Husband Wife Relationship

It is often noted that a significant number, approximately 44%, of contemporary Tswana households are female-headed (Ministry of Finance and Development Planning, 1997). For married couples, tasks remain somewhat divided in terms of domestic versus more public sexual divisions of labor, but this varies according to class. For many middle- and upper-middle-class Tswana, both wives and husbands are employed full time in the formal sector although this is largely dependent upon education.

If a marriage is not satisfactory for either party, divorce is a possible solution and, similar to rates for ever-married or widowed individuals, is higher in urban areas. Grounds for divorce and payment of support differ under the two systems of law as Molokomme (1990) points out. Under customary law, for example, divorce for women is more difficult to obtain, and under general or common statutory law there is often conflict between Tswana cultural beliefs (such as the payment of bogadi) and laws derived from Roman-Dutch law. Historically, Schapera (1966/1971) notes that grounds for divorce could be the suspected inability to reproduce and, while not practiced in contemporary society, polygamy was common among certain ethnic groups.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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