Differences in Specialized Instruments

In comparison with the MMPI, the NEO PI-R and Cattell's 16 PF, there are tests which do not attempt to provide a broad overview of personality, but rather address one particular aspect of it. Feingold (1994) performed a meta-analysis of previously examined studies that had employed inventories and specialized tests measuring Self-Esteem, Internal Locus of Control (belief in one's own agency), Anxiety, and Assertiveness. He reported that overall males scored higher in

Self-Esteem, Assertiveness, and Internal Locus of Control, while scoring lower in Anxiety than females (Feingold, 1994, p. 438). Again, the reported differences, though statistically significant, were small. Feingold's findings are generalizable because they were based on a variety of measurement instruments including Rotter's Locus of Control test, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, and on behavior as well as personality inventories. The meta-analysis of sex differences in Self-Esteem by Kling, Hyde, Showers, and Buswell (1999) confirms the conclusion that Self-Esteem is higher for men than for women.

Do Not Panic

Do Not Panic

This guide Don't Panic has tips and additional information on what you should do when you are experiencing an anxiety or panic attack. With so much going on in the world today with taking care of your family, working full time, dealing with office politics and other things, you could experience a serious meltdown. All of these things could at one point cause you to stress out and snap.

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