Variability of Scores

Although d' successfully establishes the size of sex differences, this metric is based on the assumption of roughly equal standard deviations for men's and women's scores. In addition to, or in lieu of, differences between means, there may be sex differences in standard deviations. For example, 12 of the 16 PF scales have larger standard deviations for women's than for men's scores, though differences are small (Russell & Karol, 1994, p. 127). Data are not easily available to test this hypothesis, but there seems to have been an increase in the variability of women's scores on tests of personality and emotion over the last 30 years. Unequal standard deviations might affect the calculation of d' , and they are also of interest in their own right.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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