Changes in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

The extensive changes in Kuna gender roles discussed throughout this article can be summarized in the following terms:

1. a shift in the 19th century to male agricultural labor and the elaboration of women's dress;

2. through the 20th century, the spread of schooling for both boys and girls, and weakening control by the senior generation of marriage and household labor;

3. since the 1960s, the growth of an international market for women's handicrafts, and since the 1980s, increasing dependence on women's cash income;

4. since the late 1960s, the growth of a female-controlled handicraft cooperative;

5. in the late 20th century, the spread of feminist ideals, especially among educated Kuna, and the opening up of salaried employment for some women as well as men;

6. the great movement of Kuna to urban Panama in recent years.

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