Secondary Effects of Emotion and Personality

Sex differences in emotion and personality do not occur in a vacuum—they often impact on or interact with other variables such as cognitive performance. For example, Pomerantz, Altermatt, and Saxon (2002) noted that girls from grades 4-6 experienced more internal distress over school performance at the same time as actually performing better than boys. Jacobs, Lanza, Osgood, Eccles, and Wigfield (2002) reported that girls have a lower sense of competence in the areas of mathematics and sports than boys, while being more confident than boys in the area of language arts. The male-female difference in competence beliefs with respect to mathematics was not modified by grade (1-12), with boys always having the advantage. Emotional reactions such as the ones outlined in these two articles may result in self-identifications like those described by Nosek, Banaji, and Greenwald (2002), where female college students had negative attitudes towards mathematics and used gender stereotypes to conclude that math was "not me" (the article was entitled "Math = male, me = female, therefore math + me").

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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