Status within the Community

Numerous changes have taken place in St Lawrence Island Yupik society since the 1950s. Not the least of these is the imposition by the U.S. government of several communitywide organizations through which the society is managed. These include a tribal form of government (introduced originally in 1934 through the Indian Reorganization Act by the federal government), a mayor and city council (Gambell and Savoonga are considered second-class cities by the State of Alaska and as such are to be administered by a mayoral form of government), and a Native corporation (each community has designated lands as a result of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, and these lands are administered by the Gambell Native Corporation [known as Sivuqaq Incorporated], and the Savoonga Native Corporation [known as Savoonga Incorporated]). Each of these organizations is a source of local employment and of relatively powerful management positions within the community. Both men and women work in these offices as administrators, as managers, and as assistants and secretaries. Nevertheless, men are perceived as more authoritative and of higher status than women in the communities' administrative bodies. This is true regardless of whether a man or a woman is serving as mayor or as head of a tribal council. In the case of the tribal councils and the land corporations, men are more prevalent and more powerfully situated than women on the corresponding Boards of

Trustees. Boat Captains organizations are exclusively male. No corresponding female organizations exist.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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