Differences in Personality Scales as Seen in Test Norms

It is not surprising to find sex differences in scales designed specifically to measure such differences, but sex differences are common in personality tests even in scales designed to measure something other than gender role identification. For example, on the MMPI-2 a T score of 50 (average) is associated with a raw Depression score of 18 for men but 20.5 for women. A T score of 50 for Social Introversion is associated with a raw score of 28 for women but 26 for men (Hathaway & McKinley, 1989). These comparisons, based on large samples, suggest that the "average woman" is somewhat more Depressed and more Socially Introverted than the "average man" (Hathaway & McKinley, 1989, p. 55). An investigation of the norms for Cattell's 16 PF (Russell & Karol, 1994, p. 127) reveals, for example, that the mean raw score for women is higher in Warmth (F = 15.67, M = 12.83) and much higher in Sensitivity (F = 15.62, M = 8.91) than that for men. On the other hand, men have higher raw means for Dominance (M = 13.6, F = 12.4) and Privateness (M = 12.22, F = 10.67). For the revision of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), Costa and McCrae (1992, p. 55) report that women tend to have higher scores on two of their five key scales—Neuroticism and Agreeableness (with no differences evident for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness). Such differences as did exist in the NEO PI-R were adjudged small (correlations of scale score with sex were 0.2 or lower).

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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