Gender Related Social Groups

Aymara kinship terminology is a modified Hawaiian type which gives equal importance to relatives on both sides of the family (Carter, 1964). The patrilineal heritage of preconquest times is evident in today's preference for virilocal postmarital residence, but children of both genders inherit land from their parents under modern law. Land is not strictly passed mother to daughter or father to son but is instead allocated to offspring according to parents' favoritism and considerations such as quantity and location of children and their spouses.

Cooperative relationships are very important for Aymara women and men, and most of these are with people of the same gender. Men maintain ayni (reciprocal labor relationships) with other men and keep careful track of labor and cash contributions from one another. A woman head of household may also have ayni relationships with male relatives who plow or harvest for her, but this labor would be repaid with the loan of a team, not with a woman's work, which is not considered equal to a man's. Women maintain many reciprocal exchanges for food and services, such as raising a cow for another woman or weaving for her or helping her cook at a fiesta, but these exchanges are not considered ayni, just mutual help. As such they are more flexible than the specific job equivalencies required in traditional male exchanges (Brown, 1978).

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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