Sex Differences in Personality that Are Relatively Stable across Cultures

Feingold (1994) examined cross-cultural norms for the PRF, a test related to the NEO PI-R described above. The norms came from Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Poland, and Russia. Overall, males scored significantly higher than females on the facet of Assertiveness and females scored higher than males on facets reflecting Impulsivity, Tender-Mindedness, and Order. Costa et al. (2001) examined cross-cultural modifiers of sex differences in the facets of the NEO, reporting that men across cultures (e.g., Zimbabwe, Peru, Belgium, Croatia) score higher on scales of Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas while women score high on scales reflecting Neuroticism, Warmth, Agreeableness, and Openness to Feelings. Contrary to what might have been predicted on the basis of the assumption that culture creates or constructs sex differences, the sex differences observed were strongest for cultures with the most progressive sex role ideologies. This finding is also reported by Greenberger, Cheng, Tally, and Dong (2000 ) who found greater sex differences in depression for American than for Chinese youths, though both were in the expected direction (higher scores for females).

Studies based on observation rather than on reactions to linguistic stimuli overcome several of the limitations associated with language. Munroe, Hulefeld, Rodgers, Tomeo, and Yamazaki (2000) observed the occurrence of aggressive behaviors in the children of several nonwestern cultures (Belize, Kenya, Nepa, American Samoa), and concluded that boys displayed aggressive behaviors more often than girls. A similar finding had been reported by researchers engaged in the Six Cultures Project (children from Nyansongo, Juxtlahuaca, Tarong, Khalapur, Orchard Town, and Taira cultures were compared) (Whiting, Whiting, & Longabaugh, 1975). In the six cultures as a group, girls behaved more nurturantly and boys more aggressively (Whiting et al., 1975, p. 166). Cross-cultural studies of psychopathology in terms of behavioral measures include those of suicide. In almost all cultures, successful suicide is more common in men than in women (Phillips, Li, & Zhang, 2002), the only question being how much more common. This conclusion applies to many nonwestern countries (e.g., India), with few exceptions (e.g., China).

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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