ACCT air contrast computed tomography.

Aetiology the cause of a condition or disease.

Amino acids form the chief structural components of proteins and are needed in human nutrition.

Anaemia a deficiency in the number of red blood cells in the body, which means that not enough oxygen reaches the tissues and organs.

Barium enema a suspension of barium inserted into the rectum and retained while radiological examination is carried out.

Benign not cancerous.

Biopsy removal of a small piece of tissue from the body for examination under a microscope for diagnosis.

Caecum first part of the large bowel.

Colon part of the large intestine that extends from the caecum to the rectum.

Colonoscopy examination of the colon with an endoscope.

Colorectal to do with the colon or rectum.

Colostomy diversion from the colon on to the abdominal wall to allow the passage of faeces.

Constipation infrequent or difficult evacuation of faeces.

CT computed tomography, the use of X-ray beams to create a three-dimensional image of the body.

Diarrhoea abnormally frequent and liquid faecal discharge.

Diverticulum a protrusion of the inner lining of the intestine through the outer muscular coat to form a small pouch with a narrow neck.

Diverticula more than one diverticulum.

Diverticular pertaining to diverticulum

Diverticulosis the presence of diverticula.

Diverticulitis inflammation of one or more diverticula.

Fistula an abnormal passage between two internal organs.

Hartmann's procedure surgical procedure to divide the colon closing the distal end and bringing the proximal end onto the abdominal wall as a colostomy.

Hot biopsy biopsy forceps attached to an electrocoagulation snare handle.

Laparotomy a surgical incision made through the abdomen.

Laparoscopy examination of the interior of the abdomen using a laparoscope.

Laparoscope a fibreoptic instrument that permits inspection of the peritoneal cavity.

Obstruction a blockage in the bowel.

Perforation a hole made through a body part.

Peristalsis wavelike contractions of the muscle through the bowel.

Proctoscopy inspection of the rectum with a tubular instrument that is illuminated.

Radiologist a doctor who interprets radiographs.

Sigmoid colon the S-shaped part of the colon lying in the pelvis.

Sigmoidoscopy examination of the sigmoid colon with the use of an endoscope.

Stoma artificial opening onto the abdomen to divert faeces or urine.

Stoma nurse a specialist expert nurse who looks after people with stomas.

Stricture a narrowing of a canal or duct.

Villus intestinal villi are the numerous thread-like projections that cover the mucosa of the colon and serve as sites of absorption of fluid and nutrients.

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