Contents

Glossary xxiii

Cultural Conceptions of Gender

Cultural Constructions of Gender 3

Edwin S. Segal

Gender Stereotypes 11

Deborah L. Best

Gender Differences

Biological Bases of Sex Differences 27

Bobbi S. Low

Socialization of Boys and Girls in Natural Contexts 34

Carolyn Pope Edwards, Lisa Knoche, and Asiye Kumru Adolescence 42

Glenn E. Weisfeld

Personality and Emotion 57

Cynthia Whissell

Gender Roles, Status, and Institutions

Courtship and Marriage 71

Lewellyn Hendrix

Parental Roles 78

Robert A. Veneziano

Economic Activities and Gender Roles 91

Robin O'Brian

Leadership, Power, and Gender 97

Kaisa Kauppinen and Iiris Aaltio War and Gender 107

Joshua S. Goldstein

Religion, Religiosity, and Gender 117

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

Gender-Based Social Groups 128

Carol R. Ember and Melvin Ember The Relative Status of Men and Women 137

Maxine L. Margolis

Economic Development and Gender 146

Robin O'Brian

Language and Gender 150

Bonnie McElhinny

Transitions in the Life-Course of Women 163

Judith K. Brown

Sexuality and Male-Female Interaction

Sexual Attitudes and Practices 177

Gwen J. Broude

Modesty and Sexual Restraint 187

Celia E. Rothenberg

Husband-Wife Interaction and Aloofness 192

Gwen J. Broude

Homosexuality 204

Fernando Luiz Cardoso and Dennis Werner Transgender and Transsexuality 216

Tarynn M. Witten, Esben Esther Pirelli Benestad, Ilana Berger, Richard Ekins, Randi Ettner, Katsuki Harima, Dave King, Mikael Landén, Nuno Nodin, Volodymyr P'yatokha, and Andrew N. Sharpe

Rape and Other Sexual Aggression 230

Laura Zimmer-Tamakoshi

Sex and Gender in the World's Cultures

Abaluyia 247

Maria G. Cattell

Abelam 257

Richard Scaglion

Armenians 265

Armine Ishkanian

Aymara 274

Winifred Mitchell

Bakairi 283

Debra Picchi

Bakkarwal 293

AparnaRao

Balinese 303

Lyn Parker

Pamela Feldman-Savelsberg

Beng 323

Alma Gottlieb

Blackfoot 334

Alice Beck Kehoe

Canela 345

William H. Crocker

Cherokee 356

Mary Jo Tippeconnic Fox

Chinese Americans 364

Xiaojian Zhao

Chipewyan 371

Robert Jarvenpa

Czechs 380

Timothy M. Hall

Eastern Tukanoans 389

Janet M. Chernela

Germans 400

Jakob M. Pastötter

Glebo 408

Mary H. Moran

Greeks of Kalymnos 417

David E. Sutton

Hadza 425

Frank Marlowe

Han Chinese 433

William R. Jankowiak

Hma'Btsisi' 443

Barbara S. Nowak

Hmong of Laos and the United States 452

Dia Cha and Timothy Dunnigan Hopi 465

Alice Schlegel

Hungarians 475

Barbara A. West and Iren Annus Iatmul 487

Eric Kline Silverman

Ifugao 498

Lynn M. Kwiatkowski

Igbo 508

Daniel Jordan Smith

Iranians 518

Mary Elaine Hegland

Israelis 530

Marilyn P. Safir and Amir Rosenmann Italians 540

Victoria A. Goddard

Jamaica 551

William Wedenoja and Diana Fox Kayapo 561

William H. Fisher

Kazakhs 572

Cynthia Werner

Kuna 581

James Howe

Kyrgyz 592

Kathleen Kuehnast

Lahu 600

Shanshan Du

Maasai 608

Aud Talle

Manjako 617

Margaret Buckner

Mardu 625

Robert Tonkinson and Myrna Tonkinson Marquesans 635

Kathleen C. Riley

Maya of the Yucatán Peninsula 645

John R. Sosa, Brian Montes, Melissa-Ann Yeager, and Emilio Paqcha Benites

Mehinako 652

Ulrike Prinz

Mexicans 661

Julia Pauli

Mormon Fundamentalists 670

William R. Jankowiak

Mountain Arapesh 680

Paul Roscoe

Mundugumor 688

Nancy McDowell

Eileen Rose Walsh

Nahua 708

James M. Taggart

Nandi 716

Regina Smith Oboler

Navajo 725

Maureen Trudelle Schwarz

Nepali 733

Mary M. Cameron

Northeast India 741

Susan C. Seymour

Orang Suku Laut 750

Lioba Lenhart

Puerto Ricans 760

Marysol Asencio

Rungus Dusun 770

George N. Appell and Laura W. R. Appell Sakha 779

Susan A. Crate

Samburu 790

Bilinda Straight and Jon Holtzman Samoans 798

Jeannette Marie Mageo

Shipibo 806

Warren M. Hern

Shoshone 816

Richley H. Crapo

Spanish 823

Susan Tax Freeman

Swat Pathan 833

Charles Lindholm

Swazi 841

Betty J. Harris

Taiwan 848

Chien-Juh Gu and Rita S. Gallin Taiwanese Americans 858

Christine Avenarius

Tanna 868

Lamont Lindstrom

Tarahumara 877

Felice S. Wyndham

Tikopia 885

Judith Macdonald

Timpaus Banggai 893

Harald Beyer Broch

Tlingit 903

Laura F. Klein

Trobriands 912

Wulf Schiefenhövel

Tswana 922

Rebecca L. Upton

Ukrainians 930

Sarah D. Phillips

Uzbeks 939

Marianne Ruth Kamp and Audrey C. Shalinsky Waorani 947

Pamela I. Erickson

West Indian Americans 956

Oneka LaBennett

Yanomami 967

Gabriele Herzog-Schröder

Yapese 976

Richard A. Marksbury

Yupik Eskimos 985

Carol Zane Jolles

Yuqm 997

Allyn MacLean Stearman

Zapotec 1006

Lynn Stephen

Culture Name Index 1017

Subject Index 1021

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