The Controversies

The anthropological study of life-course transitions has not been without a history of controversy, particularly in the research on male adolescent initiation rites. J. W. M. Whiting, Kluckhohn, & Anthony (1958) first viewed the rituals as related to certain psychological factors. In response to criticism of this interpretation and as a result of further analysis, and also reflecting a changed approach within anthropology itself, a later publication (J. W. M. Whiting, 1964) took other, especially ecological, variables into account. Today's scholarship on life-course transitions is also involved in anthropological controversies. The first is between scholars who advocate a more evolutionary/biological approach and those whose approach stresses the cultural. Following the example of Ember (1981), the present essay will attempt to present both views. The second controversy concerns ritual observances (largely outlawed in their own countries) such as the genital mutilation of girls and the burning of wives. There is strong worldwide disapproval of these customs, and they are viewed by many as inhumane and as violations of basic human rights

(Korbin, 1987), but some anthropologists see such opposition as imposing our own values on certain traditional cultures.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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