Personality Differences by Gender

In its construction of gender, each society assigns different attributes for each gender, clarifying the role each should adopt. Several studies indicate that Israeli construction of gender-related personality attributes is different to that found elsewhere in the West (Lobel, Rothman, Abramovizt & Maayan, 1999; Safir et al., 2003; Safir, Peres, Lichtenstien, Hoch, & Shepher, 1982). These studies utilizing gender trait inventories find that the range/number of gender relevant traits is more limited in Israel. It appears to us that, while the range of behavioral traits perceived as overlapping for both genders is greater in Israel than elsewhere, gender-specific behavior is very narrowly defined. Thus, while many traits and behaviors are typical for both women and men, each gender is expected to conform to a very narrow range of stereotyped behavior patterns (Safir et al., 1982). In these studies, the list of masculine and feminine items was similar to those found in the United States, but halved in number. As the range is more limited, deviation is more easily discernible, enabling greater social pressure to conform. This is evident in gender role identity as well: For instance, many more Israeli women, in comparison with American women, self-identified as feminine and fewer self-identified as androgynous (Safir et al., 2003).

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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