1. Mehinako village-life has been described in an outstanding monograph Mehinaku: The Drama of Daily Life in a Brazilian Indian Village by Thomas Gregor (1977). Gregor and his wife carried out intensive research in 1967 and various visits during the early 1970s. For some of the issues I refer to his excellent data, trying to update some of his information. However, with respect to gender relations, changing research concepts of recent decades and the focus on women's perspective has led to some different conclusions, particularly in the interpretation of the gendered rituals—the "trumpet cult" and the corresponding female yamarikuma ritual— which will be discussed below.

2. This ritual is mentioned by Oberg (1953) and Murphy and Quain (1955). A short description is given by Myazaki (1964) and a short interpretation is given by Gregor (1985, p. 186ff.). I was lucky enough to be invited to apuhuka ceremony in September 2000 at the Mehinako village (Prinz, 2004).

3. Strictly speaking, the production of clay pottery is the monopoly of Waura village. But since Waura and Mehinako (both Arawak speaking) are tightly linked through kinship, Waura women like Takulalu, the wife of Yumuin, together with some other women of the village engage in manufacturing clay.

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