Gender and Religion

The Kazakhs have a Muslim identity, though their religious beliefs and practices include pre-Islamic elements that involve shamanism and ancestor worship (Michaels, 1997). There are no gendered orders in

Kazakh society. Among Kazakhs, it is extremely rare for a woman to serve as mullah, or Islamic prayer leader. However, women frequently receive a calling to be a traditional healer (tauyp or emshi) (Privratsky, 2001).

Kazakhs believe that the spiritual world entails a three-tiered hierarchy. Allah, or God, is a male at the top of the hierarchy. The second level consists of good and evil spirits, which are primarily female. The third level consists of ancestor-spirits, which are both male and female.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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