Personality Differences by Gender

As noted, some cultures construct gender as tempera-mental—that is, as based in personality differences, for example, a tendency towards emotionality, detachment, aggression, compassion, and so forth. Other cultures, like Samoa, construct gender as a role. Where role-based gender identity is emphasized, personality differences between the sexes tend to be downplayed; this is so in Samoa. People of both sexes are expected to be strong, dignified, and respectful, and to offer love and generosity to all. People are thought to have tendencies toward overwhelming outbursts of emotion, pride in the form of belligerent self-assertion, and envy. To a limited degree, in contemporary Samoa outbursts of emotions at funerals and departures, as well as envy expressed through gossip, are more readily ascribed to women and belligerent self-assertion to men. Polite young people of both sexes are expected to be shy, except with same-age and same-sex groups and in public performances. Since Christianization, young women are expected to be especially shy.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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