Ketones And The Ketogenic Diet

The KD was formulated as an epilepsy treatment around 1921 (Wilder, 1921). The diet was designed to simulate the biochemical changes of fasting, which was long recognized as an efficacious, short-term way to reduce seizures in persons with epilepsy (Geyelin, 1921). The diet consists of a high percentage of fat, adequate protein for growth, and minimal carbohydrate, constituted in a ratio of 3-4 g of fat for every gram of combined protein and carbohydrate (hence the notations 3 1 or 4 1 for the...

Genetic And Dietary Factors Which Influence N3 Fatty Acid Metabolism

Because of the inability to synthesize n-3 fatty acids de novo, all animals require these fatty acids in their diet to meet their demand for maintaining a high concentration of DHA in the brain. Although little direct evidence exists in any species concerning the quantitative conversion of n-3 fatty acid precursors to DHA, it has been estimated based on rodent studies that an n-3 fatty acid intake of 0.5 of energy as a-linolenic acid (LNA) is needed in order to maintain an adequate level of DHA...

Therapeutic Approaches

A variety of compounds intended to combat oxidative stress have been used to treat experimental diabetic neuropathy and considerable success has been attained in correcting neural and vascular abnormalities (cf. Cameron and Cotter 1999). These substances include hydrophilic and lipophilic free-radical scavengers, as well as chelators of transition metals. A complete discussion of these approaches is beyond the scope of this chapter. However, it is pertinent to comment on several in the context...

Nutrition Intervention

Undernutrition is a common factor underlying many pathological conditions in the elderly and a common symptom in over 50 of hospitalized elderly patients. Macronu-trient and micronutrient deficits are though to be partially responsible for the depressed immune system in the elderly, even in the apparently healthy independent-living elderly (Lesourd, 1999). Protein-energy malnutrition is associated with decreased lymphocyte proliferation, reduced cytokine release, and decreased antibody...

Body Energy Homeostasis

Many factors are involved in the control of food intake. Some of the most important factors controlling the amount of food that we eat include environmental factors such as food availability, the characteristics of the food itself (e.g., smell, taste, our eating habits, learned preferences and aversions) as well as other psychological and social factors, including our lifestyle. Although these psychosocial factors are extremely important to the food intake patterns of humans, this section will...

Dietary Lna And Dha As Substrates For Brain And Retina Dha Compositional Studies

In nontracer experiments, relative contribution of dietary LNA and DHA to CNS DHA accretion have been examined in various species, including chicks, rat pups, newborn piglets, and guinea pigs. Anderson and colleagues studied the relative efficacy of LNA and DHA in restoring neural DHA levels in newly hatched chicks, as presented in Fig. 1 (Anderson, Connor, & Corliss, 1990). Laying hens were fed a n-3-deficient diet for 2 mo, and their hatched chicks were then fed a control diet or...

Exercise and Immune Function

Aging leads to a diminution of resting immune function, increasing the risk of infection, tumor development, and autoimmune diseases (Shephard and Shek, 1995). The production of IL-2 is decreased, sometimes with a decrease of total T-cell count, and often with changes in T-cell subsets and proliferative responses to mitogens. However, NK cell activity remains unchanged. In theory, moderate exercise training should help to reverse the adverse effects of aging upon the immune system. However,...

Dietary n3 Deficiency in the Mouse 721 Mouse Visual Acuity and n3 Deficiency

As seen in rats, there is no evidence of a strong correlation between visual acuity and learning in the mouse. The second generation of mice (F1) fed a diet poor in LNA was compared to a group fed laboratory chow. In adult mice, there was a significant difference in the retinal concentration of DHA, but the difference in b-wave electroretinograms ceased to be significant at the seventh week (Carrie, et al., 1999). The ability to learn was examined using the passive-avoidance test and the...

Impact Of Dietary Essential Fatty Acids On Neuronal Cell Composition And Function

Brain membranes were generally viewed as resistant to structural change by both endogenous and exogenous factors. Data have shown that brain membranes are much more sensitive to changes in composition induced by dietary fat than previously thought (Bourre et al., 1989a Foot et al., 1982 Jope & Jenden, 1979 Lee, 1985 Wurtman et al., 1981). Moreover, the extent of the changes in brain membrane composition by dietary fat varies among brain regions, cell types, and organelles (reviewed by...

Effects Of La And Gla Treatment On Diabetic Nerve

The reduced activity of the n-6 fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in the diabetic nerve could decrease the availability of AA for prostanoid formation and this could have deleterious consequences on the nerve vasculature, with resultant adverse effects on nerve function. The depletion of AA could be exacerbated by a heightened level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which react readily with the double bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A number of investigators have examined the effect of...

Chronic Effects of the Ketogenic Diet

In addition to acute effects of ketones on neuronal excitability and seizure threshold, the KD may exert longer-term seizure-suppressive actions. Using the kainic acid KA model of chronic epilepsy, we have investigated whether the KD alters the process by which the brain becomes epileptogenic i.e., epileptogenesis Muller-Schwarze et al., 1999 . KA is a glutamate analog that causes an epilepsy syndrome characterized by status epilepticus Ben-Ari, 1985 . After recovery from status epilepticus,...

Pufa A Feasible Epilepsy Treatment

The preceding discussion has established the following 1 PUFAs are an important modulator of neuronal excitability 2 dietary PUFA can alter several aspects of brain function 3 the ketogenic diet is an effective therapeutic modality for some persons with epilepsy 4 the mechanism of the ketogenic diet's seizure protective effect is unknown but may involve lipid components 5 the ketogenic diet is composed of a high volume of fats that contain a variable proportion of PUFA. From these observations,...

References

Abedin L, Lien EL, Vingrys AJ, Sinclair AJ. The effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid compared with docosahexaenoic acid on brain, retina, liver, and heart in the guinea pig. Lipids 1999 34 5 475-482. Al MD, Hornstra G, van der Schouw YT, Bulstra-Ramakers MT, Huisjes HJ. Biochemical EFA status of mothers and their neonates after normal pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1990 24 3 239-248. Anderson G, Connor WE. Uptake of fatty acids by developing rat brain. Lipids 1988 23 286-290. Anderson GJ, Connor...

Anticonvulsant Mechanisms Of The Ketogenic Diet 41 Mechanistic Criteria

Understanding how the KD protects against seizures would allow the design of a more effective diet or improve and simplify the current regimen. Animal models offer many advantages in exploring possible mechanisms Diet components can be controlled precisely, including the ketogenic ratio, constituents, caloric intake, and fluid balance biochemical and neurologic abnormalities can be quantitated seizure type can be controlled the effects of the experimental diet on seizure susceptibility,...