Notes

1. As of the year 2000, there were, in addition, 1,700 Kuna in the Darién region of eastern Panama and another 1,400 scattered through western Panama (Dirección de Estadística y Censo, 2001).

2. In the early 20th century midwives often buried infants born deformed or albino (the Kuna have the highest rate of albinism in the world), but there does not seem to have been any differential infanticide favoring male or female children.

3. Some mothers play with their infant sons' penises while nursing them.

4. Out of a total population of 49,143 over the age of 4 in the year 2000, 4,794 males and 8,696 females were without any schooling, reflecting a past gender bias. Numbers for those who had completed some grade school (9,859 vs. 9,643) and who had completed sixth grade (3,818 vs. 3,453) were essentially equal (Dirección de Estadística y Censo, 2001). See below on higher educational levels.

5. Kuna oral history takes note of this change. Brown's (1980) pioneering article, based on secondary sources, has a skewed chronology. Among the Colombian Kuna the old division of labor still held at least as recently as the 1970s. My data suggest provisionally that the San Blas Kuna went through a transitional stage in which both men and women worked in the fields. Tice (1995, pp. 115-177) has detailed contemporary comparisons from different subregions.

6. By the end of the 20th century agricultural production had diminished in much of Kuna Yala.

7. On some islands far from shore or on which women now work intensively sewing molas for sale (see Tice, 1995, p. 124), men fetch all or most of the water from the mainland.

8. Some of my male informants could not remember the names of close female relatives, who were identified by kin terms or as so-and-so's wife. Today, however, as both men and women take Hispanic and anglophone names, women are more widely known by name.

9. On the other hand, women who move to the city with their families in search of better schools for their children may find themselves working at home in greater isolation and with weaker support systems than in the islands, though the situation is undoubtedly somewhat better for the several thousand people living in all-Kuna settlements around Colón and Panama City.

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