Leadership in Public Arenas

Males have generally held leadership positions in Iran, as shahs, provincial and tribal heads, parliamentary and government officials, kinship and extended family heads, and religious figures. Although women work behind the scenes and attempt to influence male relatives, males led the Constitutional Revolution of 1905 and 1906, the nationalization of oil in 1951 and subsequent conflict between Prime Minister Mosaddeq and the Shah who was backed by the United States and the Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.), and the Iranian Revolution of 1978-79. In all of these efforts, women played significant roles (Sanasarian, 1982; Paidar, 1995). For example, women formed some half of the people in street demonstrations and marches, the most crucial revolutionary activity, during the 1978-79 Iranian Revolution (Nashat, 1983). However, the roles played by women have usually been supportive rather than pivotal. Even the leftist movements used women as supporters and silenced feminist interests (Moghissi, 1994). During the Reza Shah Pahlavi period, a woman, Farokhroo Parsa, served as Minister of Education. (She was executed in 1979 by the Islamic Republic of Iran.) Since the formation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, women have served as members of parliament, and held several less significant executive positions. Maryam Rajavi, female leader of the Mojahedin anti-regime group is the exception to the general absence of women in leadership positions, but she took the position after the death of her husband, the former head. Women and youth generally voted for the more moderate cleric, President Khatemi, in the 1997 presidential election.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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