Relative Contributions of Men and Women to Subsistence

The interrelationship of economic activity and one's gender is also implicated in understanding relative social status, but again, this relationship is complex. In a comprehensive survey article, Ember and Levinson (1991, pp. 93-94) point out that among horticultural and agricultural peoples, the value placed on the activities of men and women and their social status vary. Women in both horticultural and agricultural societies both perform approximately the same amount of work, but agricultural women perform less than men, as both domestic work and fertility increase. Such changes are indirectly related to agricultural intensification; others (Burton & White, 1984; White, Burton, & Dow, 1981), for example, adoption of the plow and draft animals and the cultivation of grain crops, are also part of agricultural intensification and are also related to the decline in female status.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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