Leadership in Public Arenas

Traditionally, men always dominated leadership roles in Kazakh society. At all levels of tribal organization, only men served as leaders. Although tribal divisions do not have the same political importance as they did in the past, men still serve as informal tribal leaders.

Through Soviet affirmative action policies, Kazakh women started to take on leadership roles in the modern political system. As a general rule, women have successfully worked as middle-level managers, especially in the educational and welfare sectors of the government, but they have had more difficulty reaching upper-level positions. Though women can participate in the military, this is rare and female leadership in the military is practically nonexistent. The number of women occupying political positions of power has decreased in the post-Soviet period (Bauer et al., 1997). At the same time, however, women have become disproportionately represented in the growing number of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), many of which receive funding from the international aid community. Women have also taken on leadership roles in business, establishing and operating their own businesses, and organizing through an association for businesswomen. Finally, a number of Kazakh women have served as leaders for the growing number of charitable funds.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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