Lactose Intolerance

As many as 50 million Americans are estimated to have lactose intolerance an inability to adequately digest ordinary amounts of dairy products such as milk and ice cream. Worldwide, nearly 70 percent of the adult population is thought to be lactose intolerant, and the condition is very common among American Indians and those of Asian, African, Hispanic, and Mediterranean descent. Lactose is the sugar that is naturally present in milk and milk products. It must be broken down by lactase (an...

Nutrients in Foods

The tables on pages 422 to 429 are from Dietary Reference Intakes, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2001. The data on pages 434 to 483 are from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1999. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 13. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp. In some instances, manufacturers' data also were used. This does not indicate an endorsement of the product. 0 value...

Origin Botanical Facts

Limes may have originated in Asia, in the vicinity of India, Burma, and Malaysia. The silhouette of the lime can be observed in 2nd- to 3rd-century Roman art, and limes appear to have been popular in Europe around the time of the Crusades. Limes probably were brought to the New World along with other citrus species by Columbus. The Key lime was brought to the Americas by the Spaniards and cultivated in Mexico, the West Indies, some Central American countries, and the Florida Keys. The lime...

Protein

Protein is an essential part of our diets. Proteins are large, complex molecules resembling tangled strings of beads. Each of the beads on the string is one of a group of smaller molecules called amino acids. Amino acids are composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and some contain sulfur. Using the amino acids from the protein you eat, the body makes more than 50,000 different proteins. These proteins are the main structural elements of our skin, hair, nails, cell membranes,...

Safety Issues

Some small markets or independent farmers still sell raw milk. Because it has not been pasteurized, this milk may contain germs that make you ill. For that reason, the sale of raw milk is often prohibited by law, depending on location. For some people, proteins in cow's milk may trigger allergic reactions. Whey proteins (beta-lactoglobulin and beta-lact-albumin) and casein are the primary proteins that trigger allergic reactions. Symptoms of a milk allergy may include nasal congestion, hives,...

Day 13 Recipe

2 cups mushrooms, sliced 1 2 cup chopped green onions 12 ounces smoked turkey, shredded or chopped 1 2 cup cranberry relish 4 medium-sized tortillas (7-inch diameter) 1 2 cup chopped pecans In a non-stick skillet, saut mushrooms and onion over medium heat in 1 Tblsp orange juice. Add cooked wild rice and smoked turkey to warm through. Remove from heat. Spread tortillas with cranberry relish. Top each tortilla with equal amounts of turkey-rice mixture. Top with chopped pecans. Roll up and serve.

The Food Guide Pyramid

Fats, oils, and sweets (eat sparingly) Milk products Skim or low-fat milk, yogurt, low-fat or nonfat cheeses or cottage cheese Meats and other high-protein foods Lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs (3 to 4 yolks per week), cooked dry beans, peas, lentils, peanut butter, nuts, seeds, tofu Fats, oils, and sweets (eat sparingly) Vegetables Fresh or cooked vegetables, vegetable sauces, or juices Fruits Fresh fruit (apple, apricots, banana, berries, dates, figs, grapefruit, grapes, guava, kiwi, mango,...

Nutrient Composition

Today, California produces about 97 percent of all domestic grapes. Grapes can grow in almost any climate, but they thrive in temperate regions with average annual temperatures above 50 Fahrenheit. Although modern farm machinery is used, some aspects of grape growing, or viticulture, are still done by hand. Grapevines generally are propagated from grafts and cuttings rather than from seed. Five years is required for a young grapevine to reach optimal production. The woody vines must be staked...

Black Beans

Many people have become acquainted with black beans after eating at Mexican restaurants, where they are served boiled or refried. Also known as turtle beans, black beans are a common part of the cuisine throughout Central and South America, the Caribbean, and the southern United States. As their name indicates, they have a completely black skin. They have a mild, somewhat sweet taste. Black beans are an excellent source of folate and a good source of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and...

The Power of the Food Guide Pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid, the triangular symbol you see on many food packages, was developed by nutrition experts at the U.S. Department ofAgriculture (USDA) (see below). The Pyramid is an educational tool that translates nutrient requirements into the foods you need to eat and helps you put into action the advice offered by the Dietary Guidelines. In graphic form, the Pyramid displays the variety of food choices and the correct proportions needed to attain the recommended amounts of all the...

The Dietary Guidelines forAmericans

Research clearly shows that being overweight greatly increases your risk for many diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. If you are overweight, combining a healthful eating plan with regular physical activity is the most effective way to lose weight and to sustain the loss (see sidebar Diet and Exercise The Perfect Pair, page 10). If you are at a healthy weight, your goal is to maintain that weight. Chapter 3 (page 47) provides further information on weight control. Everyone...

Fish and Shellfish Allergies

Seafood is a common source of food allergies. About 250,000 Americans experience allergic reactions to fish and shellfish each year. People with seafood allergies can have symptoms that range from mild to life-threatening. Even tiny amounts of fish substances can trigger a reaction in some people. What's more, these allergies are rarely outgrown. Examples of shellfish that are common causes of allergic reactions include shrimp, crab, lobster, oyster, clam, scallop, mussel, and squid. Fish that...

Berries

Berry is a general term for fruits that are usually small, rounded, and pulpy with seeds embedded in a juicy flesh. The term is loosely applied to a range of fruits belonging to vastly diverse botanical families. Aside from the more popular berries such as the blackberry, blueberry, cranberry, currant, raspberry, and strawberry, there are a host of less common species, each with its own distinctive shape, color, fragrance, and taste. Berries were a staple in the diets of our...

Where Are the Whole Grains

Whole-grain bread products are labeled as whole grain, whole wheat, or rye. In contrast, bread products labeled as made with wheat, cracked wheat, seven-grain, multi-grain, stone-ground wheat, or any of several other names contain mostly refined flour and lack the health-promoting effects of a whole-grain product. How much fiber will you find in the foods you eat Apple with skin 1 medium 4 Orange juice 3 4 cup Less than 1 Strawberries 1 cup halves 4 Broccoli, cooked 1 2 cup 2 Potato, baked with...

Common Spices

All Masala Ingested

Also known as Jamaican pepper, allspice is ground from the hard brown berries of the allspice tree, which grows in Mexico and throughout the Caribbean. Allspice is so named because it imparts the flavor of nutmeg, cloves, and cinnamon. An excellent addition to marinades, allspice is also used to flavor cured and jerked meat, desserts, and sauces. It is also an ingredient in gingerbread. The finest allspice trees are thought to be grown in Jamaica. Use the spice sparingly to avoid overpowering...

Nutrition and Your Stage of Life

Choosing to eat wisely throughout life is one of the most important components of living a healthful lifestyle. Using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Food Guide Pyramid as standards for your food choices and amounts, you will be well on your way to establishing healthful eating habits for your entire life. Unfortunately, many people become discouraged by nutrition advice because they mistakenly think they cannot eat their favorite foods. A more positive and encouraging approach is to...

Mushroom

Efb Fiber For Mushrooms Cultivation

Mushrooms are fleshy fungi, only some of which are edible. They usually have thick stems and rounded caps with radiating gills on the underside. The caps can be smooth or bumpy, honeycombed or ruffled, ranging in size from less than 1 2 inch in diameter to 12 inches and in color from snowy white to black, with a broad spectrum of colors in between. They can be soft or crunchy, and they range in flavor from bland to nutty and earthy. Scientific name Agaricus bispo Common name mushroom Cooked...

Migraines and Cheese

Migraines, also called vascular headaches, are thought to involve blood vessels in the brain, although the exact cause is unknown. Some cheeses contain a naturally occurring compound called tyramine, which, in susceptible people, can cause an increase in blood pressure, an increase in the size of blood vessels in the brain, and headache pain. For people who take drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), avoidance of all foods containing tyramine including aged cheeses is essential....

Index

Acceptable daily intakes, sweeteners, 21-23 coronary artery disease, 65 hypertension, 54 osteoporosis, 68 AI, see Adequate Intake Aim for Fitness, as dietary guidelines for Americans, 8-9 Albumen, egg, 297 Alcohol cancer, 77 health, 387 hypertension, 56 limiting amount, daily, 86, 87 osteoporosis, 73 Alcoholic beverages distilled spirits, 480-481 during supper, 86-87 wine, 384-385, 480-481 Ale, 386 Alfalfa, 325 Alligator pear, 157 Allium ampeloprasum, 243 Allium cepa, 247 Allium cepa var....

A

Hominy is the starchy endosperm of maize (corn) kernels. It can be thought of as the naked kernels that remain after the tough hull (pericarp) and oily germ have been removed. The hull is removed by soaking corn kernels in water mixed with lime, lye, or wood ashes. This process not only loosens the hulls but also unbinds the vitamin niacin and makes it absorbable in the digestive tract. In its dry form, hominy is sold either cracked (samp) or ground (grits). Hominy also is sold canned and ready...

The Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs

We all need the same nutrients, but the amounts we need depend on our age, sex, and a few other factors. For example, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need more of most nutrients. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, a group of nutritional scientists from the United States and Canada, has established the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), a set of recommendations for nutrient intake. The DRIs are age- and sex-specific. With the exception...

Fruits

Our earliest ancestors built their diets entirely of vegetables, fruits, seeds, grains, legumes, and nuts. Throughout history, fruit has referred to any plant used as a food. More recently, fruit has come to mean the edible pulp or fleshy layer around a seed. In the 18th century, the word acquired a botanical definition the organ derived from the ovary and surrounding the seed. At the same time, culinary custom defined fruits by their sweetness (or the balance of sweet to sour) and by how they...

Abby Wyckoff Food Stylist

What we eat has a profound effect on our health and our enjoyment of life. Although there is a large amount of valid scientific information dealing with various aspects of nutrition, there is, unfortunately, even more misinformation. The average person thus has difficulty separating fact from fiction. A team of experts from Mayo Clinic, the University of California Los Angeles, and Dole Food Company, Inc., wrote this book. The team included physicians,...