Leadership in Public Arenas

With the advent of the modern state, official bureaucracy and political appointments now overlay the traditional system, but in earlier times leadership in Pathan society was held by forceful men with powerful lineages and supportive allies who could establish dominance in a village. But since no Pathan accepted the superiority of any other, and since allegiance was wholly voluntary, the authority of these informal leaders was always in danger of being subverted by betrayal (Barth, 1959b).

The other major authorities in traditional society were holy men. Sanctified by their patrilineal connection to a saintly ancestor and by their own asceticism and pious demeanor, such men served as mediators in disputes and as rallying points in times of war. Prior to the annexation of the valley by Pakistan in the 1970s, Swat was ruled by a family of saints who used their religious aura and political acumen to establish their regime.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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