How Big Are Sex Differences

Reports of sex differences in early research involved merely the establishment of statistically significant differences between mean scores obtained by men and women. Towards the end of the 20th century, researchers began to insist on a more careful reporting of the size of sex differences. The metric commonly used to represent the size of differences is d' (d prime) or the difference between means expressed in standard deviation units. A d' of 1 suggests that the means of distributions representing men's and women's scores are one standard deviation apart. There is a total (100%) overlap between male and female score distributions when d' = 0, and an overlap of close to zero when d' = 5. Feingold (1994) reported, in meta-analysis of sex differences in personality, that d' scores for his comparisons were in the range of 0.30, while Whissell's (1996) meta-analysis identified d' measures greater than 0.59 as stereotypes rather than actual sex differences. With d' values of 0.3, only a small proportion of all cases occur in areas of nonoverlap between men's and women's scores. An alternate manner of reporting sex differences is by means of a coefficient of effect size (e.g., eta, r). All types of measures confirm the oft-stated conclusion that although there are sex differences in personality and emotion, these are not of such size as to separate men and women completely, and a good deal of overlap is present between scores generated by the two sexes.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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