Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

The last three decades have brought considerable social and economic changes that have touched on fundamental structures and processes, altering traditions, norms, and values within Puerto Rican society. Puerto Rican women's movement into the work force, lower fertility rates, and increased awareness of their social political and economic inequality have redefined women's roles, men's roles, and the relationship between them. Changing gender roles have raised women's educational achievements, spurred employment and migration, transformed family life, and in these ways played a critical role in women's availability to provide care to family members. The emergence of a large middle class in Puerto Rico and the circulatory migration pattern of a significant percentage of Puerto Rican men and women between the island and the U.S. mainland has also exerted influences that have assisted in redefining gender roles. Women, especially young unmarried women from rural areas, have historically constituted a significant share of internal and international migration streams (Zsembik & Bonilla, 2000). However, there is still evidence that women still adhere to traditional Puerto Rican roles to varying degrees. Sexism and homophobia are still maintained within Puerto Rican society. Traditional and modern constructions of gender are found to coexist among Puerto Rican women. While Puerto Rican women have accepted and, in some cases, welcomed roles outside the home, these women are still balancing two sets of expectations. Little is known about the role that the cultural orientation towards familism plays within Puerto Rican society in perpetuating women's continued subordination to the needs of others at the expense of the development of their own separate goals (Vázquez-Nuttall & Romero-García, 1989). More empirical research on Puerto Ricans' construction of gender is needed to develop a more expansive and nuanced understanding of the expectations and roles of gender in different arenas of Puerto Rican society.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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