Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding gender changed somewhat in the Soviet period as laws and possibilities changed. The government still plays an important role in shaping gender possibilities, as does an Islamic renewal and an ongoing public discussion of Uzbek "tradition." Before the 1917 revolution Uzbeks did not have public spaces or roles for women. In the Soviet period, mandatory free public education for all children made new social and work roles possible, and, for most families, the idea that girls and boys should be educated became normal, as did the idea that both women and men would work outside the home. While laws discouraged discrimination, the idea that men and women are fundamentally different and should fill different roles in the family and society remained. The framing of difference often establishes women as dependent and less competent than men.

Modernizing policies of the Afghanistan government began to impact Uzbeks there after World War II. Educational opportunities increased for Uzbek men and women, however, women were rarely allowed to pursue university level training. In many cases, Uzbeks in Afghanistan retained traditional norms and customs that have been abandoned in Uzbekistan.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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