Unusual Conditions Illuminate Pathways

Rare and deleterious conditions highlight some of the causal biological pathways that yield sex differences. For example, babies missing an X chromosome (XO rather than XX) have Turner's syndrome; they are 98% likely to die before birth, and individuals who survive show mental deficiency. Similarly, XY (genetic male) individuals born without androgen sensitivity lack androgen receptors in their cells and look superficially like females. Their testes develop normally but remain in the abdominal cavity; the scrotum and penis do not develop. Other related examples are reviewed by Kimura (1999).

Other pathways are demonstrated by examining changes in brain-damaged individuals. For example, men's and women's brains differ somewhat in the degree to which functions are uni- or bilateral. Thus, after damage to the left hemisphere, women are less likely than men to suffer aphasia, and they recover more quickly, suggesting that their speech functions are more bilateral (Pizzamiglio & Mammucari, 1985). Wizemann and Pardue (2001) and Kimura (1999) review additional sex differences in disrupted development and health syndromes.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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