Glossary

1.5 generation. Immigrants who immigrated to the host country in the midst of their personal development, between the ages of five and twelve; also called the "in-between generation." acculturation. The process of extensive borrowing of aspects of culture in the context of superordinate-subordinate relations between societies; usually occurs as the result of external pressure. adaptive trait. A trait that enhances survival and reproductive success in a particular environment. Usually applied to biological evolution, the term is also often used by cultural anthropologists to refer to cultural traits that enhance reproductive success. affinal kin. One's relatives by marriage.

age-grade. A category of persons who happen to fall within a particular, culturally distinguished age range. age-mate. One of the persons of one's own age-set or age-grade.

age-set. A group of persons of similar age and the same sex who move together through some or all of life's stages. agricultural societies. Societies that depend primarily on domesticated plants for subsistence; See Horticulture and

Intensive Agriculture for the major type of agriculture. agropastoralism. A type of subsistence economy based largely on agriculture with the raising of domesticated animals playing an important part. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). A recent fatal disease caused by the HIV virus. A positive HIV test result does not mean that a person has AIDS. A diagnosis of AIDS is made using certain clinical criteria (e.g., AIDS indicator illnesses such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma).

ambilineal descent. The rule of descent that affiliates an individual with groups of kin related to him or her through men or women. ambilocal residence. See bilocal residence.

ancestor spirits. Supernatural beings who are the ghosts of dead relatives.

ancestor worship. Veneration or reverence of ancestor spirits; ancestor spirits may be called upon for help or may be given sacrifices to have them refrain from harming the living. animism. A term used by Edward Tylor to describe a belief in a dual existence for all things—a physical, visible body and a psychic, invisible soul. anthropology. A discipline that studies humans, focusing on the study of differences and similarities, both biological and cultural, in human populations. Anthropology is concerned with typical biological and cultural characteristics of human populations in all periods and in all parts of the world. association. An organized group not based exclusively on kinship or territory.

avoidance relationship. A custom specifying that people in a particular kinship relationship (e.g., a man and his mother-in-law) must refrain from interaction or show marked restraint with each other. avunculocal residence. A pattern of residence in which a married couple settles with or near the husband's mother's brother.

balanced reciprocity. Giving with the expectation of a straightforward immediate or limited-time trade. band. A fairly small, usually nomadic local group that is politically autonomous. barrio. A neighborhood in a city; used in Spanish-speaking countries.

behavioral ecology. The study of how all kinds of behavior may be related to the environment. The theoretical orientation involves the application of biological evolutionary principles to the behavior (including social behavior) of animals, including humans. Also called sociobiology, particularly when applied to social organization and social behavior.

berdache. A male transvestite in some Native American societies.

Big Man. A male leader in a tribal society who has competed with others to attract followers.

Big Woman. A female leader in a tribal society who has competed with others to attract followers.

bilateral kinship. The type of kinship system in which individuals affiliate more or less equally with their mother's and father's relatives; descent groups are absent. bilingual. Using or knowing two languages.

bilocal residence. A pattern of residence in which a married couple lives with or near either the husband's parents or the wife's parents.

biological (physical) anthropology. The study of humans as biological organisms, dealing with the emergence and evolution of humans and with contemporary biological variations among human populations. bride price. A substantial gift of goods or money given to the bride's kin by the groom or his kin at or before the marriage. Also called bride wealth. bride service. Work performed by the groom for his bride's family for a variable length of time either before or after the marriage. bridewealth. (or bride wealth). See bride price cash crops. Crops grown primarily for sale.

caste. A ranked group, often associated with a certain occupation, in which membership is determined at birth and marriage is restricted to members of one's own caste. chief. A person who exercises authority, usually on behalf of a multicommunity political unit. This role is generally found in rank societies and is usually permanent and often hereditary. chiefdom. A political unit, with a chief at its head, integrating more than one community but not necessarily the whole society or language group. circumcision. In males, a genital operation in which the fold of the skin covering the top of the penis is removed. In females, a genital operation in which the fold covering the clitoris, or all or part of the clitoris, or parts of the labia may be removed.

clan. A set of kin whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor or ancestress but cannot specify the links back to that founder; often designated by a totem. Also called a sib. clan exogamy. A rule specifying that a person must marry outside his/her clan.

class. A category of persons who have about the same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power, and prestige. classificatory terms. Kinship terms that merge or equate relatives who are genealogically distinct from one another;

the same term is used for a number of different kin. class society. A society containing social groups that have unequal access to economic resources, power, and prestige.

cognates. Individuals who have the same parentage or descent.

cognatic kinship. In contrast to unilineal kinship systems (See unilineal descent) that allow transmission through either the male or the female line, nonunilineal kinship systems allows any or all relatives to be included that can be traced through both parents. The major forms are bilateral kinship and ambilineal descent. See bilateral kinship and ambilineal descent. colonialism. The control by one nation of a territory or people; the controlled territory may be referred to as a colony.

concubinage. The custom of a socially recognized nonmarital sexual relationship between a man and a woman

(concubine) who has lower status than the wife. commercialization. The increasing dependence on buying and selling, with money usually as the medium of exchange.

compadrazgo. A fictive kinship relationship established primarily through baptism in which a child's sponsor becomes a "co-parent" and establishes a relationship with the child's parents as well as with the child. consanguineal kin. One's biological relatives; relatives by birth.

couvade. The apparent experiencing of labor by a man during his wife's pregnancy; in milder forms a man may avoid certain types of work or rest during the pregnancy.

crime. Violence not considered legitimate that occurs within a political unit.

cross-cousins. Children of siblings of the opposite sex. One's cross-cousins are father's sisters' children and mother's brothers' children.

cross-sex identification. The psychological identification with the opposite sex (e.g., a boy who wishes to be like his mother).

cultural anthropology. The study of cultural variation and universals.

cultural ecology. The analysis of the relationship between a culture and its environment.

culture. The set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population.

descriptive term. Kinship term used to refer to a genealogically distinct relative; a different term is used for each relative.

descent rules. See rules of descent.

dialect. A variety of a language spoken in a particular area or by a particular social group.

diffusion. The borrowing by one society of a cultural trait belonging to another society as the result of contact between the two societies.

diglossia. The widespread existence of two very different forms of the same language within the same society spoken in different social contexts (e.g., formal versus informal) or by different groups of people (e.g., by varying gender).

divination. Getting the supernatural to provide guidance.

domestic cycle. In many societies, the type of household changes in some regular way depending upon the demographics of the family. An example would be that a married son and his family must leave an extended family household and set up an independent household when his children approach marriageable age. double descent. A system that affiliates an individual with a group of matrilineal kin for some purposes and with a group of patrilineal kin for other purposes. Also called double unilineal descent or dual descent. dowry. A substantial transfer of goods or money from the bride's family to the bride. dual descent. See double descent.

egalitarian society. A society in which all persons of a given age-sex category have equal access to economic resources, power, and prestige. ego. In the reckoning of kinship, the reference point or focal person.

emic. From the perspective of the insider; often referring to the point of view of the society studied; contrast with etic.

enculturation. See socialization.

endogamy. The rule specifying marriage to a person within one's own group (kin, caste, community). ethnicity. The process of defining ethnicity usually involves a group of people emphasizing common origins and language, shared history, and selected aspects of cultural difference such as a difference in religion. Since different groups are doing the perceiving, ethnic identities often vary with whether one is inside or outside the group.

ethnic group. A social group perceived by insiders or outsiders to share a culture or a group that emphasizes its cultural or social separateness. ethnic stratification. A type of social stratification where different ethnic groups in a society have different access to advantages.

ethnonym. An alternative name for a culture or ethnic group.

ethnocentric. Refers to judgment of other cultures solely in terms of one's own culture.

ethnocentrism. The attitude that other societies' customs and ideas can be judged in the context of one's own culture.

ethnographer. A person who spends some time living with, interviewing, and observing a group of people so that he or she can describe their customs. ethnography. A description of a society's customary behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes.

ethnology. The study of how and why recent cultures differ and are similar. ethos. The dominant assumptions or sentiments of a culture.

etic. From the perspective of the outsider; often refers to the way a researcher will classify something in the culture studied based on her or his own scholarly perspective. exogamy. The rule specifying marriage to a person from outside one's own group (kin group or community). explanation. An answer to a why question. In science, there are two kinds of explanation that researchers try to achieve: associations (relationships between variables) and theories (sets of principles that predict associations). extended family. A family consisting of two or more single-parent, monogamous, polygynous, or polyandrous families linked by a blood tie. extensive cultivation. A type of horticulture in which the land is worked for short periods and then left to regenerate for some years before being used again. Also called shifting cultivation. external warfare. Warfare that takes places with another society. family. A social and economic unit consisting minimally of a parent and a child.

fecundity. The biological capacity to have offspring; fecundity varies by individual and also by population. May be affected by breastfeeding, caloric intake, strenuous exercise among other factors. female genital mutilation. Usually refers to a societally mandated genital operation that removes some part of the female genitalia or alters the genitalia. See circumcision and infibulation. feuding. A state of recurring hostility between families or groups of kin, usually motivated by a desire to avenge an offense against a member of the group. fieldwork. Firsthand experience with the people being studied and the usual means by which anthropological information is obtained. Regardless of other methods (e.g., censuses, surveys) that anthropologists may use, fieldwork usually involves participant-observation for an extended period of time, often a year or more. See participant-observation.

first generation immigrants. Refers to the people who immigrated to the new country after their formative years

(e.g., after age 13) in the homeland country. folklore. Includes all the myths, legends, folktales, ballads, riddles, proverbs, and superstitions of a cultural group.

Generally, folklore is transmitted orally, but it may also be written. food collection. All forms of subsistence technology in which food-getting is dependent on naturally occurring resources—wild plants and animals. food production. The form of subsistence technology in which food-getting is dependent on the cultivation and domestication of plants and animals. foragers. People who subsist on the collection of naturally occurring plants and animals. Also referred to as hunter-gatherers.

fraternal polyandry. The marriage of a woman to two or more brothers at the same time.

gender. Two or more classes of persons who are believed to be different from each other; society has different roles and expectations for different genders (most societies have two genders—male and female—but others have more than two).

gender differences. Differences between females and males that reflect cultural expectations and experiences. gender division of labor. Rules and customary patterns specifying which kinds of work the respective genders perform.

gender roles. Roles that are culturally assigned to genders.

gender status. The importance, rights, power, and authority of a particular gender.

gender stratification. The degree of unequal access by the different genders to prestige, authority, power, rights, and economic resources. generalized reciprocity. Gift giving without any immediate or planned return. genitor. The biological father.

genotype. The total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism. ghosts. Supernatural beings who were once human; the souls of dead people.

gods. Supernatural beings of nonhuman origin who are named personalities; often anthropomorphic. grammatical gender. A set of two or more noun classes in a language which are either modified or are associated with other forms that are modified to indicate the particular class to which the noun belongs (e.g., some languages have feminine and masculine nouns). group marriage. Marriage in which more than one man is married to more than one woman at the same time; not customary in any known human society. group selection. Natural selection of group characteristics.

headman. A person who holds a powerless but symbolically unifying position in a community within an egalitarian society; may exercise influence but has no power to impose sanctions. hectare. A unit of measurement equal to 10,000 square meters.

homosexuality. Defined broadly as sexual relationships between people of the same sex; however, cultures differ widely in the ways they define and treat these relationships and the people who engage in them. homosocial. Relates to social relationships between persons of the same sex.

horticulture. Plant cultivation carried out with relatively simple tools and methods; nature is allowed to replace nutrients in the soil, in the absence of permanently cultivated fields. hunter-gatherers. People who collect food from naturally occurring resources, that is, wild plants, animals, and fish.

The phrase "hunter-gatherers" minimizes sometimes heavy dependence on fishing. Also referred to as foragers. hypotheses. Predictions, which may be derived from theories, about how variables are related. incest taboo. Prohibition of sexual intercourse or marriage between mother and son, father and daughter, and brother and sister.

indirect dowry. Goods given by the groom's kin to the bride (or her father, who passes most of them to her) at or before her marriage. individual selection. Natural selection of individual characteristics.

infibulation. Female genital surgery that involves stitching together the vulva leaving only a small opening for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. Usually done following circumcision. See circumcision. initiation rites. A ceremony that marks the entry of a person into a group or marks the individual's passage into a new status (e.g., boyhood to manhood). Male initiation rites are often group initiations involving some trauma (e.g., hazing, tests of manliness, genital surgery); female initiation rites are usually more individual and less painful.

intensive agriculture. Food production characterized by the permanent cultivation of fields and made possible by the use of the plow, draft animals or machines, fertilizers, irrigation, water-storage techniques, and other complex agricultural techniques. internal warfare. Warfare within the society.

joint family. A type of extended family with at least two married siblings in the same generation; can also contain parents.

junior levirate. A form of levirate whereby a man's younger brother is obliged to marry his widow. kindred. A bilateral set of close relatives.

levirate. A custom whereby a man is obliged to marry his brother's widow. See junior levirate. lineage. A set of kin whose members trace descent from a common ancestor through known links. longhouse. A multifamily dwelling with a rectilinear floorplan. machismo. A strong or exaggerated sense of manliness.

magic. The performance of certain rituals that are believed to compel the supernatural powers to act in particular ways.

maidenhood. The customary period of time from the onset of puberty to marriage.

mana. A supernatural, impersonal force that inhabits certain objects or people and is believed to confer success and/or strength.

market (or commercial) exchange. Transactions in which the "prices" are subject to supply and demand, whether or not the transactions occur in a marketplace.

marriage. A socially approved sexual and economic union usually between a man and a woman that is presumed by both the couple and others to be more or less permanent, and that subsumes reciprocal rights and obligations between the two spouses and between spouses and their future children. matriarchy. A old general term for the disproportionate holding of power or authority by females; since there are many domains of authority and power, anthropologists now generally identify more specific institutions or customs such as the presence of matrilineal descent, matrilocal residence, the proportion of leaders or heads of household that are female, inheritance by females, etc. matriclan. A clan tracing descent through the female line.

matrifocal family. A female-centered or female-dominated family consisting minimally of a mother and her children. matrilateral. Pertaining to the mother's side of the family, as in matrilateral cross-cousins or matrilateral parallel cousins.

matrilineage. A kin group whose members trace descent through known links in the female line from a common female ancestor.

matrilineal descent. The rule of descent that affiliates an individual with kin of both sexes related to him or her through women only.

matrilocal residence. A pattern of residence in which a married couple lives with or near the wife's parents. Often referred to as uxorilocal residence in the absence of matrilineal descent. mediation. The process by which a third party tries to bring about a settlement in the absence of formal authority to force a settlement.

medium. Religious practitioner (usually part-time) who is asked to heal, divine, and communicate with spirits while in a trance.

men's house. A separate building in a community where men commonly sleep and/or spend much of their free time. menstrual seclusion. A mandated time that women must avoid all or some others (e.g., men) during their menstruation. Seclusion is often in a special menstrual hut or house. menstrual taboos. Proscriptions about what women may or may not do during menstruation (e.g., must stay in a menstrual hut or avoid cooking for others); rules may also apply to men (e.g., they not have sex with their wives during menstruation).

mestizo. A person of mixed European and Native American heritage; this term is usually used in Latin America. moiety. A unilineal descent group in a society that is divided into two such maximal groups; there may be smaller unilineal descent groups as well. monogamy. Marriage between only one man and only one woman at a time. monolingual. Using or knowing one language.

monotheism. The belief that there is only one high god and that all other supernatural beings are subordinate to, or are alternative manifestations of, this supreme being. natal home. The place where a person was born and (usually) grew up.

natural selection. The outcome of processes that affect the frequencies of traits in a particular environment. Traits that enhance survival and reproductive success increase in frequency over time. negotiation. The process by which the parties to a dispute try to resolve it themselves.

neolocal residence. A pattern of residence whereby a married couple lives separately, and usually at some distance, from the kin of both spouses. nonfraternal polyandry. Marriage of a woman to two or more men who are not brothers. nonsororal polygyny. Marriage of a man to two or more women who are not sisters.

norms. Standards or rules about acceptable behavior in a society. The importance of a norm usually can be judged by how members of a society respond when the norm is violated. nuclear family. A family consisting of a married couple and their young children. oath. The act of calling upon a deity to bear witness to the truth of what one says.

ordeal. A means of determining guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to dangerous or painful tests believed to be under supernatural control.

paradigm. A general concept or model accepted by an intellectual community as a effective way of explaining phenomena parallel cousins. Children of siblings of the same sex. One's parallel cousins are father's brothers' children and mother's sisters' children.

paramount chiefdom. A chiefdom that has a chief of chiefs who integrates a number of chiefdoms into a larger unit. participant-observation. Living among the people being studied—observing, questioning, and (when possible) taking part in the important events of the group. Includes writing or otherwise recording notes on observations, questions asked and answered, and things to check out later. pastoralism. A form of subsistence technology in which food-getting is based directly or indirectly on the maintenance of domesticated animals. pater. The socially defined father. Compare with genitor.

patriarchy. An old general term for the disproportionate holding of power or authority by males; since there are many domains of authority and power, anthropologists generally identify more specific institutions or customs such as the presence of patrilineal descent, patrilocal residence, the proportion of leaders that are male, inheritance by males, etc. patriclan. A clan tracing descent through the male line. patrifocal family. A male-centered or male-dominated family.

patrilateral. Pertaining to the father's side of the family, as in patrilateral cross-cousin or patrilateral parallel cousin marriage.

patrilineage. A kin group whose members trace descent through known links in the male line from a common male ancestor.

patrilineal descent. The rule of descent that affiliates an individual with kin of both sexes related to him or her through men only.

patrilocal residence. A pattern of residence in which a married couple lives with or near the husband's parents.

Often referred to as virilocal residence in the absence of patrilineal descent. peasants. Rural people who produce food for their own subsistence but who must also contribute or sell their surpluses to others (in towns and cities) who do not produce their own food. personality. The distinctive way an individual thinks, feels, and behaves. phratry. A unilineal descent group composed of a number of supposedly related clans (sibs). physical (biological) anthropology. See biological (physical) anthropology.

political economy. The study of how external forces, particularly powerful state societies, explain the way a society changes and adapts. polyandry. The marriage of one woman to more than one man at a time. polygamy. Plural marriage; marriage to more than one spouse simultaneously. polygyny. The marriage of one man to more than one woman at a time. polytheistic. Recognizing many gods, none of whom is believed to be superordinate.

postmarital residence rules. Rules that specify where a couple should live after they marry. See avunculocal residence, bilocal residence, matrilocal residence, neolocal residence and patrilocal residence. postpartum. After birth.

postpartum abstinence or postpartum sex taboo. Prohibition of sexual intercourse between a couple for a period of time after the birth of their child. postpartum amenorrhea. The suppression of ovulation (and menses) after the birth of a baby. potlatch. A feast among Pacific Northwest Native Americans at which great quantities of food and goods are given to the guests in order to gain prestige for the host(s). prehistory. The time before written records.

prestation. Anything (material things, services, entertainment) given freely or in obligation as a gift or in exchange. priest. Generally a full-time specialist, with very high status, who is thought to be able to relate to superior or high gods beyond the ordinary person's access or control. A woman priest may be referred to as a priestess.

primate. A member of the mammalian order Primates, divided into the two suborders of Prosimians and

Anthropoids. primatologists. Persons who study primates.

primogeniture. The rule or custom by which the first-born inherits all or most of property or titles. psychosomatic. Referring to a physical disorder or symptom that is influenced by the mind or emotional factors. race. In biology, race refers to a subpopulation or variety of a species that differs somewhat in gene frequencies from other varieties of the species. All members of a species can interbreed and produce viable offspring. Many anthropologists do not think that the concept of "race" is usefully applied to humans because humans do not fall into geographic populations that can be easily distinguished in terms of different sets of biological or physical traits. Thus, "race" in humans is largely a culturally assigned category. racism. The belief that some "races" are inferior to others.

raiding. A short-term use of force, generally planned and organized, to realize a limited objective.

rank society. A society that does not have social groups with unequal access to economic resources or power, but has social groups with unequal access to status positions and prestige. reciprocity. Giving and taking (not politically arranged) without the use of money.

redistribution. The accumulation of goods (or labor) by a particular person or in a particular place and their subsequent distribution.

religion. Any set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power, whether that power rests in forces, gods, spirits, ghosts, or demons. reverse migration. The movement of immigrants back to their homeland.

revitalization movement. A religious movement intended to save a culture by infusing it with a new purpose and life.

rite. A ceremonial act or series of actions.

rite of passage. A ritual associated with a change of status; See initiation rites. ritual. A ceremony, usually formal, with a prescribed or customary form.

ritual defloration. A rite, usually following a marriage, in which a woman's hymen is ruptured; usually occurs as part of the consummation of marriage. rotating credit associations. A mutual aid society in which members agree to make regular contributions for the purpose of giving lump sums to individuals members to do something significant. Lump-sum distributions are rotated among the members.

rules of descent. Rules that connect individuals with particular sets of kin because of known or presumed common ancestry.

second generation immigrants. Children of first generation immigrants; usually refers to the children born in the host country, but it may also include those born elsewhere who arrived before the age of 5 and spent their formative years in the host country. See 1.5 generation of immigrants. section. A group of kin related to one another by both matrilineal and patrilineal principles; excluded are those related by only one principle as well as those not related by either principle. Associated with moieties and moiety exogamy.

segmentary lineage system. A hierarchy of more and more inclusive lineages; usually functions only in conflict situations.

sex differences. The typical differences between females and males which are most likely due to biological differences.

sexual division of labor. See gender division of labor.

sexually dimorphic. Refers to a species in which males differ markedly from females in size and appearance. shaman. A religious intermediary, usually part time, whose primary function is to cure people through sacred songs, pantomime, and other means; sometimes called witch doctor by Westerners. Shamanism. A religion characterized by the importance of the shaman as the intermediary between people and their gods and spirits.

shifting cultivation. See extensive cultivation. sib. See clan.

siblings. A person's brothers or sisters.

slash-and-burn. A form of shifting cultivation in which the natural vegetation is cut down and burned off. The cleared ground is used for a short time and then left to regenerate. slaves. A class of persons who do not own their own labor or the products thereof.

socialization. a term used to describe the development, through the direct and indirect influence of parents and others, of children's patterns of behavior (and attitudes and values) that conform to cultural expectations. social stratification. The presence of unequal access to important advantages depending on the social group to which one belongs. See class and caste. society. A group of people who occupy a particular territory and speak a common language not generally understood by neighboring peoples. By this definition, societies do not necessarily correspond to nations. sociology. A discipline that focuses on understanding social relations, social groups, and social institutions. Usually focuses on complex societies. sociobiology. See behavioral ecology.

sorcery. The use of certain materials to invoke supernatural powers to harm people. sororal polygyny. The marriage of a man to two or more sisters at the same time. sororate. A custom whereby a woman is obliged to marry her deceased sister's husband.

spirits. Unnamed supernatural beings of nonhuman origin who are beneath the gods in prestige and often closer to the people; may be helpful, mischievous, or evil. state. A political unit with centralized decision making affecting a large population. Most states have cities with public buildings; full-time craft and religious specialists; an "official" art style; a hierarchical social structure topped by an elite class; and a governmental monopoly on the legitimate use of force to implement policies. statistically significant. Refers to a result that would occur very rarely by chance. The result (and stronger ones)

would occur fewer than 5 times out of 100 by chance. stereotype. A mental picture or attitude that is an oversimplified opinion or a prejudiced attitude. structuralism. A theoretical orientation that looks for the underlying structure in a society's culture, social institutions, or social relationships. subculture. The shared customs of a subgroup within a society.

sublineage. A smaller division of a lineage; when the core members (e.g., males in a patrilineal system) live together in the same locality, they will be referred to as a localized sublineage. subsistence economy. An economy relying principally on food that its people collect or produce for themselves. subsistence patterns. The methods humans use to procure food. supernatural. Believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature. supernumerary. Extra or more than the usual.

swidden. The name used for a plot under extensive cultivation. See extensive cultivation.

syncretism. The combination of different forms of belief or practice; usually refers to the blending of elements from different religions as a result of contact. taboo (tabu). A prohibition that, if violated, is believed to bring supernatural punishment. theories. Explanations of associations.

time allocation study. A study that systematically measures the time that people spend in various activities. tomboy. A girl who behaves in ways that are usually considered boyish.

totem. A plant or animal associated with a clan (sib) as a means of group identification; may have other special significance for the group.

transnationalism. A broad term referring to the extension of activities beyond national boundaries. Economic and political relationships today are often transnational. With respect to migration, there is today an enormous movement of people back and forth between national boundaries who often maintain ties with both their host and homeland communities and with others in a global community.

tribal organization. The kind of political organization in which local communities mostly act autonomously but there are kin groups (such as clans) or associations (such as age-sets) that can temporarily integrate a number of local groups into a larger unit. tribe. A territorial population in which there are kin or nonkin groups with representatives in a number of local groups.

unilineal descent. Affiliation with a group of kin through descent links of one sex only.

unilocal residence. A pattern of residence (patrilocal, matrilocal, or avunculocal) that specifies just one set of relatives that the married couple lives with or near. unisex association. An association that restricts its membership to one sex, usually male. urbanization. The process of become urbanized usufruct. The right to use land or other property. uxorilocal residence. See matrilocal residence. variable. A thing or quantity that varies. virilocal residence. See patrilocal residence.

warfare. Violence between political entities such as communities, districts, or nations.

warrior society. An association, usually voluntary, that unites members through their common experience as warriors; warrior or military societies were common among North American Plains Indians. witchcraft. The practice of attempting to harm people by supernatural means, but through emotions and thought alone, not through the use of tangible objects. woman-woman marriage. A type of marriage in which a woman takes on the legal and social roles of a father and husband. The marriage partner, a younger woman, has children with a male chosen by the female husband. The female husband is considered the father.

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