Guilt Free Desserts

Guilt Free Deserts

This product will teach you the ways that you can eat whatever sweets and deserts you like without gaining fat at all. It will be a complete guide with over 50 recipes that will combine all the foods that you love and delicious foods you never tried before. In addition to that, the power of this guide is that you will lose fat while you are on this diet. This is because you will be using foods that have a super-powerful metabolic effect on your body. The creator of the product is an absolute expert of the subject of eating the foods you like for fat loss, so she knows exactly how you can implement the techniques in the books for the best chances of gaining pure quality lean muscle and losing weight with simple and easy tricks that will get you ahead. What's more is that you will learn about the foods that cause weight gain, and the foods that trick your body into losing fat. All of these foods can be found anywhere and it won't cost you a lot of money or effort to make these delicious baked goods. With these simple and easy tricks that don't need any prior experience, you will look the best without giving up your favorite foods. Continue reading...

Guilt Free Deserts Summary


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Identify the important product attributes for the product concepts of a new chocolate product and a vegetarian

There are three levels of understanding the consumer product relationship as an individual product, as a meal and as an eating pattern. The bar of chocolate could be eaten alone, but many food products are eaten together. For example the hamburger is in a bun with lettuce, tomato, a sauce, and it is sold with French fries and a soft drink. Sometimes this juxtaposition of foods is ignored in product development. The consumers also have eating patterns, which do change with time, and the foods have to fit into this eating pattern. So the consumer behaviour is more complex than the single product action model, as each model is interrelated with other product models. The success of the takeaway industry is based on its understanding of these interrelationships. In some cases it has also been used in the supermarkets, for example relating pasta and meat to sauces.

Sweet And Milk Chocolate

Most chocolate consumed in the United States is consumed in the form of milk chocolate and sweet chocolate. Sweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which sugar and cocoa butter have been added. Milk chocolate contains these same ingredients and milk or milk solids. U.S. definitions and standards for chocolate are quite specific. Sweet chocolate must contain at least 15 chocolate liquor by weight and must be sweetened with sucrose or mixtures of sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup solids in specific ratios. Semisweet chocolate and bittersweet chocolate, though often referred to as sweet chocolate, must contain a minimum of 35 chocolate liquor. The three products, sweet chocolate, semisweet chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate, are often simply called chocolate or dark chocolate to distinguish them from milk chocolate. Sweet chocolate can contain milk or milk solids (up to 12 max), nuts, coffee, honey, malt, salt, vanillin, and other spices and flavors as well as a number of specified...

Chocolate And Cocoa

In the United States, chocolate and coca are standardized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The current definitions and standards resulted from prolonged discussions between the U.S. chocolate industry and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The definitions and standards originally published in the Federal Register of December 6, 1944, have been revised only slightly. The FDA announced in the Federal Register of January 25,1989 a proposal to amend the U.S. chocolate and cocoa standards of identity. The proposed amendments respond principally to a citizen petition submitted by the Chocolate Manufacturers Association (CMA) and, to the extent practicable, will achieve consistency with the Codex standards. The proposed amendments would allow for the use of nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, neutralizing agents, and emulsifiers reduce slightly the minimum milkfat content and eliminate the nonfat milk solids-to-milkfat ratios in...

Frozen Desserts

Ice cream is the principal frozen dessert produced in the United States. Known as the American dessert, it was first sold in New York City in 1777. The composition of various frozen desserts is given in Table 4. Ice Cream. Ice cream is a frozen dessert prepared from a mixture of dairy ingredients (16-35 ), sweeteners (1320 ), stabilizers, emulsifiers, flavoring, and fruits and nuts. Ice cream has 8 to 20 milkfat and 8 to 15 SNF with a total of 38.3 (36-43 ) total solids. These ingredients can be varied. U.S. regulations also allow for reduced-fat ice cream (25 less fat than the reference ice cream), light ice cream (50 less fat or 1 3 fewer calories than the reference ice cream, as long as in the case of calorie reduction less than 50 of the calories are derived from fat), low-fat ice cream (not more than 3 g of fat per 1 2 cup serving), and nonfat ice cream (less than 0.5 g of fat per 1 2 cup serving). The dairy ingredients are milk or cream milkfat, which is supplied by milk, cream,...

Nondairy Desserts

Many items available in the ice cream section of your local supermarket are not derived from dairy products. Referred to as nondairy frozen desserts, these ice cream substitutes are derived from either soybeans or rice. Soymilk and tofu are the base of soybean-based products. Water, fructose or other sweeteners, vegetable oil, and flavorings are added. Rice-based desserts are treated with a special process that enhances the rice's sweetness while breaking down the proteins and starches. This base also needs sweeteners and additives. Types of frozen dairy desserts include

Wine and Chocolate

Epidemiologic studies of wine and alcohol have found a J-shaped curve, with nondrinkers and heavy drinkers at increased risk for all-cause mortality compared to moderate consumers. It is difficult to separate the effects of flavonoid and alcohol in these studies. There are limited epidemiologic data linking chocolate consumption with risk of chronic disease The available data suggest that there is no association between chocolate consumption and risk of coronary heart disease.


Chocolate A 2.2-6.6 self-reporting of reactions to chocolate are reported in two questionnaire surveys (Niestijl Jansen et al. 1994, Young et al. 1994). In an American population-based birth cohort study of 480 children followed up to three years old, 1.7 complained of adverse reactions to chocolate, but none was confirmed on food challenge (Bock 1987), and chocolate is rarely a cause of positive food challenge in allergy clinics (Bock et al. 1988, Crespo et al. 1995). It is likely that the majority of the reported reactions are to other components in the chocolate, for example cows' milk and nuts.

Summary and Research Needs

Such molecular-based studies, guided by epidemiological data and incorporated into future supplementation trials, will help answer the questions about the mechanisms of action and which, if any, antioxidants are important, how much, and for whom. However, while many questions relating to dietary antioxidants and health remain unanswered, to understand how to obtain a mixture of antioxidants and promote health we need look only at the macro level of food rather than at the micro level of specific constituents or molecular level of response. Fruits, vegetables, teas, herbs, wines, juices, and some types of chocolate are rich in antioxidants. It is known that diets rich in a variety of such foods are beneficial to health. The results of molecular-based experimental studies will determine whether these two truths are linked in a cause-and-effect relationship.

Weight Fraction Of Solids

It should be noticed that these changes have been known to occur above a critical water content or aw during food storage. According to Levine and Slade,10 collapse phenomena may include or have an effect on stickiness and caking of food powders, plating of particles on amorphous granulas, crystallization of component compounds, structural collapse of dehydrated structures, release and oxidation of encapsulated lipids and flavors, enzymatic activity, nonenzymatic browning, graining of boiled sweets, sugar bloom in chocolate, ice recrystallization, and solute crystallization during frozen storage.

Biscuit And Cracker Technology

In the United Kingdom, and most of the rest of the English-speaking world, biscuits are the two types of products called crackers and cookies. Crackers are nonsweet products used like bread. Cookie items include a vast array of dessert foods, characterized mainly by being baked in small pieces and having a texture or consistency that is drier, chewier (or crisper), and denser than most cakes, and are usually sweet. An important characteristic of crackers and cookies is that they usually have a much longer shelf life than baked products such as bread and cake. However, intermediate moisture cookies (8-12 moisture) are being sold that confound this distinction (eg, soft-filled cookies, brownies, and fruit-filled bars).

Current And Future Trends

Gourmet cookies are achieved by formula variations that are heavy on chocolate, fruit preserves, nuts, butter, and other highly indulgent ingredients. Pricing structure usually restricts such products to select market niches. Other gourmet cookies can be made by the addition of perishable components such as whipped cream, butter-cream fillings, and other adjuncts that are practical only for freshly prepared items or for cookies that are distributed in frozen form.

Direct Solvent Extraction Of Solid Samples

An entirely different process of sample-preparation technique involves direct solvent extraction, which is a very simple and convenient technique. Probably the easiest way to do such an extraction is with a Soxhlet extractor. A dried sample such as a spice, chocolate nib, R&G coffee, or a grain can be ground finely and placed in a Soxhlet thimble and extracted with an organic solvent. Either diethyl ether or methylene chloride may be used in such a system. After a number of cycles, the solvent can be combined and concentrated. Nonvolatile organic materials such as lipids, alkaloids such as caffeine and theobromine, and pigments will also be concentrated. The sample may be analyzed directly (with trepidation) or it may be treated as described in the section below, after removal of the solvent. If the sample contained large amounts of lipids (e.g., coffee, chocolate), then the volatiles may be removed by subsequent steam distillation or by a high vacuum stripping technique as described...

Dietary Sources and Intakes

The most common disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Sucrose is mostly found in sugar cane and beet, and in lesser amounts in honey, maple sugar, fruit, and vegetables. The properties of sucrose are important in improving viscosity, sweetness, and flavor of baked foods, ice cream, and desserts. Maltose is formed from starch digestion. It is also produced from the germination of grain for malt liquors. Lactose is found in milk and dairy products, and is not as sweet as glucose or sucrose.

Background And Historical Significance

With the various combinations of these three hazard characteristics, five categories were created that reflected the potential risk to the consumer. Category I included food products intended for use by infants, the aged, and the infirm, that is, the restricted population of high risk. Category II included processed foods that were subject to all three hazard characteristics (ABC) listed above. Category III included those products subject to two of the three general hazard characteristics. These would include such products as custard-filled bakery goods (AC), cake mixes and chocolate candy (AB), and sauce mixes that do not contain a sensitive ingredient ( BC). Category IV included products of relatively minor microbiological health hazard level, subject to only one of the hazard characteristics. Examples include retail baked cakes (A) and some frosting mixes (B). Category V includes foods that are subject to none of the

Origin botanical facts

Feijoas should be firm and unblemished. They should be eaten within 3 to 4 days of purchase or refrigerated up to a month. Feijoas should be peeled before eating, because the skin is bitter. Immersing the peeled fruit in water and fresh lemon juice keeps it from turning brown. Feijoas usually are eaten fresh as desserts or used as garnishes or in fruit salads. They can be stewed or baked in puddings, pies, and pastries or made into jellies and preserves.

Hydrogenation Of Phospholipids

Erols to generate semisolid or plastic fats more suitable for specific applications, it may also be applied to phospholipid fractions. Hydrogenated lecithins are more stable and more easily bleached to a light color, and therefore are more useful as emulsifiers than the natural, highly unsaturated lecithin from soybean oil. These advantages are exemplified by a report that hydrogenated lecithin functions well as an emulsifer and as an inhibitor of fat bloom in chocolate 32 .

Fermentable Carbohydrate

A wide variety of foods contain carbohydrate that is capable of giving rise to acids as a result of bacterial metabolism (fermentation) within dental plaque. Of the common dietary sugars, sucrose, fructose, and glucose are found in fruit and fruit juices, soft drinks, jams, honey, chocolate and other confectionary, and an immense variety of composite foods and drinks. Lactose arises naturally in milk and milk products but is also widely used as an ingredient in its own right by the food industry. Clearly, the wide range of individual dietary choices and eating habits may influence the risk of developing caries. The physical characteristics of fermentable carbohydrates will affect the rate at which they are cleared from specific sites in the dentition. Foods that are inclined to remain for long periods in stagnation sites (for example, between the teeth), such as toffees or raisins, are likely to give rise to a greater local fall in pH than are those that are rapidly cleared, such as...

ORigin botamcal fActs

Kumquats that are plump, not shriveled, should be chosen. Kumquats are delicious eaten fresh and whole. Because the skin is also edible, the fruit should be washed before eating. The bright-orange fruits, fresh, candied, or preserved in syrup or brandy, also make an attractive decoration for cakes and other desserts. Kumquats soaked for several months in a mixture of vodka and honey are used as a garnish or snack. Cooked kumquats can be made into jams, preserves, and marmalades used as garnishes for green salads and main courses or substituted for oranges in sauces for meat and poultry.

Important factors in product design and process development

A neglected area in some food design, particularly in packaging, is ergonomics, the relationship of the physical product to the person (Ulrich and Eppinger, 1995). An example of poor ergonomics is an aerosol can for depositing a dairy cream on a cake or a dessert, that is mostly used by women and children, but cannot be held and used in one hand by them. Food is opened from a package, used in cooking, served and eaten so design needs to take into consideration the physical aspects of the product and their relationships to humans using and eating it in all these steps.

Characteristics of the organism and its antigens

It grows poorly on most ordinary culture media. Growth is, however, well supported on blood agar enriched with L-cysteine and glucose. Chocolate agar, such as used for the isolation of gonococci, also maintains the growth of F. tularensis. F. tularensis is strictly aerobic, weakly catalase-positive, and oxi-dase-negative. Carbohydrates are weakly catabolized with the production of acid but no gas. The organism has a characteristic pattern of cellular fatty acids, including long-chain (C20-C26) acids and the hydroxy acids 2-hydroxydecanoate, 3-hydroxyhexa-decanoate and 3-hydroxyoctadecanoate.

Emulsion Science In The Food Industry

Thermodynamic And Kinetic Stability

Many natural and processed foods consist either partly or wholly as emulsions or have been in an emulsified state at some time during their production such foods include milk, cream, butter, margarine, fruit beverages, soups, cake batters, mayonnaise, cream liqueurs, sauces, desserts, salad cream, ice cream, and coffee whitener (Friberg and Larsson 1997, Krog et al. 1983, Jaynes 1983, Dickinson and Stainsby 1982, Dickinson 1992, Swaisgood 1996). Emulsion-based food products exhibit a wide variety of different physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics, such as appearance, aroma, texture, taste, and shelf life. For example, milk is a low-viscosity white fluid, strawberry yogurt is a pink viscoelastic gel, and margarine is a yellow semisolid. This diversity is the result of the different sorts of ingredients and processing conditions used to create each type of product. The manufacture of an emulsion-based food product with specific quality attributes depends on the selection of...

Egg Yolkbased Products

This product group is sweet and moist. The tender gel is made from egg yolks, sugar, milk or cream, and flavors such as vanilla, chocolate, or fruit. The most famous custards, the French creme caramel and the Spanish flan, are available in many countries in restaurant and retail. Quiches are unsweetened baked custard pies with filling made from egg yolks, eggs, milk, and cheese (Fig. 6). The most famous one, quiche Lorraine, came from Alsace in northeastern France. 3. Ice cream Eggs have limited use in ice cream and they are used mainly in the French vanilla ice cream and chocolate ice creams, which are commercially available in large volume. Many low-volume specialty ice creams also use eggs.

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

Shaw et al. (1959) first identified milk as an anticariogenic food in 1959 when they reported a reduction in dental caries incidence in rats fed milk and flavored milks. Rat diets were supplemented with milk, chocolate drink, chocolate milk, and a shake-like mixture that contained milk or chocolate milk plus vanilla ice cream. In addition, they also included a group that consumed cheese. All of the groups with milk (except the chocolate drink) demonstrated caries reduction with the cheese variable having best results. Early researchers observed that dairy products (milk, casein, caseinates, and cheeses) have anti-caries activity (Schweigert et al., 1946b, Shaw, 1950). Several studies proved casein was an effective anticariogenic substance, but casein's adverse organoleptic properties and the large amount required for efficacy disqualified its use as a food or toothpaste. Acid casein as an active ingredient in toothpaste was effective at reducing dental caries, but was required at very...

Replacing fat by structuring lipids consequence for flavour retention and release

The situation is more complex since the interface plays a role in the aroma transfer. Moreover, at room temperature the fat is not necessarily melted. Furthermore, both fat and interface lipids might be solid phases influencing aroma transfer to water and air compartments (Kalnin el al. 2004). Precise localisation of solid fat crystals and emulsifiers in dispersed systems is not known in spite of the progress made by confocal microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Are these crystals forming a shell or not at interface Answering this question would help in understanding flavour release in complex matrixes such as cheese, yoghourt, frozen dessert and ice-cream (Kheadr el al. 2000, Brauss el al. 1999a,b, de Roos, 1997, 2003).

Fruit Preserves And Jellies

The fruit preserve and jelly categories are certainly a major milestone in food evolution. Their history dates back to ancient times, when a confection or a dessert has been documented as a part of the meal. The use of sugar widened the possibilities for preserving fruits. In fact, during colonial times, a jam sometimes formed while fruit was being boiled. This jam or gel formed when the correct proportions of pectin, sugars, and acids occurred. Jam and jelly production was once considered an art now it is a science. More is known about the components necessary to produce this kind of gel. This knowledge has led to other applications such as stabilized fruit fillings and sauces, processed fruit juices, canned fruits, and frozen desserts and confections.

Gender Roles in Economics

Various activities are carried out by each gender males slash underbrush, fell trees, burn the garden area, hunt with bows and arrows and firearms in addition to clubs, and make weapons, basketry, ritual ornaments, household utensils, canoes and, nowadays, craft items for sale. They may also collect Brazil nuts, animal pelts, or other natural commodities for sale. Women prepare food in the stone earth ovens, boil and sieve manioc, make salt from palm stalks, make cotton string (an essential item for ornaments), collect firewood, and plant, weed, and harvest gardens. Both genders cooperate in housebuilding, although men cut the logs needed for houses modeled after the Brazilian backwoods style. Formerly, women erected house structures. Both genders collect wild products, such as piqui, although males specialize in honey (even though many, such as the menorony, cannot eat it), palmito, bacaba, and assai. Women tend to focus on other resources, such as wild legumes and chocolate and...

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Sectors and Materials

Engineering Design For Perfume Industry

Whereas the importance placed on the respective trend attributes varies considerably in different regions, the general tendencies are ubiquitous. Moreover, today's consumer focuses on an interesting, pleasurable, exiting or completely new taste experience. Within the flavour sectors, the developments for beverages took the lead in 2004 with 17 new introductions, followed by bakery products (12 ), confectionery (11 ), dairy (9 ), sauces and seasonings (8 ), snacks (8 ), meals and meal centres (7 ), processed fish, meat and egg products (6 ), desserts and ice-creams (6 ), side dishes (3 ), fruits and vegetables (3 ) 14 . - Sugar confectionery (strawberry on top in all regions) and regions with very specific flavours and generally a high geographic diversity (chocolate within the top ten of Asia, liquorice (Europe), tamarind (Latin America), sour (North America)). Therefore, a balance of good taste combined with good nutrition, supplied in 'cool packaging' that appeals to children, seems...

Databases And Coverage

Art formats, and the appearance of the database on the Internet further demonstrates the commitment of IFIS in this direction. The database can be accessed via seven hosts (DataStar, Dialog, DIMDI, EINS, Orbit, Questel, and STN). The database contains approximately 530,000 records covering the period 1969-1999 inclusive and is updated monthly (except for the CD-ROM, which has quarterly updates). FSTA is growing at a rate of approximately 20,000 records per year. Approximately 1800 different primary journals are scanned regularly for articles of relevance to FSTA. Several hundred other journals and relevant literature are also scanned on an intermittent basis. FSTA contains records on basic sciences relevant to food (eg, chemistry, biochemistry, physics, microbiology, biotechnology, hygiene, and toxicology) as well as food processing, food products, packaging, economics, and legislation. Of the 18 different sections into which the database is subdivided, 12 contain records on specific...

Dryopteris lepidopoda Sunset fern

Description The erect rhizome and stipes are adorned with dark chocolate scales. The proportionately tall stipes are one-half of the frond length. The bipinnate, glossy blades, with an average of 20 pairs of pinnae, are broadly lanceolate. They emerge in richly decorative hues of salmon, orange, pink, and deep rose that subside into warm green tones. With the base of the blade squared and blunt (truncate), the frond looks like a glowing arrow. The sori are covered with kidney-shaped indusia and are carried on the upper portions of the blade.

Description Of Treatment

Williams, Patricia Osnes, and Trevor Stokes studied the effects of correspondence training with a 3-year-old boy described as having normal intelligence and no major behavior problems. Three behaviors were selected for training picking up his pajamas after dressing, picking up his clothes after a bath, and choosing fruit for dessert. His mother observed both occurrences and nonoccurrences of the targeted behaviors. The procedure was examined across two conditions. In the first condition, the child was questioned about specific home behaviors in the late afternoon prior to going home. During this private questioning period the child was asked by the teacher what he was going to do at home. When the child responded correctly he was praised. Prompts were provided to the child when needed in order for him to respond. However, prompts were required for only several sessions in order to elicit complete sentences (e.g., I'm going to choose fruit for dessert ), and...

Influence of food processing practices and technologies on consumerpathogen interactions

All raw foods contain microorganisms that will eventually cause spoilage unless they are controlled or destroyed. Many of the thousands of microorganisms that have been discovered and identified perform some useful function, such as the production of fermented foods (breads, cheese, wine, beer, sauerkraut, sausages, olives, tea and chocolate, to name just a few). However, it is also true that many raw foods contain pathogens that, if not controlled, can result in human illness. Thus, there are two major roles of food processing - to preserve food against spoilage and to render a food safe for consumption by eliminating or controlling pathogens. Pathogen control in foods results from preventing contamination, applying an inactivation treatment, preventing pathogen growth, or a combination of these practices.

Nutritional Support

High-energy high-protein diet The encouragement of a high-calorie, high-protein diet will produce growth in the majority of children and adults with CF. A good variety of energy-rich foods should be encouraged, such as full cream milk, cheese, meat, full cream yoghurt, milk puddings, cakes, and biscuits. Extra butter or margarine can be added to bread, potatoes, and vegetables. Frying foods or basting in oil will increase energy density. Extra milk or cream can be added to soups, cereal, desserts, or mashed potatoes and used to top canned or fresh fruit. Regular snacks are important. Malnourished children achieve higher energy intake when more frequent meals are offered. Attention should be given to psychological, social, behavioral, and developmental aspects of feeding. A meta-analysis of differing treatment interventions to promote weight gain in CF demonstrated that a behavioural approach was as effective in promoting weight gain as evasive medical procedures.

Functions Of Food Acids

Control of acidity in many food products is important for a variety of reasons. Precise pH control is important in the manufacture of jams, jellies, gelatin desserts, and pectin jellied candies in order to achieve optimum development of gel character and strength. Precise pH control is also important in the direct acidification of dairy products to achieve a smooth texture and proper curd formation. Increasing acidity enhances the activity of antimicrobial food preservatives, decreases the heat energy required for sterilization, inactivates enzymes, aids the development of

TABLE 785 Pruritus

Numerous dietary factors have been implicated and are associated with secondary pruritus ani, although proof of cause is lacking for most of them. Those dietary factors most commonly listed include excessive consumption of caffeine-containing liquids, such as coffee, tea, or colas, and beer, although one recent study failed to demonstrate any correlation between pruritus ani and alcohol consumption. Milk, chocolate, tomatoes, and citrus fruits are other food products that allegedly contribute to pruritus ani. Likewise, certain drugs, such as colchicine and mineral oil, have been associated with pruritus ani. Ingestion of these products can result in increased liquidity and seepage of fecal material, which in itself is a probable cause of pruritus ani.

Intra and interpersonal variation in aroma release and perception

An example of how interpersonal variation in aroma release can influence aroma perception is given by the following experiment (Fig. 12.2), conducted in our laboratory. Simultaneous time-intensity (TI) and in vivo aroma release measurements could distinguish three groups in a panel assessing dairy desserts by simultaneous time-intensity (TI) and in vivo aroma release measurements. They were instructed to swallow after 20 seconds. One group had their highest release during the initial chewing. A second group had initial release, but they peaked at swallowing. Finally, one panellist had no release at all before swallowing, and the aroma released only upon swallowing Fig. 12.2 Hexanal release curves (ng 1 air) of dairy desserts, representing three typical profiles. Each curve is the average of six replicates of a single assessor. Fig. 12.2 Hexanal release curves (ng 1 air) of dairy desserts, representing three typical profiles. Each curve is the average of six replicates of a single...

Drug Induced Oxidative Hemolysis

Oxidative hemolysis of RBCs can result from exposure to a number of drugs that cause the formation of methemoglobin. These drugs oxidize ferrous hemoglobin (+2) to ferric hemoglobin (+3), which is methemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen, so the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is decreased. A large number of commonly used drugs can cause methemoglobinemia, but not at therapeutic doses (Tab. e,214-3). Toxic methemoglobinemia occurs when more than 10 percent of the hemoglobin has been oxidized to the ferric form. Clinically, methemoglobinemia should be suspected in patients who are cyanotic without cardiopulmonary disease. This cyanosis is not relieved by oxygen. The venous blood appears chocolate brown. The arterial blood gas will reflect a normal Pa o2, but decreased measured oxygen saturation. Tabje,214 4 shows the clinical effects of acute methemoglobinemia. Levels of methemoglobin greater than 20 to 30 percent of the total hemoglobin should be treated. Methylene blue...

Purchasing raw materials

All raw ingredients such as flour, milk, nuts and fruit, and compound ingredients such as processed cereals, chocolate, biscuits or toffee must be purchased against a detailed specification. This must include the nature of the product, the ingredients included in a compound ingredient, and any risks of cross-contamination that may occur in the production or packing of the ingredient that is purchased. Supplier Quality Assurance is a system whereby suppliers are audited to ensure that they meet the high quality standards demanded by food manufacturers it places the responsibility of meeting the standards set by the manufacturer clearly within the remit of the supplier. The initial audit procedure is a detailed analysis of the supplier and the operations that occur within their facilities. It is essential that it includes a detailed risk assessment relating to the presence of allergens and particularly the use of peanuts and nuts at the supplier's location. The presence of allergens in...

Confirmation of presence of allergens

Once all the above steps have taken place, food manufacturers are able to make a judgement based on all the evidence obtained as to whether a product contains or is free from a particular allergen. Information should be provided to allergy sufferers to enable them to select suitable foods for their diet. The provision of information to consumers on packaged food and food sold loose is discussed later in the chapter. In addition, a number of tests are available that can be used to analyse products for the presence of a given allergen. Generally a radio-immunoassay technique is used which checks samples of a product for specific proteins that have been previously identified as allergens. These tests can be useful, but in some instances results do need to be interpreted with care. Any analysis is only as accurate as the samples that are taken. The sampling of liquid or fluid foods gives a relatively reliable sample, as the food can be further blended to give an even distribution of all...

Food Applications

A major application of pectin is in jams and jellies (16). A high-sugar jam contains 30 to 45 of fruit pulp and 0.20 to 0.4 pectin added as a gelling agent. Jams made with HMP must contain at least 60 soluble solids (sugars) to gel. Reduced-sugar or dietetic jams are manufactured with 55 or less soluble solids (even below 30 ), by adding low methoxyl pectins (eg, in the range 0.75-1.0 ). At very low soluble solids, a calcium salt often is added to aid gellation. Frequently, jellies are made from depectinized fruit concentrates with added pectin, water, and sugar. High-quality, tender confectionery jellies with excellent flavor-release characteristics contain pectin. Pectin is added to jams, fillings, and toppings as a gelling or thickening agent in the preparation of baked goods. HMP jams are useful in applications requiring resistance to the heat of baking such as occurs in producing tarts containing jam. Amidated low methoxyl pectins (ALMP) confer thermal reversibility to gels....

Serving Suggestions

Whenever possible, lower the amount of fat in a recipe by substituting a lower-fat milk. A cream soup made with low-fat milk is just as rich tasting, especially if you thicken the soup with a bit of flour. A cup of cocoa made with skim milk provides more nutrients and fewer calories than the average chocolate dessert, and it is just as effective for satisfying a sweet tooth.

Carotenoids As Colorant Additives In Foods

A variety of plant commodities rich in carotenoids have been used in the manufacture of powders or oil-based preparations suitable for use as colorants in foods. Intensely colored carotenoid isolates derived from paprika are available either as powders or oleoresins and impart orange or red hues to many products, including salad dressings, sauces, soups, beverages, snacks, and confections. A major carotenoid in these preparations is capsanthin (Fig. 1). Extracts of the annatto seed containing high concentrations of bixin are also commonly used in such products as cheeses, instant soups, dairy products, and desserts (36). Other natural isolates include products derived from carrot and tomato. Tomato oleoresins have recently become available and contain high concentrations of lycopene. These products are used in Europe but are not yet approved in the United States.

Prudent v Western patterns

Using factor analysis on a 131-item food frequency questionnaire, Hu et al. identified two major dietary patterns at baseline in 44875 men followed up for 8 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.138 The prudent pattern was characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruit, legumes, whole grains, fish, and poultry whereas the Western pattern was characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, refined grains, sweets and desserts, French fries, and high fat dairy products. After adjustment for age and other coronary risk factors, relative risks, from the lowest to the highest quintiles of the prudent pattern score, were 1-0, 0-87, 0-79, 0-75, and 0-70. In contrast, the relative risks, across increasing quintiles of the Western pattern, were 1-0, 1-21, 1-36, 1-40, and 1-64. These associations persisted in subgroup analyses according to cigarette

Food labelling in Europe an outline

Labelling requirements are detailed by Directive 79 112 EEC, as amended several times. The provisions of this Directive apply to most prepacked foods (the labelling of a number of products such as cocoa and chocolate products, certain sugars, honey and preserved milks is still controlled by vertical or product-specific standards, but revisions to these intended to simplify and streamline provisions on these product categories are currently under discussion). Foods prepacked for direct sale, i.e. prepacked on the premises for sale over a delicatessen counter or similar, and non-prepacked foods are not covered by the scope of the Directive Member States of the European Union (EU) may establish their own rules in this area. Other key labelling directives are 89 396 EEC on lot marking and 90 496 EEC on nutritional labelling.

With a bactericide in surface cleaning

The use of ultraviolet light as an aid to disinfection and to aid food preservation is well known and well used within the food industry. Ultraviolet light has been used to inactivate Salmonella in thin aqueous and chocolate films (Lee et al., 1989). They compared the results obtained with those from the use of ultrasound as a method to inactivate the bacteria. Serotypes such as the heat-sensitive S. eastbourne to the less sensitive S. senftenberg were examined. They discovered that the thermal resistance of salmonella was greater in the chocolate than in the aqueous media. Decimal reduction times at 710C were 4.5 hrs, 4.6 hrs and 6.6 hrs for thermal treatment of S. eastbourne, S. senftenberg and S. typhimurium serotypes. Using ultrasound a 4log10 reduction was observed at 50C after only 10 minutes sonication in peptone water whilst a 0.78log10 reduction of the bacteria was observed in milk chocolate after 30 minutes. High temperatures were observed in the chocolate medium and this...

Polystichum retrosopaleaceum

The grooved stipes are dark chocolate in color, one-fourth of the frond length, and trimmed on opposite outer sides with down- and forward-thrusting pale tan scales. The lanceolate blade with earthward-pointing basal pinnae is bipinnate with 20 or more pairs of pinnae. Sori are medial with peltate indusia.

Cheilanthes bonariensis

Description The rhizome is short-creeping to erect with dark chocolate-colored, slight stipes to one-fifth of the frond length. The narrow 1- to 11 2-in. (2.5- to 3.8-cm) wide, linear once-pinnate blades have 30 to 40 pairs of many lobed pinnae. The blue-green upper surface is lightly dusted with an occa

Government Regulations

The FD&C Act also authorizes the establishment of reasonable standards of identity and quality for food products. The standards of identity specify in detail what can and cannot be packaged under a given product name. Standards of identity exist for milk, cream, cheese, frozen dessert, bologna products, cereal products, cereal flours, pasta, canned and frozen fruits and vegetables, juices, eggs, fish, nuts, nonalcoholic beverages, margarine, sweet

In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evidence of Antioxidant Properties of Polyphenols

Similar to tea polyphenols, resveratrol, a major polyphenol in red wine, has also been found to have a protective effect against LDL oxidation in some but not all studies. In contrast to the disparate findings from wine and tea and their flavonoids on LDL protection, studies consistently suggest that cocoa, chocolate, and the procyanins found in cocoa protect LDL from oxidation, both in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro studies of apples, apple juice, and apple extracts (rich in anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols) indicate that these foods also protect LDL.

Character Impact Flavors In Foods

In recent studies, potent aroma compounds have been identified using various gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) techniques, such as Charm Analysis and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) (7,8). The flavor compounds that are identified by these methods are significant contributors to the sensory profile. In some cases, these sensory-directed analytical techniques have enabled the discovery of new character impact compounds. However, in other instances, key aroma chemicals have been identified that, while potent and significant to flavor, do not impart character impact. For example, in dairy products, chocolate, and kiwifruit, these flavor types appear to be produced by a complex blend of non-characterizing key aroma compounds.

Antioxidant and Biomarker Evidence from Intervention Studies in Humans

There are limited data from diet-controlled randomized crossover studies of humans on tea and other flavonoid-containing foods. Most intervention studies, apart from design considerations, suffer from lack of diet control, making them difficult to interpret. Results from intervention studies that employ dietary recalls, food records, and self-administered diets are notorious for introducing error that can mask treatment effects. Clinical studies in humans have focused on the antioxidant capacity of blood and oxidative damage to protein, lipid, and DNA as well as a number of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including lipids, hemostasis, platelet aggregation, endothelial function, and blood pressure. Interventions have included high- and low-flavonoid diets, tea, chocolate, cocoa, wine, grape extracts, and fruit juices.

Changes in Antioxidant Capacity

Antioxidant capacity of the blood may be one indicator of a food's ability to act as an in vivo antiox-idant. Two commonly used measures of overall antioxidant capacity are the ORAC assay (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and the FRAP assay (ferric reducing ability of plasma). Dietary interventions do alter the antioxidant capacity of blood. For example, individuals consuming a high cocoa and chocolate diet for 2 weeks have higher serum ORAC than when they consume a control diet. However, these results are not always consistent. For example, in individuals consuming pro-cyanidins in similar amounts of cocoa powder and chocolate, there is no change in plasma ORAC after 6 or 12 weeks.

Lipid Oxidation and Damage

Whereas intake of quercetin from black current and apple juice appears to increase protein oxidation, it decreases plasma malondialdehyde concentration, a marker of lipid oxidation. Isoprostanes, which are specific and sensitive markers of lipid peroxidation, are not different after consumption of a high-flavonoid or low-flavonoid diet, after consumption of green or black tea, or after consumption of black tea and hot water. Similarly, there is little change in urinary isoprostane excretion after supplementation of dark chocolate and cocoa or after consumption of red and white wine (although dealcoholized wine does decrease urinary isoprostane).

Biomarkers of Diseases

Of black tea per day compared to a control, caffeine-containing beverage resulted in a 6.5 decrease in total cholesterol and an 11.1 decrease in LDL-cholesterol after 3 weeks of consumption. There were no concomitant changes in HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides. A cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract has also been observed in a large (N 240), double-blind, randomized outpatient study of individuals with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In this study, individuals consumed either a capsule containing 375 mg of theaflavin-enriched green tea extract or a placebo capsule. After 12 weeks, the individuals taking the theaflavin-enriched green tea extract capsule had an 11.3 decrease in plasma total cholesterol and a 16.4 decrease in LDL-cholesterol from their pretreatment concentrations. The were no significant changes in total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol in the placebo group and no change in HDL-cholesterol or triglyceride concentration in either...

Urbanization and Nutrition Transition

Electricity, food technology, and concentration of wealth in urban areas have changed this panorama in recent years as a process of 'nutrition transition,' a term introduced by Barry Popkin, has come to dominate particularly the urban populations of today's developing nations. More, rather than less, variety of food is the reality of modern cities. Sweetened and flavored processed foods have higher appeal than coarse staple roots and cereals. The 20th century saw a meteoric rise in the demand for and production of cooking oils and fat-based spreads, while refrigeration meant that fluid milk did not have to come from the udder of a dairy animal on one's doorstep to be safe and available. Processed foods - bottled, canned, and frozen -entered the market with the rise of the food sciences and food technology, and sweets and desserts became a larger component of daily fare. Inexpensive vegetable oils from corn, soy, safflower, cottonseed, etc., entered international commerce for cooking,...

Microorganisms and food

To the general public, the association of microorganisms and food conjures up negative images of rotten fruit or food poisoning. On reflection, many people may remember that yeast is involved in bread and beer production, but how many realise that microorganisms play a part in the manufacture of soy sauce, pepperoni and even chocolate In the following pages, we shall look at the contribution of microorganisms to the contents of our shopping baskets before considering one of the negative associations referred to above, the microbial spoilage of food.

Courtship and Marriage

In Zapotec communities in the Valleys of Oaxaca, traditional engagement parties involved the young man's family coming to petition for the bride at 4 a.m., bearing large baskets of chocolate, bread, and giant candles. This ceremony is one of several ceremonies associated with traditional weddings performed over a period of years. After the official engagement ceremony, a young woman will go to live with her future husband and will often have one or two children with him before the church wedding. Even this formal set of ceremonies exhibits an interesting disjuncture between virginity and formal marriage. The other prominent form of engagement is por robar (by theft), which usually means a carefully planned voluntary elopement. Most women in the community, whether young or old, are concerned with protecting their sexual reputations. Many girls are still strictly watched and not allowed to walk the streets alone after the age of 10 or 11.

Formulas And Procedures

In general, formulas can be divided into different groups. Saltines and other fermented products use a sponge-and-dough system that is normally formulated with yeast. In contrast, straight cracker doughs and the like will have small amounts of sugar, fat, and other characterizing additives and are chemically leavened. Cookie formulas will contain moderate to high amounts of sugar and shortening and are primarily leavened with sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate in combination with a leavening acid to produce a baked good with high volume. Cookies may also contain other ingredients such as icings, fillings, fruits, nut pastes or pieces, flavors, and chocolate to give them distinctive value. dough should be sufficiently cohesive enough to hold together as it is extruded through orifices. Yet it must be relatively nonsticky and short enough, so that it separates cleanly when cut by the wire. Such formulas may contain several times as much sugar as flour, shortening up to 100 of...

The use of disclaimers on food labels

In February 1994, one of the founder members of the Anaphylaxis Campaign gave a shrewd warning about the possible negative effects of any food labelling campaign companies would begin to take the easy way out by printing disclaimer notices. A leading chocolate company had already begun to include a warning under the ingredient list of two of its brands stating 'May on rare occasions contain nut traces.' And dire warnings were given that this might conceivably catch on. A key question is How likely is it that someone with nut allergy will come across a particle of nut on, say, a spoonful of breakfast cereal that is supposed to be nut-free The answer is that it is probably very unlikely indeed, but it does occasionally happen. A young boy visiting a football match with his grandfather decided at half time to have his usual treat - a milk chocolate bar that he had eaten many times before. He suffered a mild allergic reaction. Looking at the label he saw the warning in small print 'May on...

Near infrared absorption technology for analysing food composition

Near infra-red (NIR) measurement technology offers an amazingly diverse capability for the analysis of many different constituents or properties of food products. Moisture, fat, protein and sugar content are perhaps the most well known applications in products such as grain, flour, cereals, dairy products, snacks and coffee but NIR has also found application for the measurement of chocolate thickness on refiner rollers, the thickness of sausage casings, the alcohol content of beverages, the maturity of peas and even the quality of fruit juices. The technique can also provide food technologists with information regarding the thickness of critical barrier layers in multi-layer packaging films, protective coatings applied to plastic, paper or metal food packaging materials which all can impact on food storage properties if not controlled.

Legislative Acceptability Of Microbial Polysaccharides

After evaluation, detailed specifications for the food additives include identity and purity. Typically, WHO provides data on biological aspects such as ingestion, calorific availability, and digestibility, and on toxicology. Toxicological evaluation includes short term and long term evaluation using a range of different animals. A two year study using rats failed to show any carcinogenic or other toxic effects which could be attributed to xanthan. Tests on human volunteers may also be included again in the case of xanthan no adverse effects were found although this polysaccharide could effect a slow but significant weight loss in individuals suffering from obesity (113). In the USA, xanthan is permitted as a food additive under regulations controlled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is on the list of substances GRAS list, being approved in the Federal Register for use as a stabilizer, emulsifier, foam enhancer, thickening, suspending, and bodying agent. Use is permitted...

Clinical Conditions in Reproductive Age Females

ENDOMETRIOSIS After dysmenorrhea, endometriosis is the second most common cause of cyclic pain in reproductive-age females.18 A prevalence of 5 to 10 percent is widely accepted, although it has been reported in up to 60 percent of patients with infertility. There is a genetic predisposition for endometriosis, and the mean age at diagnosis is 25 to 30 years.13 In patients with endometriosis, endometrial glands and stroma develop outside the endometrial cavity, initially causing pain with menses. As the disease progresses, pelvic adhesions develop and pain occurs throughout the cycle. If located within the ovarian capsule, endometriomas, or chocolate cysts, may result. The precise pathophysiology of endometriosis is not clear, but it is commonly believed to arise from retrograde menstruation and seeding of menstrual glands. Pain is cyclic or constant and may vary in character and intensity. It is generally worse just prior to or during menses. The number of adhesions and severity of...

Functional Roles of Sucrose in Foods

For example, sucrose contributes to the bulk and texture of cakes and cookies and it provides viscosity and mouth feel in liquids such as soft drinks and fruit juices. Sucrose is also a powerful preservative and contributes the long storage life of jams and confectionery. In frozen products like ice cream, sucrose has multiple functions It acts as an emulsifier, preventing the separation of the water and fat phases it lowers the freezing point, thereby making the product more liquid and 'creamier' at the temperature eaten. The presence of sucrose retards the crystallization of the lactose in dairy foods and milk chocolate (tiny crystals of lactose feel like sand on the tongue). In canned fruit, sucrose syrups are used to prevent mushiness caused by the osmotic movement of sugar out of the fruit and into the surrounding fluid. Because sucrose masks unpleasant flavors, sugar syrups are used as carriers for drugs and medicines, especially for young children who cannot swallow...

Hyperactivity and Antisocial Behavior

In children, there is an increasing frequency of the diagnosis of ADHD, a condition characterized by inattention, impulsive and disruptive behavior, learning difficulties, and increased levels of gross motor activity and fidgeting. Also, the prevalence of food allergies and intolerances has been increasing. Perhaps it is not surprising that dietary explanations and treatments for ADHD have been sought regularly for several decades, given theories of allergic reactions or intolerance to food additives, ingredients in chocolate, and even refined sugar (often grouped as the 'Feingold theory', after an early instigator of unproven dietary intervention). There has also been a long-standing interest in the possibility that antisocial behavior in children and adults might in part result from poor nutrition, although early studies were poorly designed. Behavioral effects of sugar and of many additives have by and large not been supported by controlled studies however, determining...

Ice Cream Composition And Physical Properties

Ice cream mix contains a minimum of 10 milkfat and 20 total milk solids, except when fruit, nuts, chocolate, or To achieve fat reduction in frozen desserts, one needs to replace both the functionality of the fat and the actual quantity of fat removed (formula percentage). Reducingfat in a frozen dairy product generally requires multiple approaches. Solids replacement is critical for stability (ice crystal growth) and the perception of warmth coldness in the mouth. For example, in nonfat products there is proportionally more ice that must melt at least partially in the mouth so the product will seem colder than a high fat ice cream when both products are served at the same temperature. Various fat substitutes may be chosen to provide body or a mouth-feel that simulates the lubricity of fat. Flavor levels or flavor character may be changed to modify the flavor impact and release. ities of full-fat products. Ingredient suppliers are broadening the range and quality of fat substitutes,...

Treatment Of Packaging

PureBright is also effective for package applications involving perishable, refrigerated, extended-shelf life food products, such as containers for yogurt, cottage cheese, or milk. Figure 4 shows a typical cup-and-lid-packaging line configuration that can be used for extending the shelf life of refrigerated desserts and other products.

Sensory And Perceptual Factors Flavor

If eating offset were associated solely with the accumulation of particular nutrient stores, then it would be difficult to account for the dessert effect. That is, despite a satiating meal (fully repleting nutrient stores), people can still find room for dessert. One way of accounting for this effect is in terms of sensory specific satiety, which refers to an animal becoming satiated to a particular flavor without showing satiation to other normally preferred flavors (28). Thus the individual may become satiated to the sensory characteristics of the main course while not being satiated to the sensory characteristics of the dessert. (It should be noted that there may be other contributors to the dessert effect, including social facilitation, as described later.)

Drugs That Change Alertness A Stimulants

The methylxanthine derivatives (caffeine, theophyl-line, and theobromine found in coffee, tea, and chocolate, respectively) are the most popular and commonly used stimulants. They increase the release of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Fatigue is reduced and there is an increase in alertness and improvement in vigilance performance. However, caffeine consumption can impair complex motor tasks. At doses exceeding approximately 250 mg (the quantity in three fresh-brewed cups), tremor, nervousness, and anxiety can result. Contrary to popular belief, caffeine does not counteract the effects of alcohol Caffeine (or another stimulant) will arouse a drunk but will not make him or her sober.

The destructive process literally eats away the area of the ovary that houses the primordial follicles leaving you with

Encountering endometriomas (chocolate cysts) Scar tissue that covers the surface of endometrial implants on the ovary is tough and fibrous. As this endometriosis spreads across the ovary, it takes the path of least resistance by growing into the softer stroma (the inside) of the ovary. As a result, chocolate cysts, or endometriomas, form from the surface of the ovary inwards. (The term chocolate refers to the brown-colored liquid made of old blood and tissue that's inside the cyst.)

The catering industry

In a more bizarre case, thankfully not tragic, a 14-year-old boy from Kent was eating in a restaurant with his family. The waiter was questioned carefully and when it came to dessert the ice cream packaging was brought to the family and all seemed fine. The boy was asked if he would like nuts on the top and he said yes, he had no problem with nuts. Unfortunately the nuts were coated with albumen and sugar to make them separate and crunchy, and the boy suffered a severe reaction for which he required an adrenaline injection. The boy is allergic to egg and had reacted to the albumen. In 1997, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food produced detailed written guidance on allergies for caterers, but many restaurants had taken voluntary action long before then. It was in a Debenhams restaurant that my daughter ate her lethal dessert, and Debenhams reacted positively, immediately and, indeed, compassionately. The company introduced a system whereby Returning to the cold reality, we...

Multicomponent analysis of food products

Traditionally, many of these other parameters would have been measured off line possibly using NIR on the basis of the belief that their variation was limited enough to make batch testing representative enough. In reality there is variation in most process streams and so on-line measurement is the only way to be certain that the product is adequately quantified. In processes where a constituent other than moisture can be adjusted, on-line measurement offers tremendous potential to reduce production costs through not over-specifying and optimising product quality. In most cases such measurements will be required simultaneously with moisture since this allows dry weight calculations to be performed in instances where another component may be added to a process stream. For example, in chocolate manufacture cocoa butter which is very expensive may be added to the bulk. Fat and moisture in chocolate processing is a very successful and important application at most stages of the process...

Fluorimetric control of food

Fig. 8.1 Difference of profile between laser induced fluorescence spectra of cocoa butter and other vegetable fats used in chocolate making. Fig. 8.1 Difference of profile between laser induced fluorescence spectra of cocoa butter and other vegetable fats used in chocolate making. Recently, Papadopoulos et al. (2002) have reported investigations of the adulteration of extra virgin olive oils with seed oils using their fluorescence spectra. Our experiments with laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy on different fats used in chocolate making and on lipidic extracts of green and roasted coffee beans has shown that this technique is able to distinguish the botanical origin of vegetable fats because of the differences in polyphenol, sterol and chlorophyll composition. Spectra of cocoa butter and other vegetable fats used as substitutes for cocoa butter in chocolate are presented as an illustration of this observation in Fig. 8.1.

Invasive Bacteria Salmonella Infections

Other potent sources of contamination are sewage, polluted water, or direct fecal contamination of foodstuffs. Thus, many foods are bought already contaminated. Recent examples include mung beans, black pepper, dried herbs and spices, chocolate, spent yeast (used as a flavoring vehicle in packet potato crisps), infant dried milk, salamis, and sausages. Indeed, it is important to note that almost any food can be contaminated given the right circumstances. A multistate outbreak of salmonello-sis in the United States was traced to tomatoes that had been washed in a contaminated water bath. An extensive outbreak in the United Kingdom was shown to be caused by lettuce. These episodes are particularly worrying because they show that any vegetable eaten raw may cause a salmonella infection. Cross-contamination from raw meat to relishes and dressings in a kitchen may also occur. Direct contamination of a food by a food handler, at any rate enough to cause an outbreak, is rarely documented....

Collaboration with the food industry retail and manufacturing

So much for what has been achieved - but what about the mistakes that occasionally occur What happens when a nut chocolate bar ends up on the shelves bearing the wrong wrapper Or a customer opens a box of chocolate raisins to find the peanut variety inside A crisis management expert who addressed a food industry conference in 1996 stated categorically that in such cases, the best course open to food companies was to come clean. Sweeping such mistakes under the carpet, he warned, would only lead to disaster. Fortunately, this is the thinking adopted by most - if not all - food companies Some packs of a toffee ice cream dessert thought to contain hazelnut. Packs of chocolate raisins found to contain the peanut variety.

Specialty Shell Eggs Production

Shell eggs are still a commodity item. They are packaged in simple and low-cost fiber or plastic cartons or flats that rarely have a brand name. These are sold at a low price, which strongly fluctuates with a small surplus or shortage of eggs. In countries where eggs are protected and prices are higher, sophisticated packages can be found, which can also cater to specific target groups. For example, a dozen eggs in clear packages wherein two eggs are chocolate eggs was developed to target children in Austria. In order to get out of the commodity market, several higher-priced specialty items were developed,

Maillard Reaction And Formation Of Heterocyclic Flavor Compounds In Food

Maillard Reaction Food

Flavors can be produced either naturally by the action of enzymes or by thermal processing due to the interaction of different food components or their pyrolytic degradation. The interaction of reducing sugars with amino-containing components and their subsequent reactions is termed non-enzymatic browning or Maillard reaction (17-21). This reaction is considered to be the most important reaction in food chemistry because in addition to flavors, it is also responsible for the formation of color, antioxidants, carcinogens, and so on. It can also reduce the nutritional value of foods by effectively decreasing the concentration of essential amino acids. The Maillard reaction results in the formation of distinctive brown color and aroma of broiled, baked, and roasted food products. Consequently, many unpleasant-tasting raw foods can be transformed by Maillard reactions into desirable products via processes such as bread baking, coffee roasting, and chocolate manufacture. The Maillard...

Dynamic Light Scattering

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is an alternative method for determining food microstructure that is based on scattering of light by moving particles. Details of this noninvasive and relatively rapid method are given elsewhere (63). In the food industry, DLS is used for determining particle sizes in the range of 1 to 300 im in such diverse products as chocolate, wheat and soy flour, confectionery sugar, spices, and mayonnaise. More specific instruments have been developed to detect particles outside this range (64). The main application of this technique has involved very dilute systems (milk and oil in water emulsions), because the concentration of scatters had to be sufficiently low that an incident photon of light is scattered only once by the sample (63). Therefore, DLS can rarely be used directly on most foods, since particulate concentration is too high and native structure is difficult to maintain upon dilution. Nevertheless, DLS has been used to look at the changes in the...

Removing your ovaries

In some cases, you and your doctor may elect to remove one or both ovaries (an oophorectomy) and not the uterus. This decision is unusual but has some good reasons. Sometimes one ovary keeps forming chocolate cysts and adhesions that cause pain and hormonal changes. When more conservative treatment has failed or the disease has recurred quickly, removing the bad ovary may be beneficial.

Presentation Formats 1 Visual Imagery

In 1981 Avis Bennett and Joseph Cautela described the following CPR scene to increase the target behavior of not eating dessert Imagine you are standing at the dessert table with your friends. As dessert is passed, you politely refuse, and feel good about staying on your diet.

Sensory Stimulation and Palatability

However, the second definition should not be taken to indicate that there is a direct correlation between the perceived palatability of a food and the amount of that food which is ingested. As with hunger, the coupling between the expressed sensation and the amount of food or energy ingested is loose. This definition takes account of the fact that the palatability of the food is jointly determined by the nature of the food (smell, taste, texture, and state), the sensory capabilities and metabolic state of the subject, and the environment in which the food and subject interact. Palatability is therefore not stable indeed, the palatability of a food typically declines as its own ingestion proceeds. Work on military personnel suggests that the decline in preference for highly preferred foods (e.g., chocolate) is greater than that for staple foods such as bread, which exhibit more stable preference profiles. Palatability can be dissociated from sensory intensity since sensory...

Standard Industrial Classification Manual

2022 Natural, processed, and imitation cheese 2023 Dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy products 2024 Ice cream and frozen desserts 2026 Fluid milk 203 Canned, frozen, and preserved fruits, vegetables, and food specialties 2064 Candy and other confectionery products 2066 Chocolate and cocoa products 2067 Chewing gum 1. Manufacturing creamery butter natural, processed, and imitation cheese dry, condensed, and evaporated milk ice cream and frozen dairy desserts and special dairy products, such as yogurt and malted milk and Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts (IN 2024) Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ice cream and other frozen desserts. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing frozen bakery products, such as cakes and pies, are classified in Industry 2053. 2. Desserts, frozen except bakery 10. Pops, dessert frozen-flavored ice, fruit, pudding, and gelatin 14. Tofu frozen desserts 2. Chocolate milk

Polypodium formosanum Caterpillar fern

Description The striking creeping rhizome, crisscrossing itself freely in a tangle, is thick and a chalky pale green. It has small black scales as well as minute black craters (technically known as phyllopodia) that are the scarred stumps left after the fronds are shed. The chocolate-colored stipes are one-half

Advantages and disadvantages

The concern for materials with large particle size, especially those that have recently been dried or steam conditioned, is whether the surface moisture represents the internal condition. Indeed, it is frequently the case in drying processes that the surface and internal moisture levels of bulky materials differ. In many situations, this potential difficulty is not a problem because there is some form of relationship between the surface and total moisture content which can be exploited to provide a measurement. It is often the relatively constant conditions employed to dry a foodstuff that ensure this assumption is valid The classic example of this is the on-line measurement of biscuit moisture. After oven drying, the surface moisture content of biscuits is very low, and will even vary across the surface, while the internal moisture is at a higher level. However, the oven drying characteristics are very consistent and therefore the on-line measurement of surface moisture provides the...

Components from skimmed milk and weight loss 121 Calcium and weight loss

Whey And Satiety Hormones

Dietary calcium and magnesium have a modest impact on overall energy balance through inhibition of fatty acid absorption via formation of calcium and magnesium soaps (Vaskonen, 2003). A randomized crossover study (Jacobsen et al., 2005) evaluated the short-term effect of dietary calcium on fat absorption. A total of 10 subjects consumed a low calcium and normal protein diet, a high calcium normal protein diet or a high calcium and high protein diet. The high calcium normal protein showed a 2.5-fold increase in fecal fat excretion compared to the other two diets. Another study (Shahkhalili et al., 2001) compared the absorption of cocoa butter with calcium (900 mg day) or without calcium in a chocolate supplement. In this randomized, double blind, crossover study 10 men were fed control diets with or without the calcium supplemented chocolate. The results of the study showed a 2fold increase in fecal fat excretion and a 9 decrease in absorbable energy. These two studies (Jacobsen et...

The relevance of propriosense to flavour learning

Obviously important to the appreciation and enjoyment of the flavour of food and fMRI has been used to investigate the changes in brain activity as a single food (chocolate) is consumed beyond satiety, when the experience changes from being pleasant to being aversive (Small, Zatorre et al. 2001). One very well known phenomenon that dramatically changes the liking of a flavour and one that has been extensively researched in animals is post-ingestive nausea. This has been most studied in rats which develop an extreme aversion to the flavours of foods that have been eaten prior to gastric distress, even if this has been induced other than by the food itself, e.g. by direct intubation of gastric irritants into the stomach (Sclafani 2001). Humans also show such behaviour and learn to dislike a flavour particularly if it is associated with nausea or vomiting and in extreme cases they may then reject foods with that flavour throughout life (Kalat 1985). Less easy to understand and predict...

Future Technologies And Challenges

Other freezing opportunities are related to the freezing point depression of the finished product. The food quality improvement, ice crystallization reduction, better texture and flavor would be a few of the results of the depression of the freezing point. Using recombinant DNA techniques, or chemical methods the suppression of ice crystal growth is a reality. Application opportunities of antifreeze protein and polypeptides technology could be used in vegetables, frozen dessert, and frozen dough (23). 9. Freeze Flo Technology. It consists of producing food products that remain soft, firm in texture, high in stability, and ice free, maintaining its integrity, shape and consistency. Free water activity which encourage microbiological concerns is eliminated by the freeze flow process (27). This technology is currently used in developing freeze flow fruits with application in ice cream, desserts, and other frozen food product dishes. This technology could also be used in developing...

Measurement Of Rheological Properties

Rheology Tester

The stress on a sample is measured as a function of strain as it is compressed at a fixed rate (Figure 8.1). The resulting stress-strain curve is used to characterize the rheological properties of the material being tested. The slope of stress versus strain at small deformations is often a straight line, with a gradient equal to the elastic modulus (Table 8.1). At intermediate deformations, the stress may no longer be proportional to the strain and some flow may occur, so that when the stress is removed the sample does not return to its original shape. At larger deformations, the sample may rupture and the breaking stress, strain, and modulus can be determined. The operator must decide the distance and speed at which the probe will move through the sample. For viscoelastic materials, the shape of the upward and downward curves may be different and depends on the speed at which the probe moves. This type of test is used commonly to test solid samples and gels, such...

Background And Definitions

Ice cream and frozen desserts, which include sherbets, ices (sorbets), frozen yogurt, dynamically and quiescently frozen novelties, and mellorine, play very important nutritional and social roles in our daily diet. Although debate exists as to whether ice cream originated in ancient China or Rome, there is little doubt that ice cream is America's favorite dessert. In 1996 the total retail sales of ice cream and other frozen related products reached a high of 10.8 billion (1). Ice cream eating occasions are frequently associated with fond memories of childhood, lazy summer days, and family get-togethers. In addition to its role in complementing various social occasions, ice cream provides important nutrients, particularly to infants and adolescents who consume large quantities of ice cream and frozen desserts. A 4-fl-oz (1 2 cup) serving of a typical ice cream provides 8 of U.S. RDA calcium and 5 of U.S. RDA protein as well as other key nutrients (eg, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin)...

Prevention of Bacterial Food Poisoning

With the increasing trend toward the manufacturing of foods in large quantities for distribution not only nationally but also internationally, the potential for vast outbreaks of foodborne disease is considerable. Outbreaks of salmonellosis and E. coli FP caused by cheese, salami, chocolate, beef jerky, infant dried milk, minced beef, hamburgers, and even potato crisps have all been documented. In one outbreak of E. coli O157 H7 infection, 34 lots of 281 000 lb of beef patties were manufactured in one plant, and 7 of 21 lots tested were found to be contaminated. The introduction of HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) in food manufacturing processes has been a significant advance in the production of safer food and the prevention of FP. Microbiological guidelines now exist for ready-to-eat foods. The establishment of Enternet in countries in Europe and elsewhere is an important step in the early detection of such outbreaks and the curtailment of their effects. This is a...

Sketch 6 Rick Loeffler

Many of Rick's comments seem to me very insightful. It is easy to see how those who control finance need to be sure that financial support goes only to deserving cases, and if an individual does not fit into any recognised category it is easy to assume absence of dessert. It is ironic, however, that Rick would probably have found it easier to obtain support if he had been less intelligent and therefore a worse speller. There are two issues here as far as dyslexia is concerned. Because the phenomena of dyslexia are untidy and involve variants and marginal cases, it does not follow that a given individual has no specific needs. Secondly it is possible that highly intelligent individuals who have worked very hard to overcome their disabilities may thereby disqualify themselves from receiving financial or other help.

Personal hygiene practices of consumers

Personal hygiene includes cleanliness of the hands, hair, clothing, and body in general. Hand washing is most frequently the sentinel behavior for assessment of personal hygiene in consumer food safety studies. From a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) perspective, the critical control point for ensuring the safety of foods that are prepared to be served without heating is personal hygiene. Controlling the transfer of pathogens from the hands to food is important for almost all foodborne illnesses, but especially (1) raw vegetables and fruits (2) some types of desserts (3) raw or undercooked foods exposed to polluted water and (4) previously cooked foods handled by consumers and served without additional heating. It is estimated that 5 of Hepatitis A cases are foodborne, 20 of Shigella cases, and 40 of Norovirus cases are estimated as being foodborne (Mead et al., 1999). Thus, hands contaminated with fecal pathogens can be the source of pathogens in foods (Feachem,...

Dietary Interventions

During infancy and early childhood, caloric intake should conform to the current guidelines from the Nutrition Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics. During the first 6 months of life, breast milk or infant formulas are primary nutritional sources, followed by introduction of solids at 5 or 6 months of age. Solid textures are gradually advanced based on oromotor skills (jaw strength and tongue mobility). Due to the high likelihood for development of hyperphagia and obesity, the majority of parents avoid exposure of the PWS child to high-calorie solids, desserts, and juices. Via close nutritional follow-up during the first 2 years, oral intake can be appropriately adjusted to maintain weight for height between the 25th and 80th percentiles. Caloric restriction under the guidance of an experienced nutritionist is employed only if weight gain becomes excessive.

Major Contributors of Dietary Saturated Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol

According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) recall data from 1999-2000, the 10 major dietary sources of saturated fatty acids in US diets are regular cheese (6.0 of the total grams of saturated fatty acids consumed), whole milk (4.6 ), regular ice cream (3.0 ), 2 low-fat milk (2.6 ), pizza with meat (2.5 ), French fries (2.5 ), Mexican dishes with meat (2.3 ), regular processed meat (2.2 ), chocolate candy (2.1 ), and mixed dishes with beef (2.1 ). Hence, the majority of saturated fatty acids are contributed by regular dairy products (16 ), and the top 10 sources contribute 30 of the total saturated fatty acids consumed. The increased prevalence of fat-free and low-fat dairy products provides a viable option with which to encourage a populationwide decrease in saturated fat intake. To put the value of decreasing populationwide intakes of saturated fat into perspective, it has been estimated that the isocaloric replacement of 5 of energy from saturated...

TABLE 712 Causes of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Comprehensive treatment of reflux disease involves decreasing acid production in the stomach, enhancing upper tract motility, and eliminating risk factors for the disease. As noted above, mild disease is often treated empirically. H 2 blockers or proton-pump inhibitors are mainstays of therapy. Dosage is titrated for each patient. A prokinetic drug may also greatly decrease symptoms. Simple discharge instructions should be given to all patients thought to be experiencing reflux-related symptoms Avoid agents that exacerbate GERD (ethanol, caffeine, nicotine, chocolate, fatty foods), sleep with the head of the bed elevated (30 ), and avoid eating within 3 h of going to bed at night. Management of Barrett's esophagus includes intensive treatment of the underlying GERD with proton-pump inhibition. Often, laser or photodynamic ablation therapy and surgical treatment are employed as well. Close monitoring for dysplastic changes is essential.

Dietary Management

Small tub of diet cottage cheese 1 tomato, can of diet pop Midafternoon Chocolate eclair 2 dishes of blackcurrant cheesecake, a choc ice, 4 bowls of ice cream, 6 snack-size chocolate bars, 5 cheese biscuits with butter and cheese, 5 slices of toast with butter and peanut butter, 2 packets of chocolate biscuits, 2 bowls of cereal, 1 packet of crisps and 1 chocolate and mint biscuit 6 glasses of water 1 chocolate or cream biscuit 6-8 tablespoons custard or rice pudding 1 packet crisps or nuts and raisins 1 average-sized chocolate bar

The legal background labelling

This fish sauce may contain many ingredients which might include shellfish capable of causing an allergic reaction in susceptible people, yet the labelling meets the requirements of the law. Also, the stipulation for the labelling of functional additives may itself give rise to problems. A garlic puree used in garlic bread may have contained sulphur dioxide as a preservative, but because this preserving effect is no longer required in the finished product, possibly because it is frozen, there is no need to label its presence. This may present a hidden problem for asthmatics. Other exemptions may be realised through the provisions which permit the use of generic names for certain ingredients or because the ingredient is a food which itself is not required to be labelled with an ingredients list. Certain foods such as chocolate currently fall outside the requirements of food labelling law and are subject to the specific requirements of their own legislation. Typically, this may not...

Commercial Applications

In view of the large body of research on the appearance, stability, analysis, and plant breeding of anthocyanins, that occur naturally in fruit and vegetable products, it is not surprising that anthocyanin colorants would be used to enhance the aesthetic appeal of existing plant products or formulated substitutes. Actually, one of the first applications of enocyanin, a generic term for colorants from grapes, was to improve the color of wine. In the United States, fruit drinks are the biggest market. Colorants containing anthocyanins have been suggested for beverages, jellies, jams, ice cream, yogurt, gelatin desserts, canned fruits, fruit sauces, candy and confections, bakery fillings, toppings, drink-mix crystals, pastries, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.

In a public health context

Psychoactive drugs are substances that alter the mental state of humans after ingestion. There are a wide variety of those substances, both naturally occurring and synthesized, including tobacco, alcoholic beverages, coffee, tea, chocolate, and some spices, as well as substances that are legally available only through medical channels, such as benzodiazepides, cannabinols, opiates, and cocaine. Such substances often have other use values along with their psychoactive properties. Users may like the taste or the image of themselves that the use of those substances conveys. Substance use may be a medium of sociability (Partanen) or part of a religious ritual. Some substances have other useful properties alcohol, for example, is a source of calories and is used as a solvent in many tinctures.

Ethyl Carbamate Formation

Excessive amounts of nitrogen compounds in juice and wines can impact wine aroma (55) and the formation of ethyl carbamate. Ethyl carbamate, or urethane, is a carcinogen that occurs naturally in fermented foods, including wine, as a result of the fermentative and assimilative activities of microorganisms. Toxicity studies will be completed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by the year 2001 prior to recommending maximum acceptable levels (Gahagan, 2000, personal communication). At present, the U.S. wine industry has established a voluntary target level of

Box 51 Culture and fast food in the Peoples Republic of China PRC

Culture can influence consumers' food choices. The Chinese diet contains more rice, noodles, chicken, pork, vegetables and fewer sweet desserts compared with the American diet of bread, beef, cheese, dairy products and sweet desserts. Therefore, chicken and beef noodle fast-food restaurants are more popular in PRC than pizza and burger restaurants. Beef is scarce, and considered very nutritious in traditional Chinese medicine. The older a person is, the more difficult it is to adapt to the new diet. Therefore older PRC consumers eat burgers for nutrition, and younger consumers eat burgers for taste. Younger persons are more likely to try new foods. Many young, one-child families in urban Beijing take children to McDonald's about once a week. Young people seek novelty and material progress. Although they do not like pizza, Chinese teens sit at Pizza Hut to be seen, older Chinese like low-fat food all go to McDonald's to be served, enjoy friends and listen to music.

Flavouring Other Products

Freeze drying can be of advantage with convenience products if the flavouring is mixed with the basic product and they are then dried together. With curd dessert with fruit content, curd dishes and spreads it has turned out that the addition of certain seasonings and flavourings has a stabilizing effect on the final product. This results from their antioxidative properties. The components of curd, such as lactose and milk protein, furthermore cause a good retention of the herb constituents. It is, however, prerequisitive for these effects to take place that the seasonings and herbs are mixed

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