Causal Pathways and Links

The biological bases of sex differences lie in our evolutionary past; they are not simply "genetic" or "hormonal," although genes and the resulting hormones produced mediate many sex differences. The evolutionary history of any species (including humans) underlies all, and the impact of natural selection shapes the differences that we see. Differences evolve because ecological, social, and physical/physiological factors interact in a complex way: environmental conditions (which affect the relative benefits of traits in the two sexes) result in the differential success of individuals with different genetic make-up; individuals of different genetic make-up have different hormonal profiles, and different expressions thereof.

The result is, in many species, a pattern of systematic differences between the sexes. Occasional disruptions of the normal patterns sometimes help to illuminate the general patterns. Of course, above and beyond these biological influences on sex differences, we have huge sociocultural influences (Low, 1989; Geary, 1998, Chapter 9). Although some currently observed differences in modern environments are difficult to trace to our evolutionary past (e.g., differential abilities on SAT tests), there is no doubt that evolutionarily based sex differences can, even today, affect men's and women's lives (Lubinski & Benbow, 1992; Wizemann & Pardue, 2001).

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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