Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Perhaps the greatest changes in attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding gender are occurring as a result of the impact of the HIV/AIDS virus. Sexuality and the roles that men and women are believed to play in reproduction and health are increasingly topics of public discourse. The social construction and cultural understandings of how HIV/AIDS is caused, treated, and differently affects men and women in Tswana society are current topics for research and the basis for much of the current government focus in national healthcare policies (Ingstad, 1993; Klaits, 2001; MacDonald, 1996; Upton, 2001). Tswana cultural mores and perceptions of reproduction as central to attainment of certain life cycle stages for each gender are increasingly important in the contextualization and creation of more efficacious AIDS prevention and treatment programs. Certainly women are at a higher risk for contracting the HIV/AIDS virus and their ability to control contraceptive and preventative measures is paramount.

In the 20th century, migration by men to other areas of southern Africa precipitated changes in marriage patterns as well as the increasingly financial independence of women. While large differences exist between classes among the Tswana, and are linked with more rural and urban areas accordingly, economic discrepancies continue to have a large and significant impact on attitudes about gender and ever-increasing calls for gender equality.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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