Physical Sex Differences Gross Physical Differences

Many human male-female physical differences are immediately obvious: compared with women, men on average have more upper-body strength and muscular development, larger jaws, and heavier brow ridges. Women have breasts and hips. Less obvious in some cultures, men have penises and testes, and women have clitora, labia, and vaginas. Many of these differences have obvious selective relevance and reflect our evolutionary history. Women's wider hips (as well as hormonal shifts in childbirth) facilitate giving birth; permanently enlarged breasts appear to have evolved in the context of sexual selection (Low, 2000; Low, Alexander, & Noonan, 1987; Mealey, 2000). Men's heavier facial features, versus women's more neotenic faces, appear to relate to sexual selection and mate choice (review in Buss, 1999).

And where it has been measured, taller men have more children than shorter men.

Women's and men's waist-hip ratios differ strikingly (about 0.7 vs. 0.85). Women's waist-hip ratio changes, thickening with both pregnancy and menopause; thus a ratio of 0.7 in a woman sends the message: I am young, and not pregnant. Across a variety of cultures, men find women's "typical" waist-hip ratio of 0.7 most attractive (Singh, 1993; Singh & Luis, 1995), and women do not find wide hips in men attractive. Related physical sexual differences may be exaggerated in specific environments; for example, in some populations in harsh environments, women store fat on the buttocks, giving an exaggerated shape that reflects ability to thrive in harsh conditions (Low, 2000).

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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