Gender Roles in Economics

Sexual division of labor is minimal. Social ideals expect a married couple to jointly "work hard to eat" (kheor cad), a phrase that connotes all the tasks involved in feeding a household, from planting to weeding, harvesting, storing, pounding rice, cooking, fetching water and firewood, raising pigs and chickens, and gardening (Du, 2000). Despite the extreme social emphasis on gender unity in labor allocation, gender division still marks a few tasks. Weaving is almost exclusively a female task, and males dominate, almost exclusively, hunting, black-smithing, and long-distance trade. While men are usually more active in market exchange, which played very limited roles in Lahu village life before the 1980s, married couples jointly engage in nonmarket exchanges. The property of a head couple typically undergoes sequential divisions when their children and children-in-law establish their own households. Typically, a couple divide their farmland equally among all their children except for their primary heirs (one of their children and his or her spouse), who additionally inherit the couple's share. When the couple retire from heading their household, they pass on to their heirs the coheadship, together with the house and its furniture and utensils as well as grain and small livestock. While the socialist transformation in China has deprived head couples of their authority over land ownership since the late 1950s, such authority was restored to a certain degree after state policies granted households the right of land usage in the 1980s.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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