Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Mothers hold infants in a simple shoulder sling or carry them on the hip until the child is ready to explore by crawling or walking short distances. A boy stays close to mother's side until he is mature enough to join the active band of village children. From early age, girls accompany mother at work in the fields or at home. Gardening is a daily task lasting 4-6 hr, and girls generally accompany their mothers far from their peers.

Fathers, by contrast, spend far less contact time with their children. Until adolescence, male work is not considered children's domain, even for young boys. Although Eastern Tukanoan men are affectionate and conscientious fathers, raising children is considered by household members—and by the husband and husband's mother in particular—to be the responsibility of the child's mother. A husband may reprimand his wife if he observes that his children are not behaving properly.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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