Safety testing of probiotics with regard to antimicrobial susceptibility testing

For assessing the safety of probiotics with regard to the presence of acquired antimicrobial resistance properties, strains should be investigated by means of standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. However, no standards have been proposed for non-enterococcal LAB by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI), EUCAST or other committees. A variety of methods and protocols for the determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of non-enterococcal LAB have been reported in...

References

Adhikari k, mustapha a, grun iu and fernando l (2000) 'Viability of microencapsulated bifidobacteria in set yogurt during refrigerated storage' J Dairy Sci, 83(9), 19461951. adhikari k, mustapha a and grun iu (2003) 'Survival and metabolic activity of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium longum in stirred yogurt' J Food Sci, 68, 275280. andersen s (1995) 'Microencapsulated omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources' Lipid Technol, 7, 81-85. anjani k, iyer c and kailasapathy k (2004) 'Survival of...

Components from skimmed milk and weight loss 121 Calcium and weight loss

It may not seem obvious to discuss blood pressure in relation to weight management, but the link between dairy components and weight management was initially derived from blood pressure studies. Zemel (2002) reported a 4.9 kg reduction in body fat in an African American population that had elevated blood pressure and were being 'treated' with dairy products to reduce blood pressure. When the dairy connection to weight management was proposed, Heaney et al. (2002) re-examined calcium-related...

Dairy products and probiotics in childhood disease

3.2.1 Development of the intestinal microbiota in the first years of life - role of breast feeding, prebiotics and infant diet Current data suggest that the intestinal bacterial microbiota undergoes substantial changes in the first year(s) of life and remains relatively stable thereafter, although factors such as acute or chronic intestinal diseases, antibiotic treatment and the composition of the diet influence the composition of the microbiota (Barbut and Petit 2001 Hooper and Gordon, 2001...

The pathogenesis of IBD

Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis represent the clinical outcome of a complex interaction of immune, genetic, and environmental factors. The normal physiological response to indigenous micro-organisms is one of immunological quiescence. Deviations from this, and in particular, genetically-influenced aberrant immune responses to luminal antigens are now recognised to underlie IBD. The intestinal barrier can be impaired in IBD. Defects in epithelial barrier function may precede the...

Functional benefits of synbiotics

Improving gastrointestinal health is a natural health focus area for the use of synbiotics in foods. Different gastrointestinal (GI) compartments and types of diseases have been studied. Intervention studies with combinations of prebiotics and probiotics have so far focused on infectious diseases of the upper GI tract, and chronic diseases of the lower GI tract. Table 9.2 summarises examples of human clinical studies on GI health. Due to high costs and or long duration of the clinical studies...

Conclusions

Low-fat dairy products provide a solid nutritional base for losing weight. Calcium influences adipocyte metabolism indirectly through calcitrophic hormone levels. Dietary calcium and magnesium can form undigestable complexes that decrease the energy available from fat in food products. Milk minerals may play an important role in bone metabolism and help arrest bone loss during weight loss. This is more important in elderly than young. Protein components in milk provide high branch chain amino...

Food and health applications of probiotics translational aspects

16.5.1 Probiotics in milk and other dairy products Probiotic bacteria may express specific genes resulting in production of different biological macromolecules when cultured in milk or dairy products. As an example, L. bulgaricus strains may produce different amounts and types of heteropolysaccharides when grown in milk (Bouzar, 1996). Heteropolysaccharides rich in arabinose content were produced by specific L. bulgaricus strains. Carbohydrates produced by LAB may act as prebiotics for other...

Acute diarrhoea

Acute diarrhoea is defined as a diarrhoeal disease (three or more times per day or at least 200 g of stool per day) lasting 14 days or fewer. It may be caused by drugs or inflammatory bowel diseases, but the main reason is an intestinal infection by bacteria, viruses or parasites. Although it is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality especially in children in developing countries, it is still a serious problem in developed countries, too (Gadewar and Fasano, 2005). 4.3.1 Reduction of the...

New methods to improve the viability and stability of probiotics

Probiotic viability and stability can be enhanced at several stages including strain selection and improvement of strain properties, production conditions, formulation, and packaging and storage (Fig. 18.2). Whenever possible, a probiotic strain should be chosen based on its health-benefiting properties as well as on technological robustness. Since both functional and technological properties can vary remarkably within a genus and even within a species, technological properties of potential...

Health benefits of CLA

The majority of the in vitro and in vivo studies which have reported health-promoting activities of CLA have employed a mixture of CLA isomers, containing approximately equal parts of rumenic acid and the t10, c12 CLA isomer (for reviews see Pariza (2004) Roche et al. (2001), Wahle et al. (2004)). However, the CLA content of milk and dairy products is typically comprised of 85-90 rumenic acid (Lock and Bauman, 2004). Some studies do however focus on rumenic acid primarily, and in this regard...

Nucleic acidbased techniques to type bifidobacteria 1751 Ribotyping

Ribotyping has been used to estimate polymorphism within the 16S or 23S rRNA genes in bifidobacteria. During ribotyping, DNA is extracted and cleaved with a frequently-cutting restriction enzyme. The fragments are electrophoresed and then allowed to hybridize to a labeled rRNA gene probe. The resulting pattern is then used to differentiate bifidobacteria. A modification to this basic technique involves embedding the cells in low-melting point agarose prior to lysis and DNA extraction (McCartney...

Dairy components and food intakesatiety

The effects of milk and dairy products on reducing energy intake and increasing satiety have been attributed to several of its components. These include milk proteins, casein and whey, and their products of digestion, milk fat, possibly MCT and CLA, and lactose. Of the milk components, the proteins have the greatest potential to contribute to satiety for three reasons. First, it has generally been shown that protein results in greater satiety and lower ad libitum energy intake than either...

Constipation

Constipation is a major health problem that occurs in up to 27 of people depending on demographic factors, sampling and definition (Pare et al., 2001). The concept of constipation is complicated by disagreement about its nature, but according to the Rome criteria, functional constipation presents as persistently difficult, infrequent, or seemingly incomplete defecation, which do not meet the criteria for IBS (Longstreth et al., 2006). Both IBS and constipation are known to reduce the quality of...

Antibiotic resistance of nonenterococcal LAB 2041 Lactobacillus

Lactobacilli possess a wide range of naturally antibiotic resistances (Charteris 1998b Danielsen 2003). For instance L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. casei or L. paracasei are naturally resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. However, species of the L. acidophilus taxonomic group (L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, L. crispatus) or L. delbrueckii are susceptible to the glycopeptides (Danielsen 2003 Felten 1999 Illot-Klein 1994 Nicas 1989 Swenson 1990). Charteris et al. (1998b) found that...

Determining the safety and efficacy of hypoallergenic infant formulas

Hypoallergenic protein hydrolysates to be used as an ingredient in infant formulas of high nutritional and therapeutic value should be rich in low molecular weight peptides, especially di- and tripeptides, with the least quantity possible of free amino acids. Sometimes it is difficult to know the composition of hydrolysates because of a large number of possible constituents, due mainly to potential degrees of polymerisation of the peptides, and several analyses may be done to assess their...

The scientific and clinical rationale for probiotic and prebiotic interventions

In 2001, at the request of the government of Argentina, an Expert Panel was assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and world Health Organization (wHO) to examine probiotics in food and prepare an appropriate definition and set of guidelines for what constitutes a probiotic. Major reasons for the request were the lack of consensus on what a probiotic was at the time, how a product should be prepared and administered, and whether or not there was sufficient...

Bacterial interactions

8.3.1 With lactic acid bacteria During the manufacture of Swiss-type cheeses, propionic fermentation is allowed by the ability of dairy propionibacteria to metabolise lactate produced by lactic acid bacteria during lactose fermentation, while no residual lactose or galactose is available in the cheese at the beginning of ripening (Mocquot, 1979 Thierry et al., 1999). Indeed, stimulation of propionibacterial growth by lactic acid bacteria was reported (Liu and Moon, 1982 Marcoux et al., 1992...

Future trends

Several probiotic abilities were claimed for dairy propionibacteria. Some strains were shown to possess efficient adaptive mechanisms allowing survival within the gut. Beneficial modulations of the gut motility, absorption, microbiota and of the corresponding enzymatic activities were described, suggesting a beneficial impact on digestion and on carcinogenesis. The in situ production of short chain fatty acid without the possible side effects of butyrogenic oligosaccharides, linked to gas...

Propionibacteria and cancer

Among the beneficial effects that have been attributed to probiotics, the prevention of cancer, with a main focus on colon cancer, constitutes the most promising and probably the most controversial potential. As stated by J. Rafter, there is no direct evidence for cancer suppression in humans as a result of probiotic consumption (Rafter, 2003). However, there is wealth of indirect evidence, based on experimental work, both in vivo and in vitro, of anticancer properties of some probiotics....

Enrichment of milk with CLA through animal feeding and management strategies

Booth et al. (1935) first reported the presence of CLA in milkfat and with the subsequent discovery of its health promoting activity, identification of strategies for the enrichment of milk with this fatty acid have received substantial attention. The rumenic acid content of milkfat is directly affected by a number of factors including species, breed, lactation number, stage of lactation, season, location, farm management strategies and most importantly animal dietary regime (see below)....

Composition of the luminal content of the colon

Of the endogenous luminal components which have been suggested to play a role in the induction of colon cancer, bile acids (BA) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) have been considered of crucial importance for a long time (Narisawa et al., 1974, Reddy et al., 1976, Bugaut and Bentejac 1993). In fact, BA have a promoting effect on experimental colon cancer models in rodents (Narisawa et al., 1974, Reddy et al., 1976) and have been associated with colon cancer risk in humans (Hill et al., 1975,...

New methods to produce hypoallergenic hydrolysates

The use of protein hydrolysates by the food industry is increasing because they have properties that make them attractive as a source of essential amino acids in human nutrition (Pe as et al., 2004). Nowadays, protein hydrolysates are included in specific formulations, such as geriatric products, high-energy supplements, weight control and therapeutic diets (Frokjaer, 1994 Schmidt et al., 1994), as well as in infant formulas for children with CMA, due to the reduced antigenicity of the...

Oral diseases and cariogenicity

Oral refers to the mouth, and includes the teeth and gums (gingival) and their supporting tissues, the hard and soft palate, the mucosal lining of the mouth and throat, the lips, salivary glands, chewing muscles, and upper and lower jaw bones. Digestion begins in the oral cavity, and there are numerous supporting structures for the mouth including the nervous, vascular, and immune systems. Humans contract oral diseases for a number of reasons including genetics, poor hygiene, poor nutrition,...

Mechanisms of CLA production in lactating ruminants and starter bacteria

Mechanism Lactation

The presence of CLA in the milk of lactating ruminants is a direct result of the action of the ruminal microbiota on dietary linoleic and linolenic acids. These fatty acids are primarily delivered in the form of glycolipids, phospholipids, and triglycerides from forages and seed oils Bauman et al., 1999 , which are released by indigenous and endogenously produced lipases following ingestion Bauman et al., 1999 Dawson et al., 1977 Dawson and Kemp, 1970 Keeney, 1970 and subsequently undergo...

Introduction importance of biomarkers in demonstrating health benefits

It is becoming generally accepted that several human disorders in the Western world can be linked, at least in part, to a suboptimal diet. Among them we can observe obesity, diabetes, allergy, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hence, the dairy industry has considerable market opportunities to produce and develop new and better foodstuffs that without doubt could be profitable both for the industry and for society. However, the industry can only achieve this goal if new strategies are developed...

Microencapsulation methods for delivery of probiotics and other ingredients in functional dairy products

Functional Dairy Products

There are numerous methods of microencapsulation. To our knowledge, the commercial products currently available are based on gel particles, spray coating, spray drying, extrusion and emulsions. Therefore, the focus will be made on these approaches. Other valuable techniques for microencapsulation such as liposomes, coacervation, or molecular inclusion cyclodextrins do not yet appear to have extensive use in the preparation of bioactives destined for the preparation of functional dairy foods,...

Modifying the intestinal ecosystem

Criteria for designating a bacterial strain as a probiotic include human origin, acid and bile resistance, survival of gastrointestinal transit, non-pathogenic, production of anti-microbial substances, and immune modulatory activity Dunne et al., 2001 . The most commonly used probiotics include lactobacilli and bifidobacteria species that lack inflammatory activity. However, other bacteria including non-pathogenic Escherichia coli, and multi-strain cocktails such as VSL 3 have been used for...

Longum 16s Sybr Qpcr

Fig. 15.2 Overview of molecular and new genomics-based technologies to monitor intestinal microbiota at diversity and functionality. Abbreviations DGGE, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis T-RFLP, Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism MAR FISH FC, Microautoradiography Fluorescent in situ Hybridization Flow Cytometry qPCR, Quantitative Real Time PCR. into distinct bands at the base of the gel. Specific primers have been developed to target the bifidobacterial population within...

Experimental models to study the effects of nutrients on colon carcinogenesis

14.4.1 Carcinogenesis induced by chemicals Among the various experimental models used to study colon carcinogenesis, those using azoxymethane AOM or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine DMH to induce colonic cancer in rodents are very important, since these two carcinogens induce tumors through the sequential formation of histopathological lesions similar to those observed in spontaneous carcinogenesis in humans Chang, 1984 . Accordingly, these methods have been widely used to study the biology of the various...

Preneoplastic lesions in colon carcinogenesis

Preneoplastic lesions are considered an obligatory step in the development of cancer, and many efforts have been dedicated to the identification and characterization of preneoplastic lesions in experimental animals and humans. In fact, when preneoplastic lesions are easily identifiable, they can be used as biomarkers in experimental studies of cancer prevention. In 1987, Bird described foci of aberrant crypts aberrant crypt foci ACF , identifiable in whole mount preparations of unsectioned...

The present regulatory framework 1221 The US

As stated above, in the US functional foods are not recognized as a special legal entity, but are covered by the federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Other relevant legislation includes the Nutrition, Labeling and Education Act 1990 and the Dietary Supplement, Health and Education Act 1994 , which basically define what kinds of claims can be attached to food products Chadwick et al., 2003 . The Food and Drug Administration FDA has a key role in assessing the evidence behind health claims,...

The role of plant sterols and stanols in functional dairy products in reduction of cholesterol

Plant sterols and stanols appear to be as effective in dairy products as in spreads with lowering of LDL cholesterol of 5-10 . No significant changes in HDL cholesterol or triglyceride occur with either food carrier. Volpe 2001 was the first to show an effect of low fat yoghurt containing 1 g day of soybean derived sterols whether free or esterified was not specified in 30 men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol was lowered by 6.2 after four weeks compared with placebo....

Introduction

Breast-feeding is the most suitable form of nutrition for neonates due to the specific content of nutrients and growth and defence factors in human milk Hanson, 1988 Hattevig et al., 1990 Neville et al., 1991 Wold and Adlerberth, 1998 . Mother's milk usually contains low levels of food allergens from the mother's diet, including -lactoglobulin -Lg , one of the main allergens in cow's milk Huang et al., 1985 Otani, 1987 Okamoto et al., 1991 Selo et al., 1998 . Recent theories now propose that...

Developing new synbiotics and testing their efficacy

The development of new synbiotics typically requires a long-term screening process. During the screening, combinations of selected prebiotic substances and probiotic strains are tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to find the most active and synergistic pairs. Figure 9.1 portrays a typical product development pipeline with several interesting candidates in the beginning, and the necessity of the use of in vitro methods in reducing the number of studied substances prior to both expensive...

Camacho F. Gonzalez Tello P. Paez Duenas M.p. Guadiz E.m. Guadix A. 2001 Correlation Of Base Consumption With The

Adachi s, kimura y, murakami k, matsuno r, yokogoshi h 1991 , 'Separation of peptide groups with definite characteristics from enzymatic protein hydrolysate', Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 55, 925-932. adibi sa 1989 , 'Glycyl dipeptides New substrates for protein nutrition', Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 113, 665-673. adler-nissen J 1979 , 'Determination of the degree of hydrolysis of food proteins hydrolysates by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid', American Chemistry...

Dairy consumption energy intake and body weight

Dairy consumption has been associated with both increased and decreased energy intake. A greater consumption of dairy products was associated with a higher energy intake of adults in Bogalusa, LA Ranganathan et al., 2005 . Because an association was also found between the number of servings of dairy products and saturated fat intake, these results suggest that the higher energy intake results from the consumption of high fat dairy products. Surprisingly, the association between dairy...

Contributor contact details

Maria Saarela VTT Biotechnology Tietotie 2, Espoo P.O. Box 1000 FI-02044 VTT Finland L. S. Ward and Eric D. Bastian Glanbia Research Center 450 Falls Ave Suite 255 Ulrike Lukewille and Holm H. Uhlig University of Leipzig Childrens Hospital Oststr. 21-25 04317 Leipzig Germany E-mail holm.uhlig medizin.uni-leipzig.de E. Myllyluoma, K. Kajander and M. Saxelin Valio Ltd R amp D Ann M. O'Hara, John Keohane and Fergus Shanahan Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre National University of Ireland, Cork Gregor...

Helicobacter pylori infection

H. pylori was isolated from gastric mucosa and bacteriologically identified in 1983 Marshall and Warren, 1984 . Thereafter, a reduction in ulcer recurrence rates after eradication of H. pylori from the stomach of peptic ulcer patients has been reported Marshall et al., 1988 Hantschel et al., 1993 . It has been established that H. pylori infection is a major cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori was designated a first class definite carcinogen for stomach cancer in 1994...

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

Milk is a biological fluid providing significant nutrients, immunological protection, and biologically active peptides to both infants and adults Clare and Swaisgood, 2000 . Nutritionists have consistently recommended consumption of several servings of milk and other dairy products on a daily basis for all age groups. Despite this recommendation, fluid milk consumption globally has declined over the past decade. However, consumers have continued to ingest large amounts of dairy products...

Stress tolerance and survival

In their natural environments or during industrial processes, bacterial cells are often subjected to a variety of abiotic stresses. In order to survive, bacteria have developed a set of mechanisms leading to protection against severe injuries after an unfavourable environmental factor has been sensed. Stress adaptation implies the complex regulation of gene expression Segal and Ron, 1998 , including overexpression of well known heat shock proteins HSPs , which seem to be well conserved within...

Propionibacteria characteristics relevant to beneficial effects

Propionibacterium Denitrificans

8.1.1 General features of dairy propionibacteria Propionibacteria were first described by E. von Freudenreich and S. Orla-Jensen at the end of the 19th century as microorganisms involved in the fermentation of lactate into acetate and propionate with the concomitant production of carbon dioxide during the ripening of Emmental cheese. The first pure culture was isolated from such cheese in 1906 von Freudenreich and Orla-Jensen, 1906 and the genus Propionibacterium was proposed by Orla-Jensen...