mintzberg, 1973, 1989), and ignored gender issues altogether. The so-called great-man theory is one of the earliest management theories. It argues that persons (men) who have influenced Western civilization have characteristics that are needed in a good leader. Another of the early theories is trait theory. It assumes that effective leaders have distinct personal qualities that differentiate them from...

Sex Differences in Life History

Human life histories are unusual among primates, our closest relatives. If we followed the typical primate pattern (in which many phenomena vary with size), women would nurse their children until about age 7 years, and then their daughters would have their first children at about age 8 or 9 years (review in Low, 2000). Human distortions of typical primate patterns appear to be linked to our extreme sociality. Any glance at census data suggests that there are also significant sex differences in...

Polygyny

It is important to distinguish between polygyny as an ideal state of marriage and polygyny as a practice, and to distinguish subtypes of polygyny. While all highly industrialized societies legitimize monogamy only (Goode, 1967), traditional cultures have preferred polygyny over other types of marriage by a wide margin (Murdock, 1949). Despite this widespread ideal, the typical marriage in many, if not most, polygynous societies is monogamous. Indeed, Murdock (1949, p. 28) put the dividing line...

Cross Cultural Research on Stereotypes

Although there are several small-scale studies of sex stereotypes in other countries (e.g., Lii & Wong, 1982 Sunar, 1982), to date a large number of studies have been conducted by an international group of researchers cooperating in a 32-country project (Williams & Best, 1990a, 1990b). These studies have been integrated by Williams and Best and will be discussed in detail here with highlights on methodological issues and findings. Williams and Best's Sex Stereotype Study. In their study,...

Glossary

Immigrants who immigrated to the host country in the midst of their personal development, between the ages of five and twelve also called the in-between generation. acculturation. The process of extensive borrowing of aspects of culture in the context of superordinate-subordinate relations between societies usually occurs as the result of external pressure. adaptive trait. A trait that enhances survival and reproductive success in a particular environment. Usually applied to...

Overview of the Culture

The Shipibo are thought to have occupied the upper Peruvian Amazon area for about 1,000 years. They have principally and traditionally inhabited small settlements on the banks of oxbow lakes (cochas) and small tributaries of the Ucayali. The Shipibo have long had a highly developed ceramic tradition, and their contemporary pottery is internationally known for its beauty and craftsmanship. Pottery is used for cooking, eating, and ceremonial purposes, and sometimes for decoration. The Shipibo...

Nurturant Supportive Affectionate Loving and Warm Parenting

Studying Maternal and Paternal Warmth and Nurturance. An extensive body of research shows that warm, nurturing, and affectionate relationships between parents and offspring are often predictive of positive psychological, behavioral, and social development of both children and adults (Rohner, 1975, 1986, 2000 Rohner & Britner, 2002). Even though most research has focused on maternal warmth and nurturance, there is a growing body of work that shows the importance of paternal warmth and...

Sex Segregation of Labor

Labor is strongly sex segregated everywhere, with males and females specializing in tasks congruent with their inherent interests, aptitudes, and training, and with practicalities such as distance from the settlement and compatibility with related tasks (Friedl, 1975 Murdock & Provost, 1973). The universality of sexual division of labor suggests that this arrangement has generally been advantageous. In all preliterate cultures the labor of husband and wife is complementary women perform most...

Their Nature and Extent

Acts of sexual aggression have been documented for centuries. The statistics used here are recent and considered among the more valid by top researchers in this field of study. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse. In 1997, the U.S. Bureau of Justice's Uniform Crime Reports estimated the annual rate of reported rapes to be 70 per 100,000 women (Russell & Bolen, 2000, p. 51). Federal crime victimization surveys found the annual prevalence of completed or attempted rapes to be three to four times...

Husband Wife Work Activities

Because many of an adult's waking hours are devoted to subsistence activities, the nature of husband-wife interaction in a society is significantly related to the way in which work activities are allocated by sex. A husband and wife can work side by side or they can conduct their subsistence activities independently. In the former case, a couple will find themselves spending some or much of the day together, while in the latter case, they may not see one another for much of the time. Among the...

Overall Patterning of Sexual Attitudes and Practices

Folk wisdom leads us to expect a certain consistency regarding how an individual culture will manage human sexuality. This intuition is only moderately borne out by the evidence. Certain aspects of sexual belief and behavior do tend to be predictably related within and across societies. But some sexual attitudes and practices also tend to be independent of others. Cultures across the world do appear to be consistent with regard to some aspects of premarital and extramarital sexual behavior....

References

Anthropology and the second 50 years. Current Anthropology, 43 2 , 338-340. Alford, R. D. 1996 . Naming. In D. Levinson amp M. Ember Eds. , Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology Vol. 3, pp. 833-836 . New York Holt. Ayres, B. 1967 . Pregnancy magic A study of food taboos and sex avoidances. In C. S. Ford Ed. , Cross-cultural approaches pp. 111-125 . New Haven, CT HRAF Press. Ball, H., amp Panter-Brick, C. 2001 . Child survival and the modulation of parental investment. In P....

Puberty Rites

Just as body and behavior must be compatible, the genetic and cultural programs must cooperate for the successful survival and reproduction of the organism. This notion is illustrated by puberty rites, which may be regarded as a cultural growth spurt analogous to the changes of puberty both provide intensive preparation for adulthood G. E. Weisfeld, 1997 . Functional analysis of the various features of puberty rites may reveal some general characteristics of adolescence. Although only 56 of...

Transgender and Transsexuality in the United Kingdom

Transpeople now have a higher profile in the United Kingdom than ever before. There are popular transvestite entertainers Eddie Izzard , prominent drag entertainers Lily Savage , celebrated soap opera transsexuals Hayley of Coronation Street , extensive media coverage of most aspects of trans, and a plethora of informal networks and support groups, formal organizations, and commercial ventures to cater for the needs of transsexuals, cross-dressers and transgendered people. Sex reassignment...

Samburu Woman Giving Birth

The Samburu are sexually permissive toward young people. It is expected that girls and Imurran will be sexually active, and a mother will sometimes formally sanction a relationship between her daughter and an Imurran, who will give the girl a large gift of beads Spencer, 1965 Straight, 2002 . Lmurran and their beaded girlfriends are from the same exogomous clan, and thus cannot later marry. Lmurran and girls avoid pregnancy through the withdrawal method, as it is considered an abomination for...

Sex Taboos

Even in societies where frequent sexual activity between spouses is regarded as desirable, sexual relations are prohibited under some circumstances. Sex taboos are present in 60 of the 70 cultures for which evidence is available with specific categories of people, or at certain ages, stages, or crises in life Broude, 1975 . In some societies, sexual activity is prohibited during certain times of the day. The Cuna of Panama approve of sexual relations only at night in accordance with the laws of...

Correlates of Attitudes Toward

Beliefs about whether sex is harmless or dangerous are predictably associated with other sexual beliefs and practices. In cultures where people believe that sex is dangerous, extramarital affairs for women are condemned and the incidence of both premarital and extramarital sex is low. Interestingly, attitudes about sex are not predictably related to beliefs about the desirability of frequent sexual activity within a marriage, so that people in a particular culture may think that sex can be...

Male and Female Oriented Descent Groups

It is one thing to live together in the same community with relatives it is quite another to have unilineal descent groups. Unilineal literally, one line descent groups exist where people consider themselves to be descended from a common ancestor through one gender only. If we speak of patrilineal descent, membership in the patrilineal descent group is passed through males only membership is acquired from the father members of both sexes belong through their fathers. If we speak of matrilineal...

Male Homosexual Systems

In gender-stratified systems men who take on a pathic passive or receptive role in sexual relationships are culturally distinguished from typical men, but the men who take on active inser-tor roles are not. Unlike gays, pathics do not typically have sex with other pathics. This system is widespread on all the world's continents. In many societies pathics are known for their special ceremonial roles. Among the Siberian Chuckchee a youth begins his transformation when...

Massai Girls Masturbate

To the Maasai, sexuality is a physical act erepa, to cling between men and women, or between girls and adolescent boys. Homosexuality and masturbation are virtually non-existent. In fact, the former is an act beyond their comprehension. Whenever the topic is discussed, it raises vehement reactions. Masturbation is practiced by young uncircumcized boys they are also said to relieve their sexual urges by copulating with donkeys. However, these acts are considered to be activities of children and...

Cross Cultural Sex Role Studies

Cross-cultural research has examined variation in sex role ideology between cultural groups. Using Hofstede's terminology, one would assume that traditional ideologies would be found in masculine cultures and modern ideologies in feminine cultures. Williams and Best's Sex Role Ideology Study. In their 14-country study of masculinity and femininity described above, Williams and Best 1990b had study participants respond to the 30-item Kalin Sex Role Ideology measure SRI Kalin amp Tilby, 1978...

Female Homosexual Systems

In her study of lesbian relationships in Lesotho, Kendal 1998 pointed out how easy it is to ignore female homosexuality. Basotho women simply say that sex is impossible without a penis. Women have sex with their husbands, but simultaneously maintain affective ties with women including grinding genital contacts that they describe as loving. This has made it difficult for cross-cultural researchers to ascertain just how sexual women's relationships are. For example, women taking on the typically...

Frequency of Sex in Marriage

People living in different cultures report widely different incidences of sexual activity between spouses. In part, the differences are related to cultural attitudes regarding how often individuals ought to engage in sexual intercourse. In 17 of 70 cultures around the world, frequent sexual intercourse between spouses is viewed as highly desirable Broude, 1976 . Among the Lepcha, who typify this attitude, married couples claim to engage in sexual activity five, six, or more times a day when...

The Settings of Socialization

Just as the activities in which children engage contribute to gender socialization, where children work and play also has important implications. The settings in which children spend their time shape those behaviors they can observe, try out, rehearse, and master. The impact on socialization is directly related to the strength of the setting. Some contexts of development are considered strong and other situations weak Snyder amp Ickes, 1985 . In strong contexts, the range of behaviors that an...

Transformations

The Chuckchee represent an instance in which some sort of gender transformation is said to occur. Generally, we can think in terms of three axes of post-childhood gender transformation. One is of a temporary sort a person takes on different gender characteristics for a short period of time, and then returns to the initial gender stance. The most common example of this phenomenon is the practice referred to by the term couvade. Most commonly found among peoples in the Amazon basin Gregor, 1985 ,...

Newlywed Customs

The transition to the married state is marked in many cultures by special treatment of newlyweds. A new bride and groom may be treated specially for just a few hours e.g., through the wedding night or for days, weeks, or longer. Further, newlywed customs tend to come as a package, so that if newlyweds are treated as special in one way, they are treated as special more generally. For instance, if the wedding night is considered special, then the couple are also likely to be sent on a honeymoon,...

Ritual Defloration

Originally published in 1918, Freud's 1918 1953 essay The Taboo of Virginity is remarkable for its use of ethnographic examples limited to what was available in a World War I Austria , and provides some indication of the great variety of cultural elaborations of defloration. More recently, Wikan 1982 provides a first-hand account of the traditional Near Eastern Oman wedding ceremony, in which physical evidence for the defloration of the bride, in the form of a bloody cloth, must be publicly...

Extramarital Sex Norms of Extramarital

In every society around the world, the overwhelmingly majority of men and women marry, and married couples are expected to engage in sexual relations. Sexual activity outside marriage is also condemned in many societies. However, in a number of cultures, extramarital affairs are at least tolerated, and a majority of societies accept and even expect husbands to engage in them. Fifty-six percent of a worldwide sample of 112 societies do not officially condemn extramarital sex for males, while...

What We Do Not Know Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Currently, much is unknown about the long-term effects of contragender hormonal treatment. In light of recent studies on increased breast cancer risk in non-transgendered females due to hormone replacement therapy, it is critical that longitudinal studies are undertaken in the transgender community. Questions of increased risk of breast cancer in MTF transsexuals remain open, as do questions of breast cancer in the FTM transsexual community. Questions of the effect of estrogen on bone mass in...