Transitions Biological and Cultural

Every female life-course is marked by dramatic biological transitions—menarche, defloration, motherhood, menopause—but there is wide variation among non-Western societies in the cultural elaboration of these developmental milestones. In some societies, certain of the biological changes are cause for extensive, costly celebration. In other societies the same biological events are virtually overlooked. The number of recognized stages within the female life-course and the definition of each category also vary greatly among different societies. Some biologically determined transitions are shared by all humans, regardless of sex, such as the eruption of the first tooth; others are uniquely female, such as giving birth. Yet other life-course stages, such as widowhood may be of major cultural importance but have no biological reality for women.

The transitions in the female life-course may be joyous, as for example, wedding celebrations in our own society. But in many societies the wedding ceremonial can be an ordeal for the bride. Indeed, the preponderance of celebrations of female life-course transitions are an occasion of stress and pain for the individual; there are a few observances which are life threatening, and there are even some which result in death.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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