An Overview of Cultural Modifiers of Sex Differences

Feingold (1994) noted in his research that the interaction between culture and sex (for measures of personality) was ordinal. This implies that such differences as are reported tend to be in a predominant direction regardless of culture, although they may vary in size. Sex differences seldom reverse themselves across cultures

(with men, e.g., having higher scores on trait X in some cultures and women having higher scores on the same trait in others). This finding can be used to summarize the study of cross-cultural sex differences, although it is not without its contradictions. The underlying pattern of differences remains the one established in the sections above discussing emotion, personality, and psychopathol-ogy, but differences along individual measures might be absent, muted, or exaggerated in various cultures. In view of the evidence summarized here, though, it is best to keep in mind that there are "tremendous diversities of human cultural institutions" that have a "profound impact on individual psychology," as well as "universals of human nature that transcend cultural differences" (McCrae & Costa, 1997, p. 509).

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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